Publications by authors named "Alessandra da Silva Pereira"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Reproducibility and Validity of Capillary Dried Blood Spot for Diagnosis of Vitamin A Deficiency and Anemia in Children <5 Years Old.

J Nutr 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Social Nutrition, Nutrition Institute, Rio de Janeiro State University, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Background: Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) and anemia are the most prevalent nutritional deficiency in children globally. The dried blood spot (DBS) method has been used in prevalence studies of VAD and anemia in different age groups. However, it has not yet been validated for children.

Objectives: This study aimed to assess the reproducibility and validity of DBS in the diagnosis of VAD and anemia in preschoolers.

Methods: Venous and capillary blood samples were collected from a representative sample of children <5 y old who attended the public health system in Rio de Janeiro. Serum retinol and hemoglobin were measured in 235 and 182 children, respectively. Serum retinol was measured with HPLC and hemoglobin was measured with spectrophotometry in samples of venous (gold standard) and capillary blood (test method, DBS). DBS reproducibility was assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), κ, and prevalence-adjusted and bias-adjusted κ (PABAK). DBS validity was assessed with sensitivity, specificity, accuracy index (AI), positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV).

Results: DBS showed very good reproducibility for serum retinol (ICC = 0.94, κ = 0.83, PABAK = 0.76) and very good/good reproducibility for hemoglobin (ICC = 0.86, κ = 0.69, PABAK = 0.69). Prevalence rates for VAD by the reference and test methods were 11.5% and 11.9%, respectively, whereas the anemia rates were 19.2% and 46.2%. The test method showed low sensitivity (33%) and PPV (32%) and high specificity (91%) and NPV (92%) for serum retinol. For hemoglobin, the test method showed fair sensitivity (71%), low PPV (30%), fair specificity (60%), and high NPV (90%). AI was 83% for VAD and 62% for anemia.

Conclusions: The results suggest that DBS is adequate for the diagnosis of VAD in preschool children, but not for anemia.
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July 2021

Reducing ultra-processed foods and increasing diet quality in affordable and culturally acceptable diets: a study case from Brazil using linear programming.

Br J Nutr 2021 Aug 4;126(4):572-581. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Department of Epidemiology, Institute of Social Medicine, Rio de Janeiro State University, Rio de Janeiro, 20550-013, Brazil.

The aim was to design culturally acceptable and healthy diets with reduced energetic share of ultra-processed foods (UPF%) at no cost increment and to evaluate the impact of the change in the UPF% on diet quality. Food consumption and price data were obtained from the Household Budget Survey (n 55 970 households) and National Dietary Survey (n 32 749 individuals). Linear programming models were performed to design diets in which the mean population UPF% was reduced up to 5 % with no cost increment relative to the observed costs. The models were isoenergetic or allowed the energy content to vary according to the UPF%, and they were not constrained to nutritional goals (nutrient-free models) or maximised the compliance with dietary recommendations (nutrient-constrained models). Constraints regarding food preference were introduced in the models to obtain culturally acceptable diets. The mean population UPF% was 23·8 %. The lowest UPF% attained was approximately 10 %. The optimised diet cost was up to 20 % cheaper than the observed cost, depending on the model and the income level. In the optimised diets, the reduction in the UPF% was followed by an increase in fruits, vegetables, beans, tubers, dairy products, nuts, fibre, K, Mg, vitamin A and vitamin C in the nutrient-constrained models, compared with the observed consumption in the population. There was little variation in most nutrients across the UPF% reduction. The UPF% reduction in the nutrient-free models impacted only trans-fat and added sugar content. UPF% reduction and increase in diet quality are possible at no cost increment.
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August 2021

Reproducibility and validity of portable haemoglobinometer for the diagnosis of anaemia in children under the age of 5 years.

J Nutr Sci 2020 01 20;9:e3. Epub 2020 Jan 20.

Departamento de Nutrição Social, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Portable haemoglobinometers have been used in order to estimate the prevalence of anaemia in diverse settings. However, few studies have been conducted to evaluate their performance in children of different age groups in distinct epidemiological contexts. To evaluate the reproducibility and reliability of a portable haemoglobinometer for the diagnosis of anaemia in children <5 years Hb was measured in the venous blood of 351 children <5 years by an automated system (standard method) and in three capillary blood samples, using a portable haemoglobinometer (HemoCue; test method). The reproducibility of the device and of the test method was evaluated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) (Hb in its continuous form), κ and prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted κ (PABAK) (categorised variable: anaemia: yes/no). For test method validation, Bland-Altman analyses were performed and sensitivity, specificity, accuracy rate, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) were calculated. The haemoglobinometer presented good device reproducibility (ICC = 0·79) and reasonable method reproducibility (puncture, collection and reading) (ICC = 0·71). Superficial and fair agreement (κ) and good agreement (PABAK) were observed among the diagnoses obtained through the test method. The prevalence of anaemia was 19·1 and 19·7 % using the standard and the test method, respectively, with no statistically significant differences. The test method presented higher specificity (87·7 %) and NPV (88·3 %) than sensitivity (50·7 %) and PPV (49·3 %), and intermediary accuracy rate (57·8 %). HemoCue showed good device reproducibility and reasonable method reproducibility, as well as good performance in estimating the prevalence of anaemia. Nevertheless, it showed a fair reliability and low individual diagnostic accuracy.
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January 2020

A study on the prevalence of adequacy of iron and vitamin C in children's diets.

Rev Bras Epidemiol 2014 Apr-Jun;17(2):543-56

Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

The aim of this study was to apply methodological procedures to determine the prevalence of adequacy of Iron and vitamin C in children's diets. It was included 238 children aged 2 to 3 years enrolled in 2009 in 25 day care centers in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro. Dietary intake was assessed by weighing the food and food record. Assessing the prevalence of nutrient adequacy took into consideration the individual and the group. The best estimate of the needs of the individual is given by the estimated average requirement (EAR), since we do not know the true needs of the individual who is being evaluated. To estimate the need of the group method was used EAR as the cutoff. The prevalence of adequacy of iron and vitamin C in children's diets was 91.2 and 62.2%, respectively. All necessary to achieve the method EAR as the cutoff were used, but became unviable the adjustment of the observed consumption data to estimate the distribution of usual intake in this group. We conclude that the study of probability of adequacy of habitual diet in iron and vitamin C in the age group in question was only possible with the use of procedures for the individual.
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December 2015