Publications by authors named "Alex Panziera"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Survival and divergence in a small group: The extraordinary genomic history of the endangered Apennine brown bear stragglers.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2017 11 24;114(45):E9589-E9597. Epub 2017 Oct 24.

Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, University of Ferrara, 44121 Ferrara, Italy;

About 100 km east of Rome, in the central Apennine Mountains, a critically endangered population of ∼50 brown bears live in complete isolation. Mating outside this population is prevented by several 100 km of bear-free territories. We exploited this natural experiment to better understand the gene and genomic consequences of surviving at extremely small population size. We found that brown bear populations in Europe lost connectivity since Neolithic times, when farming communities expanded and forest burning was used for land clearance. In central Italy, this resulted in a 40-fold population decline. The overall genomic impact of this decline included the complete loss of variation in the mitochondrial genome and along long stretches of the nuclear genome. Several private and deleterious amino acid changes were fixed by random drift; predicted effects include energy deficit, muscle weakness, anomalies in cranial and skeletal development, and reduced aggressiveness. Despite this extreme loss of diversity, Apennine bear genomes show nonrandom peaks of high variation, possibly maintained by balancing selection, at genomic regions significantly enriched for genes associated with immune and olfactory systems. Challenging the paradigm of increased extinction risk in small populations, we suggest that random fixation of deleterious alleles () can be an important driver of divergence in isolation, () can be tolerated when balancing selection prevents random loss of variation at important genes, and () is followed by or results directly in favorable behavioral changes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1707279114DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5692547PMC
November 2017

High Level of Nonsynonymous Changes in Common Bean Suggests That Selection under Domestication Increased Functional Diversity at Target Traits.

Front Plant Sci 2016 6;7:2005. Epub 2017 Jan 6.

Department of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Sciences, Università Politecnica delle Marche Ancona, Italy.

Crop species have been deeply affected by the domestication process, and there have been many efforts to identify selection signatures at the genome level. This knowledge will help geneticists to better understand the evolution of organisms, and at the same time, help breeders to implement successful breeding strategies. Here, we focused on domestication in the Mesoamerican gene pool of by sequencing 49 gene fragments from a sample of 45 wild and domesticated accessions, and as controls, two accessions each of the closely related species and . An excess of nonsynonymous mutations within the domesticated germplasm was found. Our data suggest that the cost of domestication alone cannot explain fully this finding. Indeed, the significantly higher frequency of polymorphisms in the coding regions observed only in the domesticated plants (compared to noncoding regions), the fact that these mutations were mostly nonsynonymous and appear to be recently derived mutations, and the investigations into the functions of their relative genes (responses to biotic and abiotic stresses), support a scenario that involves new functional mutations selected for adaptation during domestication. Moreover, consistent with this hypothesis, selection analysis and the possibility to compare data obtained for the same genes in different studies of varying sizes, data types, and methodologies allowed us to identify four genes that were strongly selected during domestication. Each selection candidate is involved in plant resistance/tolerance to abiotic stresses, such as heat, drought, and salinity. Overall, our study suggests that domestication acted to increase functional diversity at target loci, which probably controlled traits related to expansion and adaptation to new agro-ecological growing conditions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2016.02005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5216878PMC
January 2017

4P: fast computing of population genetics statistics from large DNA polymorphism panels.

Ecol Evol 2015 Jan 11;5(1):172-5. Epub 2014 Dec 11.

Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, University of Ferrara via L. Borsari, 46, 44100, Ferrara, Italy.

Massive DNA sequencing has significantly increased the amount of data available for population genetics and molecular ecology studies. However, the parallel computation of simple statistics within and between populations from large panels of polymorphic sites is not yet available, making the exploratory analyses of a set or subset of data a very laborious task. Here, we present 4P (parallel processing of polymorphism panels), a stand-alone software program for the rapid computation of genetic variation statistics (including the joint frequency spectrum) from millions of DNA variants in multiple individuals and multiple populations. It handles a standard input file format commonly used to store DNA variation from empirical or simulation experiments. The computational performance of 4P was evaluated using large SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) datasets from human genomes or obtained by simulations. 4P was faster or much faster than other comparable programs, and the impact of parallel computing using multicore computers or servers was evident. 4P is a useful tool for biologists who need a simple and rapid computer program to run exploratory population genetics analyses in large panels of genomic data. It is also particularly suitable to analyze multiple data sets produced in simulation studies. Unix, Windows, and MacOs versions are provided, as well as the source code for easier pipeline implementations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.1261DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4298444PMC
January 2015

Decreased Nucleotide and Expression Diversity and Modified Coexpression Patterns Characterize Domestication in the Common Bean.

Plant Cell 2014 May 21;26(5):1901-1912. Epub 2014 May 21.

Department of Agricultural, Food, and Environmental Sciences, Università Politecnica delle Marche, 60131 Ancona, Italy Consiglio per la Ricerca e Sperimentazione in Agricoltura, Cereal Research Centre (CRA-CER), 71122 Foggia, Italy

Using RNA sequencing technology and de novo transcriptome assembly, we compared representative sets of wild and domesticated accessions of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) from Mesoamerica. RNA was extracted at the first true-leaf stage, and de novo assembly was used to develop a reference transcriptome; the final data set consists of ∼190,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms from 27,243 contigs in expressed genomic regions. A drastic reduction in nucleotide diversity (∼60%) is evident for the domesticated form, compared with the wild form, and almost 50% of the contigs that are polymorphic were brought to fixation by domestication. In parallel, the effects of domestication decreased the diversity of gene expression (18%). While the coexpression networks for the wild and domesticated accessions demonstrate similar seminal network properties, they show distinct community structures that are enriched for different molecular functions. After simulating the demographic dynamics during domestication, we found that 9% of the genes were actively selected during domestication. We also show that selection induced a further reduction in the diversity of gene expression (26%) and was associated with 5-fold enrichment of differentially expressed genes. While there is substantial evidence of positive selection associated with domestication, in a few cases, this selection has increased the nucleotide diversity in the domesticated pool at target loci associated with abiotic stress responses, flowering time, and morphology.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1105/tpc.114.124040DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4079357PMC
May 2014
-->