Publications by authors named "Alex Dye"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Resolving the identification of weak-flying insects during flight: a coupling between rigorous data processing and biology.

Agric For Entomol 2021 Nov 2;23(4):489-505. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Rothamsted Insect Survey Rothamsted Research West Common, Harpenden AL5 2JQ U.K.

Bioacoustic methods play an increasingly important role for the detection of insects in a range of surveillance and monitoring programmes.Weak-flying insects evade detection because they do not yield sufficient audio information to capture wingbeat and harmonic frequencies. These inaudible insects often pose a significant threat to food security as pests of key agricultural crops worldwide.Automatic detection of such insects is crucial to the future of crop protection by providing critical information to assess the risk to a crop and the need for preventative measures.We describe an experimental set-up designed to derive audio recordings from a range of weak-flying aphids and beetles using an LED array.A rigorous data processing pipeline was developed to extract meaningful features, linked to morphological characteristics, from the audio and harmonic series for six aphid and two beetle species.An ensemble of over 50 bioacoustic parameters was used to achieve species discrimination with a success rate of 80%. The inclusion of the dominant and fundamental frequencies improved prediction between beetles and aphids because of large differences in wingbeat frequencies.At the species level, error rates were minimized when harmonic features were supplemented by features indicative of differences in species' flight energies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/afe.12453DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8596709PMC
November 2021

Climate sensitivity of understory trees differs from overstory trees in temperate mesic forests.

Ecology 2021 03 11;102(3):e03264. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, 85721, USA.

The response of understory trees to climate variability is key to understanding current and future forest dynamics. However, analyses of climatic effects on tree growth have primarily focused on the upper canopy, leaving understory dynamics unresolved. We analyzed differences in climate sensitivity based on canopy position of four common tree species (Acer rubrum, Fagus grandifolia, Quercus rubra, and Tsuga canadensis) using growth information from 1,084 trees across eight sites in the northeastern United States. Effects of canopy position on climate response varied, but were significant and often nonlinear, for all four species. Compared to overstory trees, understory trees showed stronger reductions in growth at high temperatures and varied shifts in precipitation response. This contradicts the prevailing assumption that climate responses, particularly to temperature, of understory trees are buffered by the overstory. Forest growth trajectories are uncertain in compositionally and structurally complex forests, and future demography and regeneration dynamics may be misinferred if not all canopy levels are represented in future forecasts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ecy.3264DOI Listing
March 2021

Spatial Patterns and Trends of Summertime Low Cloudiness for the Pacific Northwest, 1996-2017.

Geophys Res Lett 2020 Aug 19;47(16):e2020GL088121. Epub 2020 Aug 19.

Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory Columbia University Palisades NY USA.

Summertime low clouds are common in the Pacific Northwest (PNW), but spatiotemporal patterns have not been characterized. We show the first maps of low cloudiness for the western PNW and North Pacific Ocean using a 22-year satellite-derived record of monthly mean low cloudiness frequency for May through September and supplemented by airport cloud base height observations. Domain-wide cloudiness peaks in midsummer and is strongest over the Pacific. Empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis identified four distinct PNW spatiotemporal modes: oceanic, terrestrial highlands, coastal, and northern coastal. There is a statistically significant trend over the 22-year record toward reduced low cloudiness in the terrestrial highlands mode, with strongest declines in May and June; however, this decline is not matched in the corresponding airport records. The coastal mode is partly constrained from moving inland by topographic relief and migrates southward in late summer, retaining higher late-season low cloud frequency than the other areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2020GL088121DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7540517PMC
August 2020

Spatial heterogeneity of winds during Santa Ana and non-Santa Ana wildfires in Southern California with implications for fire risk modeling.

Heliyon 2020 Jun 23;6(6):e04159. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Fire Sciences Laboratory, USDA Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station, 5775 US Highway 10 W, Missoula, MT 59808, USA.

In Southern California, the Santa Ana winds are famous for their role in spreading large wildfires during the fall/winter season. Combined with Southern California's complex topography, Santa Anas create challenges for modeling wind-fire relationships in this region. Here, we assess heterogeneity of winds during Santa Ana and non-Santa Ana days, on days with and without large-fire ignitions, across a modern high-density observational network of 30 meteorological stations. Wind speeds on Santa Ana days with a large fire ignition (mean windspeed = 5.19 m/s) are significantly higher than on Santa Ana days without large fire ignitions (3.96 m/s), while on non-Santa Ana days winds are generally weaker, during both fire (2.30 m/s) and non-fire (2.38 m/s) days. Hierarchical clustering of meteorological stations during both Santa Ana and non-Santa Ana days reveals groups of stations with consistently similar wind speed and directions. All stations clearly exhibit high wind speeds on Santa Ana days, and most record contrasting wind characteristics during Santa Ana versus non-Santa Ana ignitions. Additionally, our analysis revealed that key geographic siting traits are not represented in the network, including few stations with northwest aspect and upper slope in the southern mountains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04159DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7322057PMC
June 2020

Size-growth asymmetry is not consistently related to productivity across an eastern US temperate forest network.

Oecologia 2019 Feb 4;189(2):515-528. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Geology and Geography, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, USA.

Modeling and forecasting forests as carbon sinks require that we understand the primary factors affecting productivity. One factor thought to be positively related to stand productivity is the degree of asymmetry, or the slope of the relationship between tree size and biomass growth. Steeper slopes indicate disproportionate productivity of big trees relative to small trees. Theoretically, big trees outcompete smaller trees during favorable growth conditions because they maintain better access to light. For this reason, high productivity forests are expected to have asymmetric growth. However, empirical studies do not consistently support this expectation, and those that do are limited in spatial or temporal scope. Here, we analyze size-growth relationships from 1970 to 2011 across a diverse network of forest sites in the eastern United States (n = 16) to test whether asymmetry is consistently related to productivity. To investigate this relationship, we analyze asymmetry-productivity relationships between our 16 forests at non-overlapping annual, 2-, 5-, 10-, and 20-year sampling intervals and find that asymmetry is negatively related to productivity, but the strength depends on the specific interval considered. Within-site temporal variability in asymmetry and productivity are generally positively correlated over time, except at the 5-year remeasurement interval. Rather than confirming or failing to support a positive relationship between asymmetry and productivity, our findings suggest caution interpreting these metrics since the relationship varies across forest types and temporal scales.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00442-018-4318-9DOI Listing
February 2019

Emergent climate and CO sensitivities of net primary productivity in ecosystem models do not agree with empirical data in temperate forests of eastern North America.

Glob Chang Biol 2017 07 20;23(7):2755-2767. Epub 2017 Feb 20.

Department of Earth & Environment, Boston University, 685 Commonwealth Ave, Boston, MA, 02215, USA.

Ecosystem models show divergent responses of the terrestrial carbon cycle to global change over the next century. Individual model evaluation and multimodel comparisons with data have largely focused on individual processes at subannual to decadal scales. Thus far, data-based evaluations of emergent ecosystem responses to climate and CO at multidecadal and centennial timescales have been rare. We compared the sensitivity of net primary productivity (NPP) to temperature, precipitation, and CO in ten ecosystem models with the sensitivities found in tree-ring reconstructions of NPP and raw ring-width series at six temperate forest sites. These model-data comparisons were evaluated at three temporal extents to determine whether the rapid, directional changes in temperature and CO in the recent past skew our observed responses to multiple drivers of change. All models tested here were more sensitive to low growing season precipitation than tree-ring NPP and ring widths in the past 30 years, although some model precipitation responses were more consistent with tree rings when evaluated over a full century. Similarly, all models had negative or no response to warm-growing season temperatures, while tree-ring data showed consistently positive effects of temperature. Although precipitation responses were least consistent among models, differences among models to CO drive divergence and ensemble uncertainty in relative change in NPP over the past century. Changes in forest composition within models had no effect on climate or CO sensitivity. Fire in model simulations reduced model sensitivity to climate and CO , but only over the course of multiple centuries. Formal evaluation of emergent model behavior at multidecadal and multicentennial timescales is essential to reconciling model projections with observed ecosystem responses to past climate change. Future evaluation should focus on improved representation of disturbance and biomass change as well as the feedbacks with moisture balance and CO in individual models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.13626DOI Listing
July 2017
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