Publications by authors named "Alessio Pigazzi"

136 Publications

Changing Disparity of Gastric Cancer Incidence by Histological Types in US Race-Specific Populations.

Cancer Control 2020 Jan-Dec;27(1):1073274820977152

Department of Population Health and Disease Prevention, Program in Public Health, Susan and Henry Samueli College of Health Sciences, University of California, Irvine, CA, USA.

Background: The incidence pattern of gastric cancer by histological types across major race/ethnic groups is unknown.

Methods: Age-standardized rates from 1992-2016 by race/ethnicity were calculated using data from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER). Annual percent changes (APCs) in rates and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated and pairwise comparison of rates between race/ethnic groups was performed using the Joinpoint Regression Program. Calendar periods of incidence rates of gastric cardia and non-cardia cancer by histological types across race/ethnicity groups were shown by figures.

Results: The White population has the highest incidence of gastric cardia adenocarcinoma and the incidence is keeping constant from 1992 through 2016 except the decreasing in the Asian population (AAPC = -1.4, 95%CI (-2.1, -0.8)). Although the incidence of non-cardia adenocarcinoma is decreasing in each group, the descending trend in the Asian population is the quickest (AAPC = -3.8, 95%CI (-4.0, -3.5)). Gastric carcinoids were observed to have statistically significant increasing trends in all race/ethnicity groups, especially in Hispanic women from 0.4 per 100,000 to 1.6 per 100,000 persons. The incidence of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) is rising, with Non-Hispanic blacks having the highest incidence.

Conclusion: This study demonstrated disparities in the incidence of gastric cancer by histological types among different race/ethnic groups. Further investigations are warranted to understand the changing incidence patterns by race/ethnicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1073274820977152DOI Listing
December 2020

Evaluation of Pelvic Anastomosis by Endoscopic and Contrast Studies Prior to Ileostomy Closure: Are Both Necessary? A Single Institution Review.

Am Surg 2020 Oct;86(10):1296-1301

Department of Surgery, Division of Colon and Rectal Surgery, University of California, Irvine, Orange, CA, USA.

Contrast enema is the gold standard technique for evaluating a pelvic anastomosis (PA) prior to ileostomy closure. With the increasing use of flexible endoscopic modalities, the need for contrast studies may be unnecessary. The objective of this study is to compare flexible endoscopy and contrast studies for anastomotic inspection prior to defunctioning stoma reversal. Patients with a protected PA undergoing ileostomy closure between July 2014 and June 2019 at our institution were retrospectively identified. Demographics and clinical outcomes in patients undergoing preoperative evaluation with endoscopic and/or contrast studies were analyzed. We identified 207 patients undergoing ileostomy closure. According to surgeon's preference, 91 patients underwent only flexible endoscopy (FE) and 100 patients underwent both endoscopic and contrast evaluation (FE + CE) prior to reversal. There was no significant difference in pelvic anastomotic leak (2.2% vs. 1%), anastomotic stricture (1.1% vs. 6%), pelvic abscess (2.2% vs. 3.0%), or postoperative anastomotic complications (4.4% vs. 9%) between groups FE and FE + CE ( > .05). Flexible endoscopy alone appears to be an acceptable technique for anastomotic evaluation prior to ileostomy closure. Further studies are needed to determine the effectiveness of different diagnostic modalities for pelvic anastomotic inspection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0003134820964227DOI Listing
October 2020

Intraperitoneal chemotherapy of the peritoneal surface using high-intensity ultrasound (HIUS): investigation of technical feasibility, safety and possible limitations.

J Cancer 2020 18;11(24):7209-7215. Epub 2020 Oct 18.

Division of Colorectal Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of California Irvine, Orange, USA.

The penetration of chemotherapeutic drugs into peritoneal nodules remains at levels well below 1 mm, thus significantly limiting the antitumor effect of intraperitoneal chemotherapy (IPC). Recently, high-Intensity ultrasound (HIUS) has been discovered as a potential tool to significantly improve peritoneal diffusion rates. Despite promising preliminary data, basic aspects regarding its technical feasibility, safety and possible limitations remain unclear. This study aims to enhance our current understanding of HIUS and test its applicability using an ex-vivo swine model. Three postmortem swine were subject to laparotomy and consecutive lavage with 0.9%NaCl saline and HIUS application. For this purpose, a large HIUS radiating pen was introduced into the abdominal cavity and HIUS was applied on two of the four abdominal quadrants for 300 seconds each at an output power of 70 W, 50 % amplitude and 20 kHz frequency. Following the procedure, small intestinal tissue samples were retrieved for further analyses. Peritoneal and subperitoneal layers showed structural changes only visible on a microscopic level. The peritoneal layer was transformed into a mesh-like structure while the subperitoneal layer (depth of 142 +/- 28 µm) exhibited microcavities and vascular detachment from surrounding tissues. No bowel rupture or vascular perforations were observed. Our data indicate that HIUS is a technically feasible and safe add-on procedure for intraperitoneal chemotherapy (IPC) with measurable microscopic changes on the peritoneal surface. Pretreatment of the abdominal cavity with HIUS could significantly improve IPC efficacy. Further studies are required to optimize and evaluate this novel approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/jca.48519DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7646163PMC
October 2020

Peritoneal carcinomatosis in gastric cancer: Are Hispanics at higher risk?

J Surg Oncol 2020 Dec 9;122(8):1624-1629. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

Division of Surgical Oncology, University of California, Irvine, California, USA.

Background: A recent study from our group identified Hispanic race/ethnicity as an independent predictor of peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) in gastric cancer. We sought to identify the tumor factors that might contribute to this strong association in Hispanics.

Methods: California Cancer Registry data were used to identify patients diagnosed with gastric adenocarcinoma from 2004 to 2014. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine odds ratios for cancer stage, tumor location, grade, histology, and PC.

Results: Of 16,275 patients with gastric adenocarcinoma who met inclusion criteria, 6463 (39.7%) were non-Hispanic White (NHW), 4953 (30.4%) were Hispanic, 1020 (6.3%) were non-Hispanic Black (NHB), and 3915 (23.6%) were Asian/other. Compared to NHW, Hispanics were more likely to have a poorly differentiated grade (65.9% vs. 57.6%; p < .001), signet ring adenocarcinoma (28.1% vs. 17.6%; p < .001) and stage IV (51.9% vs. 45.0%; p < .001) gastric cancer. The proportion of stage IV patients with PC was also significantly higher in Hispanics compared to NHW, NHB, and Asian/other (28.5% vs. 16.6%, 20.5%, and 25.2%, respectively; p < .001).

Conclusions: Hispanic ethnicity is an independent predictor of aggressive tumor phenotype and PC. Disproportionate incidence of signet ring adenocarcinoma and PC highlight the need to explore the genomic differences in Hispanic gastric cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jso.26210DOI Listing
December 2020

The concept of foam as a drug carrier for intraperitoneal chemotherapy, feasibility, cytotoxicity and characteristics.

Sci Rep 2020 06 25;10(1):10341. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Division of Colorectal Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of California Irvine (UCI), 92868, Orange, USA.

For decades, intraperitoneal chemotherapy (IPC) was delivered into the abdominal cavity as a liquid solution. This preliminary study aims to evaluate foam as a potential new drug carrier for IPC delivery. Foam-based intraperitoneal chemotherapy (FBIC) was produced with taurolidine, hydrogen peroxide, human serum, potassium iodide and doxorubicin/ oxaliplatin for both ex vivo and in vitro experiments. Analysis of FBIC efficacy included evaluation of cytotoxicity, tissue penetration, foam stability, temperature changes and total foam volume per time evaluation. FBIC showed penetration rates of about 275 ± 87 µm and higher cytotoxicity compared to controls and to conventional liquid IPC (p < 0.005). The volume of the generated foam was approximately 50-times higher than the initial liquid solution and temporarily stable. Foam core temperature was measured and increased to 47 °C after 9 min. Foam ingredients (total protein content) were evenly distributed within different locations. Our preliminary results are quite encouraging and indicate that FBIC is a feasible approach. However, in order to discuss a possible superior effect over conventional liquid or aerosolized chemo applications, further studies are required to investigate pharmacologic, pharmacodynamic and physical properties of FBIC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-67236-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7316760PMC
June 2020

Short-term outcomes of laparoscopic approach to colonic obstruction for colon cancer.

Surg Endosc 2020 Jun 22. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Department of Surgery, University of California, Irvine, USA.

Background: We speculated that a laparoscopic approach to emergent/urgent partial colectomy for colonic obstruction would be associated with less morbidity and shorter length of stay with similar mortality to open colectomy. We compared the outcomes of laparoscopic and open approaches to emergent/urgent partial colectomy for colonic obstruction from colonic cancer using data from the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database for the period of 2012-2017.

Methods: Multivariate analysis compared NSQIP data points following laparoscopic, laparoscopic converted to open, and open colectomy for emergent/urgent colectomy for colonic obstruction from colon cancer from 2012 to 2017.

Results: A total of 1293 patients who underwent emergent colectomy for colon obstruction from colon cancer during 2012-2017 were identified within the NSQIP database. Laparoscopic approach was used for colonic obstruction in 19.3% of operations with a conversion rate of 28.5%. A laparoscopic approach to obstructing colonic cancers was associated with lower morbidity (50% vs. 61.8%, AOR: 0.67, P = 0.01) and shorter hospitalization length (10 days vs. 13 days, mean difference: 3 days, P < 0.01) compared with an open approach. However, the mean operation duration was longer in laparoscopic operations than open operations (159 min vs. 137 min, P < 0.01).

Conclusion: A laparoscopic approach to malignant colonic obstruction is associated with decreased morbidity. This suggests that efforts should be directed towards increasing the utilization of laparoscopic approaches for the surgical treatment of colonic obstruction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-020-07743-wDOI Listing
June 2020

Intraoperative use of fluorescence with indocyanine green reduces anastomotic leak rates in rectal cancer surgery: an individual participant data analysis.

Surg Endosc 2020 Oct 18;34(10):4281-4290. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Torino, Corso Dogliotti 14, 10126, Torino, Italy.

Background: Fluorescence imaging by means of Indocyanine green (ICG) has been applied to intraoperatively determine the perfusion of the anastomosis. The purpose of this Individual Participant Database meta-analysis was to assess the effectiveness in decreasing the incidence of anastomotic leak (AL) after rectal cancer surgery.

Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library and ClinicalTrial.gov, EU Clinical Trials and ISRCTN registries on September 1st, 2019. We considered eligible those studies comparing the assessment of anastomotic perfusion during rectal cancer surgery by intraoperative use of ICG fluorescence compared with standard practice. We defined as primary outcome the incidence of AL at 30 days after surgery. The studies were assessed for quality by means of the ROBINS-I and the Cochrane risk tools. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) using the Individual patient data analysis, restricted to rectal lesions, according to original treatment allocation.

Results: The review of the literature and international registries produced 15 published studies and 5 ongoing trials, for 9 of which the authors accepted to share individual participant data. 314 patients from two randomized trials, 452 from three prospective series and 564 from 4 non-randomized studies were included. Fluorescence imaging significantly reduced the incidence of AL (OR 0.341; 95% CI 0.220-0.530; p < 0.001), independent of age, gender, BMI, tumour and anastomotic distance from the anal verge and neoadjuvant therapy. Also, overall morbidity and reintervention rate were positively influenced by the use of ICG.

Conclusions: The incidence of AL may be reduced when ICG fluorescence imaging is used to assess the perfusion of a colorectal anastomosis. Limitations relate to the consistent number of non-randomized studies included and their heterogeneity in defining and assessing AL. Ongoing large randomized studies will help to determine the exact role of routine ICG fluorescence imaging may decrease the incidence of AL in surgery for rectal cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-020-07735-wDOI Listing
October 2020

Rate of Peritoneal Carcinomatosis in Resected Stage II and III Colon Cancer.

Ann Surg Oncol 2020 Dec 14;27(13):4943-4948. Epub 2020 Jun 14.

Department of Surgery, University of California at Irvine, Orange, CA, USA.

Introduction: Incidence of peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) after curative resection of stage II and III colon cancer varies widely. Although certain features are considered high risk for PC, the impact of these features on PC incidence is unclear.

Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on patients ≥ 18 years old with resected stage II and III colonic adenocarcinoma treated at two academic institutions from 2007 to 2018. Clinicopathologic features, treatment and outcomes data were recorded. Patients with reported high-risk features (pT3N0-2 with mucinous/signet ring components, pT4, pN1c, perforation) were identified. The remaining stage II and III patients were used for comparison.

Results: Of 219 eligible patients, 93/219 (42.5%) were stage II and 126/219 (57.5%) were stage III. Median follow-up time was 25 (1-146) months. Adjuvant systemic treatment was administered to 133/219 (60.7%) patients. Overall incidence of PC was 14/219 (6.4%) and the median time to PC was 18 (1-37) months. The high-risk and comparison groups contained 113 and 106 patients, respectively. Incidence of PC was significantly different between groups (high-risk 9.7% vs comparison 2.8%, p = 0.04). Median time to PC was not significantly different between the groups [high-risk 17 (1-37) months vs comparison 20 (7-36) months, p = 0.88].

Conclusion: Overall PC incidence in patients with resected stage II and III colon cancer was 6.4%. Although the high-risk group developed PC at a significantly higher rate, the rate of PC in this group was still below 10%. The results of this study represent real-world rates of PC and should be taken into account when designing future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-020-08689-yDOI Listing
December 2020

Readmission and complications after robotic surgery: experience of 10,000 operations at a comprehensive cancer center.

J Robot Surg 2021 Feb 10;15(1):37-44. Epub 2020 Apr 10.

Department of Surgery, City of Hope National Medical Center, 1500 E. Duarte Rd, MOB L002H, Duarte, CA, 91010, USA.

Evaluation of safety is of paramount importance with adoption of novel surgical technology. Although robotic surgery has become widely used in oncologic surgery, analysis of safety is lacking in comparison to traditional techniques. Standardized assessment of robotic surgical outcomes and adverse events following oncologic surgery is necessary for quality improvement with innovative technology. Between 2003 and 2016, 10,013 unique robotic operations were performed in 9,858 patients. Our prospectively maintained database was retrospectively reviewed for hospital readmissions and Clavien-Dindo grade ≥ 2 complications within 30 days. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify predictors of surgical complications and hospital readmissions. Cases were stratified by discipline: genitourinary (n = 8240), gynecologic (n = 857), thoracic (n = 457), gastrointestinal (n = 322), hepatobiliary (n = 60), ear/nose/throat (n = 44) and general (n = 33). Intraoperative complications occurred in 42 surgeries (0.4%). Postoperative complications occurred in 946 patients [9.4%, highest grade 2 (n = 574), 3 (n = 288), 4 (n = 72), 5 (n = 10)]. Most frequent complications were ileus (154, 16.3%), anemia (91, 9.6%), cardiac arrhythmia (62, 6.6%), deep vein thrombosis/pulmonary embolus (47, 5.0%), wound infection (45, 4.8%) and urinary leak (43, 4.5%). 405 patients (4.0%) required readmission. Most common causes for hospital readmission were ileus (44, 10.9%), urinary leak (23, 5.7%), urinary tract infection (23, 5.7%), intra-abdominal abscess/fluid collection (23, 5.7%), and small bowel obstruction (19, 4.7%). On multivariable analysis, longer operative time and older age predicted complications and readmissions (p ≤ 0.02). Robotic-assisted surgery appears a safe for oncologic surgery with acceptable hospital readmission and complication rates. Older age and longer operative time were associated with complications and readmission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11701-020-01077-4DOI Listing
February 2021

Improved survival with adjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced rectal cancer patients treated with preoperative chemoradiation regardless of pathologic response.

Surg Oncol 2020 Mar 31;32:35-40. Epub 2019 Oct 31.

Department of Surgery, University of California, Irvine School of Medicine, Irvine, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: The aim of this study is to examine the effect of postoperative chemotherapy on survival in patients with stage II or III rectal adenocarcinoma who undergo neoadjuvant chemoradiation (CRT) and surgical resection.

Methods: A retrospective review of the National Cancer Database (NCDB) from 2006 to 2013 was performed. Cases were analyzed based on pathologic complete response (pCR) status and use of adjuvant therapy. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate overall survival probabilities.

Results: 23,045 cases were identified, of which 5832 (25.31%) achieved pCR. In the pCR group, 1513 (25.9%) received adjuvant chemotherapy, and in the non-pCR group, 5966 (34.7%) received adjuvant therapy. In the pCR group, five-year survival probability was 87% (95% CI 84%-89%) with adjuvant therapy and 81% (95% CI 79%-82%) without adjuvant therapy. In the non-pCR group, five-year survival probability was 78% (95% CI 76%-79%) with adjuvant therapy and 70% (95% CI 69%-71%) without adjuvant therapy. In the non-pCR and node-negative subgroup (ypN-), five-year survival probability was 86% (95% CI 84%-88%) with adjuvant therapy and 76% (95% CI 74%-77%) without adjuvant therapy. In the non-pCR and node-positive subgroup (ypN+), five-year survival probability was 67% (95% CI 65%-70%) with adjuvant therapy and 60% (95% CI 58%-63%) without adjuvant therapy.

Conclusions: Adjuvant chemotherapy in stage II or III rectal adenocarcinoma is associated with increased five-year survival probability regardless of pCR status. We observed similar survival outcomes among non-pCR ypN- treated with adjuvant chemotherapy compared with patients achieving pCR treated with adjuvant chemotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.suronc.2019.10.021DOI Listing
March 2020

Evaluation of Cell-detaching Effect of EDTA in Combination with Oxaliplatin for a Possible Application in HIPEC After Cytoreductive Surgery: A Preliminary in-vitro Study.

Curr Pharm Des 2019 ;25(45):4813-4819

Division of Colorectal Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of California Irvine (UCI), 333 City Blvd West Suite 850, Orange, CA 92868, United States.

Background: Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), a commonly used compound in laboratory medicine, is known for its membrane-destabilization capacity and cell-detaching effect. This preliminary study aims to assess the potential of EDTA in removing residual tumor cell clusters. Using an in-vitro model, this effect is then compared to the cytotoxic effect of oxaliplatin which is routinely administered during HIPEC procedures. The overall cell toxicity and cell detaching effects of EDTA are compared to those of Oxaliplatin and the additive effect is quantified.

Methods: HT-29 (ATCC® HTB-38™) cells were treated with A) EDTA only B) Oxaliplatin only and C) both agents using an in-vitro model. Cytotoxicity and cell detachment following EDTA application were measured via colorimetric MTS assay. Additionally, detached cell groups were visualized using light microscopy and further analyzed by means of electron microscopy.

Results: When solely applied, EDTA does not exhibit any cell toxicity nor does it add any toxicity to oxaliplatin. However, EDTA enhances the detachment of adherent colon carcinoma cells by removing up to 65% (p<0.05) of the total initial cell amount. In comparison, the sole application of highly concentrated oxaliplatin induced cell mortality by up to 66% (p<0.05). While detached cells showed no mortality after EDTA treatment, cell clusters exhibited a decreased amount of extracellular and adhesive matrix in-between cells. When combined, Oxaliplatin and EDTA display a significant additive effect with only 30% (mean p <0.01) of residual vitality detected in the initial well. EDTA and Oxaliplatin remove up to 81% (p <0.01) of adhesive HT-29 cells from the surface either by cytotoxic effects or cell detachment.

Conclusion: Our data support EDTA's potential to remove microscopical tumor cell clusters from the peritoneum and possibly act as a supplementary agent in HIPEC procedures with chemotherapy. While adding EDTA to HIPEC procedures may significantly decrease the risk of PM recurrence, further in-vivo and clinical trials are required to evaluate this effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1381612825666191106153623DOI Listing
June 2020

Comparing the cytotoxicity of taurolidine, mitomycin C, and oxaliplatin on the proliferation of in vitro colon carcinoma cells following pressurized intra-peritoneal aerosol chemotherapy (PIPAC).

World J Surg Oncol 2019 Jun 3;17(1):93. Epub 2019 Jun 3.

Division of Colorectal Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of California Irvine (UCI), California, USA.

Background: Besides its known antibacterial effect commonly used in intraperitoneal lavage, taurolidine has been observed to possess antineoplastic properties. In order to analyse this antineoplastic potential in a palliative therapeutic setting, taurolidine (TN) was compared to mitomycin C (MMC) and oxaliplatin (OX), known antineoplastic agents which are routinely used in intraperitoneal applications, following pressurized intra-peritoneal aerosol chemotherapy (PIPAC).

Methods: An in vitro model was established using a colon adenocarcinoma cell line (HT-29 human cells). Different experimental dosages of TN and combinations of TN, MMC, and OX were applied via PIPAC. To measure cell proliferation, a colorimetric tetrazolium reduction assay was utilized 24 h after PIPAC.

Results: We demonstrated a cytotoxic effect of TN and OX (184 mg/150 mL, p < 0.01) on tumor cell growth. An increasing dosage of TN (from 0.5 g/100 mL to 0.75 g/150 mL) correlated with higher cell toxicity when compared to untreated cells (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). PIPAC with OX and both OX and TN (0.5 g/100 mL) showed the same cytotoxic effect (p < 0.01). No significant impact was observed for MMC (14 mg/50 mL, p > 0.05) or MMC with OX (p > 0.05) applied via PIPAC.

Conclusions: The intraperitoneal application of TN is mostly limited to lavage procedures in cases of peritonitis. Our results indicate a substantial antineoplastic in vitro effect on colon carcinoma cells following PIPAC application. While this effect could be used in the palliative treatment of peritoneal metastases, further clinical studies are required to investigate the feasibility of TN application in such cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12957-019-1633-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6547564PMC
June 2019

Ileocolic Resection for Crohn's Disease: A Minimally Invasive Approach Claims Its Place.

Am Surg 2018 Oct;84(10):1639-1644

Department of Surgery, University of California, Irvine, School of Medicine, Irvine, California, USA.

Ileocolic resection is the most common operation performed for Crohn's disease patients with terminal ileum involvement. We sought to evaluate the outcomes in Crohn's disease patients who underwent open ileocolic resection (OIC) and laparoscopic ileocolic resection (LIC) by using the ACS-NSQIP database from 2006 to 2015. Of 5670 patients, 48.3 per cent (2737) patients had OIC and 51.7 per cent (2933) had LIC. The number of LIC increased from 40 per cent in 2006 to 60.7 per cent in 2015. Moreover, the annual number of LIC surgeries has exceeded the number of OIC surgeries since 2013. Patients in the LIC group had shorter hospital length of stay compared with OIC group (6 ± 5 days 8.6 ± 8 days, < 0.01). The LIC procedure also had shorter operation time compared with OIC (148 ± 58 153 ± 76 minutes, = 0.01). Overall morbidity (15.8% 25.3%, AOR: 0.54, confidence interval (CI): 0.46-0.62, < 0.01), serious morbidity (10.9% 18%, AOR: 0.55, CI: 0.46-0.65, < 0.01), and SSI (9.9% 15.5%, AOR: 0.59, CI: 0.49-0.70, < 0.01) rates were lower in the LIC group than the OIC group. We demonstrated that in Crohn's disease patients, LIC has improved outcomes for ileocolic resection compared with OIC and has been chosen as the preferential treatment approach for most patients.
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October 2018

Effect of Liposomal Doxorubicin in Pressurized Intra-Peritoneal Aerosol Chemotherapy (PIPAC).

J Cancer 2018 20;9(23):4301-4305. Epub 2018 Oct 20.

Division of Colorectal Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of California Irvine (UCI), California, USA.

This study was performed to compare the impact of doxorubicin vs. liposomal doxorubicin on penetration depth in peritoneal tissue during Pressurized Intra-Peritoneal Aerosol Chemotherapy (PIPAC) via microcatheter (MC). Fresh post mortem swine peritoneum was cut into proportional sections. One group of samples was treated with PIPAC with Doxorubicin (D), and the other was treated with PIPAC with liposomal doxorubicin (LD). Tissue specimens were placed as follows: at the bottom of the plastic box (1), at the side wall (2), at the top cover (3) and the side of the box covered by a plastic tunnel (4). In-tissue doxorubicin penetration was measured using fluorescence microscopy on frozen thin sections. Medium penetration levels with D were 325 µm (1), 152 µm (2), 84 µm (3) and 71 µm (4), respectively. Medium penetration levels with LD were significantly lower with 10 µm (1), 2 µm (2), 0 µm (3) and 0 µm (4), respectively. In most samples that were treated with LD no doxorubicin could be detected at all Our data indicate that liposomal coating of doxorubicin and possibly other chemotherapeutical drugs might inhibit their interaction with the peritoneal surface. This inhibition appears to be relatively strong, since doxorubicin is partially undetectable due to liposomal coating. Further studies are warranted to investigate this interaction and its potential benefit in peritoneal applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/jca.26860DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6277654PMC
October 2018

Laparoscopic loop ileostomy reversal with intracorporeal anastomosis is associated with shorter length of stay without increased direct cost.

Surg Endosc 2019 02 25;33(2):644-650. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Department of Surgery, University of California Irvine School of Medicine, Irvine, CA, USA.

Background: Laparoscopic ileostomy closure with intracorporeal anastomosis offers potential advantages over open reversal with extracorporeal anastomosis, including earlier return of bowel function and reduced postoperative pain. In this study, we aim to compare the outcome and cost of laparoscopic ileostomy reversal (utilizing either intracorporeal or extracorporeal anastomosis) with open ileostomy reversal.

Methods: A retrospective review of sequential patients undergoing elective loop ileostomy reversal between 2013 and 2016 at a single, high-volume institution was performed. Patients were stratified on the basis of operative approach: open reversal, laparoscopic-assisted reversal with extracorporeal anastomosis (LE), and laparoscopic reversal with intracorporeal anastomosis (LI). Linear and logistic regressions were utilized to perform multivariate analysis and determine risk-adjusted outcomes.

Results: Of 132 sequential cases of loop ileostomy reversal, 50 (38%) underwent open, 49 (37%) underwent LE, and 33 (22%) underwent LI. Demographic data and preoperative comorbidities were similar between the three cohorts. Median length of stay was significantly shorter for LI (52.1 h, p < 0.05) compared to open (69.0 h) and LE (69.6 h). After risk-adjusted analysis, length of stay was significant shorter in LI compared to LE (GM 0.78, 95% CI 0.64-0.93, p < 0.01) and open reversal (GM 0.78, 95% CI 0.66-0.93, p < 0.01). Risk-adjusted 30-day morbidity rates were similar for LI compared to LE (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.081-2.33, p = 0.33) and open reversal (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.09-3.125, p = 0.48). Median in-hospital direct cost was similar for LI ($6575.00), LE ($6722.50), and open reversal ($6181.00).

Conclusion: Laparoscopic ileostomy reversal with intracorporeal anastomosis was associated with shorter length of stay without increased overall direct cost. The technique of laparoscopic ileostomy reversal warrants continued study in a randomized clinical trial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-018-6518-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6724549PMC
February 2019

Intracorporeal versus extracorporeal anastomosis for minimally invasive right colectomy: A multi-center propensity score-matched comparison of outcomes.

PLoS One 2018 24;13(10):e0206277. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Department of Surgery, Division of Colon and Rectal Surgery, University of California Irvine, Irvine, California, United States of America.

Background: The primary objective of this study was to retrospectively compare short-term outcomes of intracorporeal versus extracorporeal anastomosis for minimally invasive laparoscopic and robotic-assisted right colectomies for benign and malignant disease. Recent studies suggest potential short-term outcomes advantages for the intracorporeal anastomosis technique.

Methods: This is a multicenter retrospective propensity score-matched comparison of intracorporeal and extracorporeal anastomosis techniques for laparoscopic and robotic-assisted right colectomy between January 11, 2010, and July 21, 2016.

Results: After propensity score-matching, there were a total of 1029 minimal invasive surgery cases for analysis-379 right colectomies (335 robotic-assisted and 44 laparoscopic) done with an intracorporeal anastomosis and 650 right colectomies (253 robotic-assisted and 397 laparoscopic) done with an extracorporeal anastomosis. There were no significant differences in any preoperative patient characteristics between groups. The minimally invasive intracorporeal anastomosis group had significantly longer operative times (p<0.0001), lower conversion to open rate (p = 0.01), shorter hospital length of stay (p = 0.02) and lower complication rate from after discharge to 30-days (p = 0.04) than the extracorporeal anastomosis group.

Conclusions: This comparison shows several clinical outcomes advantages for the intracorporeal anastomosis technique in minimally invasive right colectomy. These data may guide future refinements in minimally invasive training techniques and help surgeons choose among different minimally invasive options.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0206277PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6200279PMC
April 2019

Consolidation mFOLFOX6 Chemotherapy After Chemoradiotherapy Improves Survival in Patients With Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer: Final Results of a Multicenter Phase II Trial.

Dis Colon Rectum 2018 Oct;61(10):1146-1155

Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York.

Background: Adding modified FOLFOX6 (folinic acid, fluorouracil, and oxaliplatin) after chemoradiotherapy and lengthening the chemoradiotherapy-to-surgery interval is associated with an increase in the proportion of rectal cancer patients with a pathological complete response.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyze disease-free and overall survival.

Design: This was a nonrandomized phase II trial.

Settings: The study was conducted at multiple institutions.

Patients: Four sequential study groups with stage II or III rectal cancer were included.

Intervention: All of the patients received 50 Gy of radiation with concurrent continuous infusion of fluorouracil for 5 weeks. Patients in each group received 0, 2, 4, or 6 cycles of modified FOLFOX6 after chemoradiation and before total mesorectal excision. Patients were recommended to receive adjuvant chemotherapy after surgery to complete a total of 8 cycles of modified FOLFOX6.

Main Outcome Measures: The trial was powered to detect differences in pathological complete response, which was reported previously. Disease-free and overall survival are the main outcomes for the current study.

Results: Of 259 patients, 211 had a complete follow-up. Median follow-up was 59 months (range, 9-125 mo). The mean number of total chemotherapy cycles differed among the 4 groups (p = 0.002), because one third of patients in the group assigned to no preoperative FOLFOX did not receive any adjuvant chemotherapy. Disease-free survival was significantly associated with study group, ypTNM stage, and pathological complete response (p = 0.004, <0.001, and 0.001). A secondary analysis including only patients who received ≥1 cycle of FOLFOX still showed differences in survival between study groups (p = 0.03).

Limitations: The trial was not randomized and was not powered to show differences in survival. Survival data were not available for 19% of the patients.

Conclusions: Adding modified FOLFOX6 after chemoradiotherapy and before total mesorectal excision increases compliance with systemic chemotherapy and disease-free survival in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. Neoadjuvant consolidation chemotherapy may have benefits beyond increasing pathological complete response rates. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/A739.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/DCR.0000000000001207DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6130918PMC
October 2018

Mesenteric fibromatosis in a patient with a history of neuroblastoma: a case report.

J Surg Case Rep 2018 Sep 1;2018(9):rjy209. Epub 2018 Sep 1.

Department of Surgery, University of California, Irvine, CA, USA.

Mesenteric fibromatosis (MF) is a locally aggressive proliferative spindle cell lesion of the mesentery. A 34-year-old male presented with increasing abdominal pain and constipation. On workup, patient was found to have a large pelvic mass on CT A/P concerning for cancer. The patient underwent surgical excision of >15 cm intra-abdominal tumor along with adherent small bowel section. Histology of the tumor showed a spindle cell lesion consistent with MF. Previous reports have shown association of MF with Gardner syndrome and familial adenomatous polyposis. We present the first reported case of MF in a patient with previous neuroblastoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jscr/rjy209DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6119216PMC
September 2018

Use of laparoscopic colectomy increasing in trauma: comparison of laparoscopic vs. open colectomy.

Updates Surg 2019 Mar 24;71(1):105-111. Epub 2018 Aug 24.

Division of Trauma, Burns and Surgical Critical Care, Department of Surgery, Irvine Medical Center, University of California, Irvine, 333 The City Blvd West, Suite 1600, Orange, CA, 92868-3298, USA.

Laparoscopy accounts for > 70% of general surgical cases. Given the increased use of laparoscopy in emergent colorectal disease, we hypothesized that there would be an increased use of laparoscopic colectomy (LC) in trauma patients. In addition, we hypothesized increased length of stay (LOS) and mortality in trauma patients undergoing open colectomy (OC) vs. LC. This was a retrospective analysis using the National Trauma Data Bank (2008-2015). We included adult patients undergoing LC or OC. A multivariable logistic regression model was used for determining risk of LOS and mortality. We identified 19,788 (96.8%) patients undergoing OC and 644 (3.2%) who underwent LC. There was a 21-fold increased number of patients that underwent LC over the study period (p < 0.05), with approximately 119 per 10,000 trauma patients undergoing LC. The most common operation was a laparoscopic right hemicolectomy (27.5%). LC patients had a lower median injury severity score (ISS) (16 vs. 17, p < 0.001). There was no difference in LOS (p = 0.14) or mortality (p = 0.44) between the two groups. This remained true in patients with isolated colorectal injury. The use of LC has increased 21-fold from 2008 to 2015, with laparoscopic right hemicolectomy being the most common procedure performed. There was no difference in LOS, in-hospital complications, or mortality between the two groups. We suggest that LC should be considered in stable adult trauma patients undergoing colectomy. However, future prospective research is needed to help determine which trauma patients may benefit from LC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13304-018-0588-3DOI Listing
March 2019

Association of Compensation From the Surgical and Medical Device Industry to Physicians and Self-declared Conflict of Interest.

JAMA Surg 2018 11;153(11):997-1002

Department of Surgery, University of California, Irvine, School of Medicine, Orange.

Importance: Surgical and medical device manufacturers have a cooperative relationship with clinicians. When evaluating published works, one should assess the integrity and academic credentials of the authors, who serve as putative experts. A relationship with a relevant manufacturer may increase the potential risk for bias in relevant studies.

Objective: To characterize the association of industrial payments by device manufacturers, self-declared conflict of interest (COI), and relevance of publications among physicians receiving the highest compensation.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This population-based bibliometric analysis identified 10 surgical and medical device manufacturing companies and the 10 physicians receiving the highest compensation from each company using the 2015 Open Payments Database (OPD) general payments data. For each of the 100 physicians, the total amount of general payments, number of payments, institution type, and academic rank were recorded. Royalty or license payments were excluded. A search of PubMed identified articles published by each physician from January 1 through December 31, 2016, and their associated COI declaration. Scopus was used to identify bibliometric data reported as the h index (number of papers by a researcher with at least h citations each).

Main Outcomes And Measures: Discrepancy between self-declared COI and industry payments.

Results: The 100 physicians included in the sample population (88% men) were paid a total of $12 446 969, with a median payment of $95 993. Fifty physicians (50.0%) were faculty at academic institutions. The mean (SD) h index was 18 (18; range, 0-75) for the authors. In 2016, 412 articles were published by these physicians, with a mean (SD) of 4 (6) publications (range, 0-25) and median of 1 (36 physicians had no publications). Of these articles, 225 (54.6%) were relevant to the general payments received by the authors. Only in 84 of the 225 relevant publications (37.3%) was the potential COI declared by the authors.

Conclusions And Relevance: A high level of inconsistency was found between self-declared COI and the OPD among the physicians receiving the highest industry payments. Therefore, a policy of full disclosure for all publications, regardless of relevance, is proposed. No statistically significant association was demonstrated between academic rank or productivity and industrial payments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamasurg.2018.2576DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6583703PMC
November 2018

Particle Stability During Pressurized Intra-peritoneal Aerosol Chemotherapy (PIPAC).

Anticancer Res 2018 Aug;38(8):4645-4649

Division of Colorectal Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of California, Irvine, CA, U.S.A.

Background/aim: Pressurized intra-peritoneal aerosol chemotherapy (PIPAC) is a new approach in the treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis. With PIPAC currently limited to liquid chemotherapeutic solutions, this study aims to investigate whether the application range may be extended to the delivery of therapeutic nano- or microparticles.

Materials And Methods: Human serum, bacteria cultures and macrophage cells were aerosolized in an established ex vivo model. Human serum composition was analyzed via gel electrophoresis. The viability of bacteria and macrophage cells was measured prior to and following PIPAC.

Results: No structural disintegration of the plasma solution was detected. While the concentration and viability of Escherichia coli and Salmonella Enteritidis did not significantly change following aerosol formation, macrophage cells showed structural disintegration.

Conclusion: Our ex vivo data suggest that PIPAC can be used to deliver complex particles. The delivery of small and less complex particles was feasible, yet the mechanical and physical properties of PIPAC might alter the stability of larger and more complex particles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21873/anticanres.12769DOI Listing
August 2018

The Utility of Diagnostic Laparoscopy in Patients Being Evaluated for Cytoreductive Surgery and Hyperthermic Peritoneal Chemotherapy.

Am J Clin Oncol 2018 12;41(12):1231-1234

University of California Irvine Medical Center, Orange, CA.

Background: To assess the role of diagnostic laparoscopy (DL) to evaluate candidates for optimal cytoreduction surgery of peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) combined with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy in a consecutive series.

Methods: The characteristics of 31 patients undergoing DL between August 2012 and October 2016 for a diagnosis of PC secondary to digestive neoplasms were retrospectively reviewed.

Results: Laparoscopic evaluation was successful and well-tolerated in 100% patients (N=31). In 17 patients (54.8%) the PC was deemed unresectable. A cytoreductive surgery plus hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy was performed in 10 of 12 patients with PC considered resectable at laparoscopy wity a positive predictive value of 83.3%. One patient was diagnosed with more extensive disease than that as assessed by the DL at the time of laparotomy and 1 patient elected not to have further surgery. There were no port-site recurrences and morbidity at mean follow-up of 19.3 months.

Conclusions: Laparoscopic assessment of PC is a useful tool to assess the complete resectability of peritoneal surface disease in patients for whom there is inadequate information concerning disease extent. DL also helps selected patients to avoid an unnecessary laparotomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COC.0000000000000463DOI Listing
December 2018

The Growing Utilization of Laparoscopy in Emergent Colonic Disease.

Am Surg 2017 Oct;83(10):1068-1073

Department of Surgery, University of California, Irvine School of Medicine, Irvine, California, USA.

Emergent colonic disease has traditionally been managed with open procedures. Evaluation of recent trends suggests a shift toward minimally invasive techniques in this disease setting. The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) targeted colectomy database from 2012 to 2014 was used to examine clinical data from patients who emergently underwent open colectomy (OC) and laparoscopic colectomy (LC). Multivariate regression was utilized to analyze preoperative characteristics and determine risk-adjusted outcomes with intent-to-treat and as-treated approach. Of 10,018 patients with emergent colonic operation, 90 per cent (9023) underwent OC whereas 10 per cent (995) underwent LC. Laparoscopic utilization increased annually, with LC composing 10.9 per cent of emergent colonic operations in 2014 compared with 9.3 per cent in 2012. Compared with LC, patients treated with OC had higher rates of overall morbidity (odds ratio 2.01, 95% confidence interval 1.74-2.34, P < 0.01) and 30-day mortality (odds ratio 1.79, 95% confidence interval 1.30-2.46, P < 0.01). Subset analysis of emergent patients without preoperative septic shock revealed consistent benefits with laparoscopy in overall morbidity, 30-day mortality, ileus, and surgical site infection. In select patients with hemodynamic stability, emergent LC appears to be a safe and beneficial operation. This study reflects the growing preference and utilization of minimally invasive techniques in emergent colonic operations.
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October 2017

Effect of Robotic-Assisted vs Conventional Laparoscopic Surgery on Risk of Conversion to Open Laparotomy Among Patients Undergoing Resection for Rectal Cancer: The ROLARR Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA 2017 10;318(16):1569-1580

Clinical Trials Research Unit, Leeds Institute of Clinical Trials Research, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom.

Importance: Robotic rectal cancer surgery is gaining popularity, but limited data are available regarding safety and efficacy.

Objective: To compare robotic-assisted vs conventional laparoscopic surgery for risk of conversion to open laparotomy among patients undergoing resection for rectal cancer.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Randomized clinical trial comparing robotic-assisted vs conventional laparoscopic surgery among 471 patients with rectal adenocarcinoma suitable for curative resection conducted at 29 sites across 10 countries, including 40 surgeons. Recruitment of patients was from January 7, 2011, to September 30, 2014, follow-up was conducted at 30 days and 6 months, and final follow-up was on June 16, 2015.

Interventions: Patients were randomized to robotic-assisted (n = 237) or conventional (n = 234) laparoscopic rectal cancer resection, performed by either high (upper rectum) or low (total rectum) anterior resection or abdominoperineal resection (rectum and perineum).

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary outcome was conversion to open laparotomy. Secondary end points included intraoperative and postoperative complications, circumferential resection margin positivity (CRM+) and other pathological outcomes, quality of life (36-Item Short Form Survey and 20-item Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory), bladder and sexual dysfunction (International Prostate Symptom Score, International Index of Erectile Function, and Female Sexual Function Index), and oncological outcomes.

Results: Among 471 randomized patients (mean [SD] age, 64.9 [11.0] years; 320 [67.9%] men), 466 (98.9%) completed the study. The overall rate of conversion to open laparotomy was 10.1%: 19 of 236 patients (8.1%) in the robotic-assisted laparoscopic group and 28 of 230 patients (12.2%) in the conventional laparoscopic group (unadjusted risk difference = 4.1% [95% CI, -1.4% to 9.6%]; adjusted odds ratio = 0.61 [95% CI, 0.31 to 1.21]; P = .16). The overall CRM+ rate was 5.7%; CRM+ occurred in 14 (6.3%) of 224 patients in the conventional laparoscopic group and 12 (5.1%) of 235 patients in the robotic-assisted laparoscopic group (unadjusted risk difference = 1.1% [95% CI, -3.1% to 5.4%]; adjusted odds ratio = 0.78 [95% CI, 0.35 to 1.76]; P = .56). Of the other 8 reported prespecified secondary end points, including intraoperative complications, postoperative complications, plane of surgery, 30-day mortality, bladder dysfunction, and sexual dysfunction, none showed a statistically significant difference between groups.

Conclusions And Relevance: Among patients with rectal adenocarcinoma suitable for curative resection, robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery, as compared with conventional laparoscopic surgery, did not significantly reduce the risk of conversion to open laparotomy. These findings suggest that robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery, when performed by surgeons with varying experience with robotic surgery, does not confer an advantage in rectal cancer resection.

Trial Registration: isrctn.org Identifier: ISRCTN80500123.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2017.7219DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5818805PMC
October 2017

An endoscopic mucosal grading system is predictive of leak in stapled rectal anastomoses.

Surg Endosc 2018 04 15;32(4):1769-1775. Epub 2017 Sep 15.

Department of Surgery, University of California, Irvine, 333 City Blvd W. Suite 850, Orange, CA, 92868, USA.

Background: Anastomotic leak is a devastating postoperative complication following rectal anastomoses associated with significant clinical and oncological implications. As a result, there is a need for novel intraoperative methods that will help predict anastomotic leak.

Methods: From 2011 to 2014, patient undergoing rectal anastomoses by colorectal surgeons at our institution underwent prospective application of intraoperative flexible endoscopy with mucosal grading. Retrospective review of patient medical records was performed. After creation of the colorectal anastomosis, application of a three-tier endoscopic mucosal grading system occurred. Grade 1 was defined as circumferentially normal appearing peri-anastomotic mucosa. Grade 2 was defined as ischemia or congestion involving <30% of either the colon or rectal mucosa. Grade 3 was defined as ischemia or congestion involving >30% of the colon or rectal mucosa or ischemia/congestion involving both sides of the staple line.

Results: From 2011 to 2014, a total of 106 patients were reviewed. Grade 1 anastomoses were created in 92 (86.7%) patients and Grade 2 anastomoses were created in 10 (9.4%) patients. All 4 (3.8%) Grade 3 patients underwent immediate intraoperative anastomosis takedown and re-creation, with subsequent re-classification as Grade 1. Demographic and comorbidity data were similar between Grade 1 and Grade 2 patients. Anastomotic leak rate for the entire cohort was 12.2%. Grade 1 patients demonstrated a leak rate of 9.4% (9/96) and Grade 2 patients demonstrated a leak rate of 40% (4/10). Multivariate logistic regression associated Grade 2 classification with an increased risk of anastomotic leak (OR 4.09, 95% CI 1.21-13.63, P = 0.023).

Conclusion: Endoscopic mucosal grading is a feasible intraoperative technique that has a role following creation of a rectal anastomosis. Identification of a Grade 2 or Grade 3 anastomosis should provoke strong consideration for immediate intraoperative revision.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-017-5860-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6282754PMC
April 2018

Respiratory complications after colonic procedures in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: does laparoscopy offer a benefit?

Surg Endosc 2018 03 15;32(3):1280-1285. Epub 2017 Aug 15.

Department of Surgery, University of California, Irvine , 333 City Blvd. W. Ste. 850, Orange, CA, 92868, USA.

Background: Patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are at a higher risk for postoperative respiratory complications. Despite the benefits of a minimally invasive approach, laparoscopic pneumoperitoneum can substantially reduce functional residual capacity and raise alveolar dead space, potentially increasing the risk of respiratory failure which may be poorly tolerated by COPD patients. This raises controversy as to whether open techniques should be preferentially employed in this population.

Methods: The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database from 2011 to 2014 was used to examine the clinical data from patients with COPD who electively underwent laparoscopic and open colectomy. Patients defined as having COPD demonstrated either functional disability, chronic use of bronchodilators, prior COPD-related hospitalization, or reduced forced expiratory reserve volumes on lung testing (FEV1 <75%). Demographic data and preoperative characteristics were compared. Linear and logistic regressions were utilized to perform multivariate analysis and determine risk-adjusted outcomes.

Results: Of the 4397 patients with COPD, 53.8% underwent laparoscopic colectomy (LC) while 46.2% underwent open colectomy (OC). The LC and OC groups were similar with respect to demographic data and preoperative comorbidities. Equivalent frequencies of exertional dyspnea (LC 35.4 vs OC 37.7%, P = 0.11) were noted. After multivariate risk adjustment, OC demonstrated an increased rate of overall respiratory complications including pneumonia, reintubation, and prolonged ventilator dependency when compared to LC (OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.30-1.98, P < 0.01). OC was associated with longer length of stay (10 ± 8 vs. 6.7 ± 7 days, P < 0.01) and higher readmission (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.09-1.68, P < 0.01) compared to LC.

Conclusion: Despite the potential risks of laparoscopic pneumoperitoneum in the susceptible COPD population, a minimally invasive approach was associated with lower risk of postoperative respiratory complications, shorter length of stay, and decrease in postoperative morbidity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-017-5805-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6281393PMC
March 2018

Randomized Clinical Trial of Epidural Compared with Conventional Analgesia after Minimally Invasive Colorectal Surgery.

J Am Coll Surg 2017 Nov 3;225(5):622-630. Epub 2017 Aug 3.

Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, University of California, Irvine, CA. Electronic address:

Background: The effectiveness of thoracic epidural analgesia (EA) vs conventional IV analgesia (IA) after minimally invasive surgery is still unproven. We designed a randomized controlled trial comparing EA with IA after minimally invasive colorectal surgery.

Study Design: A total of 87 patients who underwent minimally invasive colorectal procedures at a single institution between 2011 and 2014 were enrolled. Eight patients were excluded and 38 were randomized to EA and 41 to IA. Pain was assessed with the Visual Analogue Scale and quality of life with the Overall Benefit of Analgesia Score daily until discharge.

Results: Mean age was 57 ± 14 years, 43% of patients were female, and mean BMI was 28.6 ± 6 kg/m. The 2 groups were similar in demographic characteristics and distribution of diagnoses and procedures. Epidural analgesia had a higher incidence of hypotensive systolic blood pressure (<90 mmHg) episodes (9 vs 2; p < 0.05) and a trend toward longer Foley catheter duration (3 ± 2 days vs 2 ± 4 days; p > 0.05). Epidural and IA had equivalent mean lengths of stay (4 ± 3 days vs 4 ± 3 days), daily Visual Analogue Scale scores (2.4 ± 2.0 vs 3.0 ± 2.0), and Overall Benefit of Analgesia Scores (3.2 ± 2.0 vs 3.2 ± 2.0), and similar time to start oral diet (2.8 ± 2 days vs 2.2 ± 1 days). Epidural analgesia patients used a higher total dose of narcotics (147.5 ± 192.0 mg vs 98.1 ± 112.0 mg; p > 0.05). Epidural and IV analgesia had equivalent total hospital charges ($144,991 ± $67,636 vs $141,339 ± $75,579; p > 0.05).

Conclusions: This study indicates that EA has no added clinical benefit in patients undergoing minimally invasive colorectal surgery. A trend toward higher total narcotics use and complications with EA was demonstrated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2017.07.1063DOI Listing
November 2017

Defining the Role of Minimally Invasive Proctectomy for Locally Advanced Rectal Adenocarcinoma.

Ann Surg 2017 10;266(4):574-581

Department of Surgery, University of California, Irvine School of Medicine, Irvine, CA.

Objective: National examination of open proctectomy (OP), laparoscopic proctectomy (LP), and robotic proctectomy (RP) in pathological outcomes and overall survival (OS).

Background: Surgical management for rectal adenocarcinoma is evolving towards utilization of LP and RP. However, the oncological impacts of a minimally invasive approach to rectal cancer have yet to be defined.

Methods: Retrospective review of the National Cancer Database identified patients with nonmetastatic locally advanced rectal adenocarcinoma from 2010 to 2014, who underwent neoadjuvant chemoradiation, surgical resection, and adjuvant therapy. Cases were stratified by surgical approach. Multivariate analysis was used to compare pathological outcomes. Cox proportional-hazard modeling and Kaplan-Meier analyses were used to estimate long-term OS.

Results: Of 6313 cases identified, 53.8% underwent OP, 31.8% underwent LP, and 14.3% underwent RP. Higher-volume academic/research and comprehensive community centers combined to perform 80% of laparoscopic cases and 83% of robotic cases. In an intent-to-treat model, multivariate analysis demonstrated superior circumferential margin negativity rates with LP compared with OP (odds ratio 1.34, 95% confidence interval 1.02-1.77, P = 0.036). Cox proportional-hazard modeling demonstrated a lower death hazard ratio for LP compared with OP (hazard ratio 0.81, 95% confidence interval 0.67-0.99, P = 0.037). Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated a 5-year OS of 81% in LP compared with 78% in RP and 76% in OP (P = 0.0198).

Conclusion: In the hands of experienced colorectal specialists treating selected patients, LP may be a valuable operative technique that is associated with oncological benefits. Further exploration of pathological outcomes and long-term survival by means of prospective randomized trials may offer more definitive conclusions regarding comparisons of open and minimally invasive technique.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0000000000002357DOI Listing
October 2017