Publications by authors named "Alessandra Coscia"

78 Publications

The ontogeny of limbs movements towards midline in healthy infants born at term.

Early Hum Dev 2021 Feb 4;155:105324. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences for Mothers, Children and Adults, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy.

Background: Movements towards midline are part of the age-adequate motor repertoire of infants. They develop contemporaneously to general movements, changing from occasional simple contact to proper midline motor patterns.

Aim: The aim of this study is to describe the ontogeny of movements towards midline in full term healthy infants.

Study Design: Parents were asked to record their infant every second week, from term age to 22 weeks post-term.

Subjects: 25 healthy full-term infants.

Results: Three main epochs of development were detected: in the first one, between birth and 4 weeks post-term, movements towards midline were occasional, apparently due to the dominant flexed posture of elbow and knees and the adducted posture of shoulders and hips. In the second epoch, from 4 to 8 weeks, the limbs movements towards midline markedly decreased. In the third one, after 8 weeks, movements towards midline increased again in frequency, first appearing in lower limbs then in upper limbs, first solely as contact and thereafter as manipulation. A temporal overlapping with the occurrence of intermittent or continual fidgety movements was detected.

Conclusions: Movements towards midline progressively change, through a defined timeline, in full term healthy infants. The increased knowledge about the normal age-adequate motor repertoire can help physicians in clinical assessment of high risk infants.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2021.105324DOI Listing
February 2021

Human Colostrum and Derived Extracellular Vesicles Prevent Infection by Human Rotavirus and Respiratory Syncytial Virus in Vitro.

J Hum Lact 2021 Feb 3;37(1):122-134. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

93149314 Laboratory of Molecular Virology and Antiviral Research, Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, University of Turin, Italy.

Background: It is known that breastfeeding protects the infant from enteric and respiratory infections; however, the antiviral properties of human milk against enteric and respiratory viruses are largely unexplored.

Research Aims: To explore the antiviral activity of human preterm colostrum against rotavirus and respiratory syncytial virus and to assess whether the derived extracellular vesicle contribute to this activity.

Methods: We used a cross-sectional, prospective two-group non-experimental design. Colostra were collected from mothers of preterm newborns ( = 10) and extracellular vesicles were purified and characterized. The antiviral activity of colostra and derived extracellular vesicles were tested against rotavirus and respiratory syncytial virus and the step of viral replication inhibited by extracellular vesicles was investigated.

Results: Each sample of colostrum and colostrum-derived extracellular vesicles had significant antiviral activity with a wide interpersonal variability. Mechanism of action studies demonstrated that extracellular vesicles acted by interfering with the early steps of the viral replicative cycle.

Conclusion: We demonstrated the intrinsic antiviral activity of human colostrum against rotavirus and respiratory syncytial virus and we showed that extracellular vesicles substantially contribute to the overall protective effect. Our results contribute to unravelling novel mechanisms underlying the functional role of human milk as a protective and therapeutic agent in preterm infants.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0890334420988239DOI Listing
February 2021

Subtle impairment of neurodevelopment in infants with late fetal growth restriction.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2021 Jan 17:1-8. Epub 2021 Jan 17.

Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Department of Clinical and Surgical Sciences for Mothers, Children and Adults, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy.

Introduction: Children with late fetal growth restriction (FGR) are at high risk of being born small for gestational age (SGA). These categories of newborns are at increased risk for neurodevelopment impairment. The general movements assessment, in particular at fidgety age, has been used to predict neurological dysfunctions. This study aimed to evaluate growth recovery, presence of fidgety movements at 3 months, and neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years of age in term late FGR infants and adequate for gestational age (AGA) controls.

Methods: Prospective clinical evaluation. At 3 months auxological parameters (AP) and neurological examination were evaluated while at 24 months neurodevelopment outcome by Griffiths Mental Development Scales (GMDS-R) was evaluated.

Results: 38 late FGR and 20 AGA controls completed the study. Despite a significant catch up, at 3 months 13% of late FGR presented at least one auxological parameter <3° percentile. Moreover, 23.7% of late FGR infants did not show fidgety movements compared to 100% AGA controls ( < .001). Cranial circumference at birth resulted a positive predictive factor for FMs ( = .039). At 2 years of age, a difference statistically significant between late FGR and AGA was detected in GMDS-R.

Conclusion: Independently from growth recovery, fidgety movements resulted less expressed in late FGR infants, and at 2 years of age the neurodevelopmental assessment revealed differences in each domain of evaluation between late FGR and AGA infants, although within normal ranges.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14767058.2021.1873267DOI Listing
January 2021

Evaluation of Extrauterine Head Growth From 14-21 days to Discharge With Longitudinal Intergrowth-21st Charts: A New Approach to Identify Very Preterm Infants at Risk of Long-Term Neurodevelopmental Impairment.

Front Pediatr 2020 19;8:572930. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Neonatal Care Unit, Department of Public Health and Pediatric Sciences, University of Turin, Turin, Italy.

ExtraUterine Growth Restriction (EUGR) is a common definition for in-hospital growth failure of very preterm infants. Wide heterogeneity is found in definitions and anthropometric charts used to describe EUGR. We aim to compare two traditional definitions of EUGR with a newly proposed one, based on a longitudinal evaluation, that takes into account the physiological period of fluid loss after birth. We also wish to detect which definition could better predict neurodevelopmental impairment at 24 months of corrected age (CA). A total of 195 infants with GA < 30 were included. EUGR was calculated both for weight and head circumference (HC). Cross-sectional EUGR was defined as measurements < 10th percentile at discharge; longitudinal EUGR was defined as Δscore < -1 between birth and discharge measurements. The new longitudinal "post-loss" EUGR definition was proposed as Δscore < -1 between measurements taken at 14-21 days of life and at discharge. Longitudinal postnatal Intergrowth-21st charts specifically built on preterm infants were used. Association with major and minor neurodevelopmental impairment at 24-month CA was assessed for each definition. coefficient and ROC curve were evaluated. Longitudinal "post-loss" definition of EUGR for HC is the one predicting minor neurodevelopmental impairment at the multivariate analysis (OR = 3.94), and it is also associated with a worse General Quotient. The chosen cut-off (Δscore < -1) is the proper one. HC in-hospital growth could be a more accurate tool than weight to predict neurodevelopmental outcomes and especially minor neurological impairment. Longitudinal "post-loss" definition of EUGR assessed on longitudinal charts for preterm infants could be the most appropriate definition from the methodological, clinical, and prognostic point of view.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2020.572930DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7711073PMC
November 2020

The "Fortilat" Randomized Clinical Trial Follow-Up: Neurodevelopmental Outcome at 18 Months of Age.

Nutrients 2020 Dec 11;12(12). Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Department of Public Health and Pediatric, Neonatal Unit of Turin University, Via Ventimiglia 3, 10126 Turin, Italy.

Adequate nutrition is fundamental to neonatal survival and short-term outcomes, but it also has long-term consequences on quality of life and neurologic development of preterm infants. Donkey milk has been suggested as a valid alternative for children allergic to cows' milk proteins, due to its biochemical similarity to human milk; we, hence, hypothesized that donkey milk could be a suitable basis for developing an innovative human milk fortifier for feeding preterm infants. The aim of the current study was to extend the findings and to evaluate the neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18 months of corrected age of the infants enrolled in the clinical trial named "Fortilat". Infants born ≤1500 g and <32 weeks of gestational age were randomized to receive either a combination of bovine milk-based multicomponent fortifier and protein supplement or a combination of a novel multicomponent fortifier and protein supplement derived from donkey milk. The followed fortification protocol was the same for the two groups and the two diets were designed to be isoproteic and isocaloric. All infants enrolled were included in a developmental assessment program. The neurodevelopmental assessment was performed at 18 ± 6 months of corrected age. Minor and major neurodevelopmental impairment and General Quotient (GQ) at the Griffiths-II Mental Development Scale were considered. The GQ was considered both in continuous and as two classes: lower than and higher than (or equal to) a defined cutoff (GQcl). The difference in GQ and GQcl between the two arms was estimated using Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test or Fischer exact test, respectively, on the assumption of casual loss at follow-up. A further analysis was performed using generalized linear models. There were 103 children (bovine milk-derived fortifier arm = 54, donkey milk-derived fortifier arm = 49) included for the neurodevelopmental follow-up. All observations were included in the interval of 18 ± 6 months of corrected age. No significant difference was observed between the two arms in the incidence of neurologic sequelae and the GQs were similar in the two arms. Our results demonstrated no difference for the donkey milk-derived fortifier compared to standard bovine-derived fortifier regarding long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12123807DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7764145PMC
December 2020

The "Fortilat" Randomized Clinical Trial Follow-Up: Auxological Outcome at 18 Months of Age.

Nutrients 2020 Dec 3;12(12). Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Department of Public Health and Pediatric, Neonatal Unit of Turin University, Via Ventimiglia 3, 10126 Turin, Italy.

Human milk fortification is a routine clinical practice for feeding preterm infants. We hypothesized that donkey milk can be a suitable basis for developing an innovative human milk fortifier. Our randomized controlled single-blind clinical trial, named "Fortilat", evaluated the feeding tolerance, growth and clinical short-term outcomes in a population of preterm infants fed with a novel multi-component fortifier and a protein concentrate derived from donkey milk. The aim of the current study is to extend the previous findings and to evaluate the auxological outcomes of the infants enrolled in the "Fortilat" trial at 18 months of age. In the previous trial "Fortilat", the fortification protocol followed was the same for the two groups, and the two diets were designed to be isoproteic and isocaloric. All infants enrolled in the trial were included in a premature infant developmental evaluation program consisting of hospital visits at 40 ± 1 weeks of postmenstrual age, and at 6, 12 and 18 months of corrected age. Weight, head circumference and length were expressed in z-score using neonatal Intergrowth21st and INeS charts at birth, and WHO 0-5 years growth charts at 18 months. 122 children (Bovine-arm = 62, Donkey-arm = 60) were included in this study. All the observations were recorded in the interval of 18 ± 3 months of the correct age. The two groups did not differ for head circumference, length or weight at 18 months of age. Our data show that fortifiers derived from donkey milk had not different long term auxological outcomes of standard bovine-derived fortifier, but the new donkey milk fortifier was well tolerated in our population.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12123730DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7761645PMC
December 2020

Umbilical cord medication in healthy full-term newborns: a before-after uncontrolled quality improvement study.

Eur J Pediatr 2021 Feb 7;180(2):505-511. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Department of Maternal and Child Health Policlinico Umberto I, University La Sapienza, Rome, Italy.

Umbilical cord care can be a stressful practice for parents. Complications of cord care can increase neonatal morbidity and mortality. The extracts of Arnica montana (AM) have been reported to possess antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, and immunomodulatory activities. We aim to demonstrate the efficacy of AM on cord detachment and parents' stress level induced by cord medication in healthy full-term newborns. We enrolled full-term infants with a birth weight ≥ 2500 g in healthy conditions. Cord stumps of infants in the PRE-group were cleaned and dried, while cord stumps of infants in the POST-group were cleaned, dried, and medicated with a natural topic dermo-protective powder containing AM. After discharge, we interviewed parents on the stump status during follow-up visits in a pediatric office at 7 and 14 days of life, or by phone calls after follow-up visits. Long-rank test showed that time of cord separation of newborns in the PRE-group was significantly higher compared to that in the POST-group (p < 0.001). Parents of newborns in the PRE-group were significantly more stressed during cord medication compared to parents in the POST-group (2.0 (1.2 to 2.1) vs 1.0 (0.8 to 1.3), p = 0.011). Multivariate analysis showed a significantly linear relation with group assignment for cord separation (p < 0.001) and parents' stress during the medication (p = 0.033).Conclusion: The use of a natural topic dermo-protective powder containing AM reduces the time of cord separation, improves parents' stress level, and reduces the risk of complications. What is Known: • Cord stump care can be a stressful practice for parents. • Antiseptic treatment recommended for cord care could be associated with side effects such as burning and sensitization. What is New: • The medication of cord stump with a natural topic dermo-protective powder containing Arnica montana reduces time of cord detachment and of complication such as redness', bleeding, or secretions. • The use of Arnica montana for cord medication may have a positive impact on the family, reducing parents' stress, and the use of other medications.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00431-020-03889-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7813727PMC
February 2021

Detection of SARS-CoV-2 in Milk From COVID-19 Positive Mothers and Follow-Up of Their Infants.

Front Pediatr 2020 27;8:597699. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Laboratory of Molecular Virology, Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, University of Turin, Turin, Italy.

In the current SARS-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic little is known about SARS-CoV-2 in human milk. It is important to discover if breast milk is a vehicle of infection. Our aim was to look for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the milk of a group of SARS-CoV-2 positive mothers from North-West Italy. This is a prospective collaborative observational study where samples of human milk from 14 breastfeeding mothers positive for SARS-CoV-2 were collected. A search of viral RNA in breast milk samples was performed by RT-PCR (Real-Time reverse-transcriptase-Polymerase-Chain-Reaction) methodology tested for human milk. All the newborns underwent a clinical follow up during the first month of life or until the finding of two sequential negative swabs. In 13 cases the search for SARS-CoV-2 RNA in milk samples resulted negative and in one case it was positive. Thirteen of the 14 newborns were exclusively breastfed and closely monitored in the first month of life. Clinical outcome was uneventful. Four newborns tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and were all detected in the first 48 h of life, after the onset of maternal symptoms. Also the clinical course of these 4 infants, including the one who received mother's milk positive for SARS-CoV-2, was uneventful, and all of them became SARS-CoV-2 negative within 6 weeks of life. Our study supports the view that SARS-CoV-2 positive mothers do not expose their newborns to an additional risk of infection by breastfeeding.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2020.597699DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7652760PMC
October 2020

The Docosahexanoic Acid: From the Maternal-Fetal Dyad to Early Life Toward Metabolomics.

Front Pediatr 2020 30;8:538. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Complex Structure Neonatology Unit, Department of Public Health and Paediatric, University of Turin, Turin, Italy.

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an essential ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) and represents the dominant structural fatty acid in the retina and in the brain's gray matter. Due to its active participation in the development of the nervous system, DHA is one of the most studied LCPUFA and is currently considered a critical nutrient during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Increasing evidence in literature suggests that an adequate concentration of DHA is required from the fetal stage through to early life to ensure optimal neurological development. Likewise, many studies in literature demonstrated that an adequate supply of DHA during pregnancy and lactation is essential to promote proper brain development in utero and in early life. Daily supplementation of DHA in newborns has potentially stronger effects compared to maternal supplementation during pregnancy. Supplementation initiated in the second year of life in children born preterm did not result in global cognitive development improvements. Preliminary findings arising from metabolomics has reported that mother's milk and infant formula supplementation of Vitamin D associated with DHA results in a higher antioxidant and protective action, with a possible positive influence on renal function and body fat on preterm infants compared to those receiving only vitamin D. Recent applications of metabolomic studies on newborns may lead to a better understanding of the metabolic process linked to early nutrition and, subsequently, to the development of targeted and personalized nutritional strategies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2020.00538DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7555995PMC
September 2020

Anti-Zika virus and anti-Usutu virus activity of human milk and its components.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2020 10 7;14(10):e0008713. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, Laboratory of Molecular Virology and Antiviral Research, University of Turin, Orbassano (TO), Italy.

The benefits of human milk are mediated by multiple nutritional, trophic, and immunological components, able to promote infant's growth, maturation of its immature gut, and to confer protection against infections. Despite these widely recognized properties, breast-feeding represents an important mother-to-child transmission route of some viral infections. Different studies show that some flaviviruses can occasionally be detected in breast milk, but their transmission to the newborn is still controversial. The aim of this study is to investigate the antiviral activity of human milk (HM) in its different stages of maturation against two emerging flaviviruses, namely Zika virus (ZIKV) and Usutu virus (USUV) and to verify whether HM-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) contribute to the milk protective effect. Colostrum, transitional and mature milk samples were collected from 39 healthy donors. The aqueous fractions were tested in vitro with specific antiviral assays and EVs and GAGs were derived and characterized. HM showed antiviral activity against ZIKV and USUV at all the stages of lactation with no significant differences in the activity of colostrum, transitional or mature milk. Mechanism of action studies demonstrated that colostrum does not inactivate viral particles, but it hampers the binding of both flaviviruses to cells. We also demonstrated that HM-EVs and HM-GAGs contribute, at least in part, to the anti-ZIKV and anti-USUV action of HM. This study discloses the intrinsic antiviral activity of HM against ZIKV and USUV and demonstrates the contribution of two bioactive components in mediating its protective effect. Since the potential infectivity of HM during ZIKV and USUV infection is still unclear, these data support the World Health Organization recommendations about breast-feeding during ZIKV infection and could contribute to producing new guidelines for a possible USUV epidemic.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008713DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7571670PMC
October 2020

SAMHD1 phosphorylation and cytoplasmic relocalization after human cytomegalovirus infection limits its antiviral activity.

PLoS Pathog 2020 09 28;16(9):e1008855. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

Department of Molecular Medicine, "Sapienza" University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

SAMHD1 is a host restriction factor that functions to restrict both retroviruses and DNA viruses, based on its nuclear deoxynucleotide triphosphate (dNTP) hydrolase activity that limits availability of intracellular dNTP pools. In the present study, we demonstrate that SAMHD1 expression was increased following human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection, with only a modest effect on infectious virus production. SAMHD1 was rapidly phosphorylated at residue T592 after infection by cellular cyclin-dependent kinases, especially Cdk2, and by the viral kinase pUL97, resulting in a significant fraction of phosho-SAMHD1 being relocalized to the cytoplasm of infected fibroblasts, in association with viral particles and dense bodies. Thus, our findings indicate that HCMV-dependent SAMHD1 cytoplasmic delocalization and inactivation may represent a potential novel mechanism of HCMV evasion from host antiviral restriction activities.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1008855DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7544099PMC
September 2020

Urinary Metabolomic Profile of Preterm Infants Receiving Human Milk with Either Bovine or Donkey Milk-Based Fortifiers.

Nutrients 2020 Jul 27;12(8). Epub 2020 Jul 27.

Department of Chemical and Geological Sciences, Cittadella Universitaria, University of Cagliari, 09042 Cagliari, Italy.

Fortification of human milk (HM) for preterm and very low-birth weight (VLBW) infants is a standard practice in most neonatal intensive care units. The optimal fortification strategy and the most suitable protein source for achieving better tolerance and growth rates for fortified infants are still being investigated. In a previous clinical trial, preterm and VLBW infants receiving supplementation of HM with experimental donkey milk-based fortifiers (D-HMF) showed decreased signs of feeding intolerance, including feeding interruptions, bilious gastric residuals and vomiting, with respect to infants receiving bovine milk-based fortifiers (B-HMF). In the present ancillary study, the urinary metabolome of infants fed B-HMF ( = 27) and D-HMF ( = 27) for 21 days was analyzed by H NMR spectroscopy at the beginning (T0) and at the end (T1) of the observation period. Results showed that most temporal changes in the metabolic responses were common in the two groups, providing indications of postnatal adaptation. The significantly higher excretion of galactose in D-HMF and of carnitine, choline, lysine and leucine in B-HMF at T1 were likely due to different formulations. In conclusion, isocaloric and isoproteic HM fortification may result in different metabolic patterns, as a consequence of the different quality of the nutrients provided by the fortifiers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12082247DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7468788PMC
July 2020

Effects on Gastroesophageal Reflux of Donkey Milk-Derived Human Milk Fortifier Versus Standard Fortifier in Preterm Newborns: Additional Data from the FortiLat Study.

Nutrients 2020 Jul 18;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 18.

Neonatal Care Unit, Sant'Anna Hospital, Città della Salute e della Scienza, Università degli Studi di Torino, 10126 Turin, Italy.

Background: Feeding intolerance is a frequent diagnosis in very preterm infants. As seen in the FortiLat trial, human milk fortification with the new donkey milk-derived human milk fortifier (DF) seems to improve feeding tolerance in these infants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of using the DF compared with bovine milk-derived fortifier (BF) on gastroesophageal reflux (GER) in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants.

Methods: Over a total of 156 preterm infants were enrolled into the FortiLat trial (GA <32 weeks and birth weight <1500 g) and randomized into the BF arm or DF arm, and we selected all infants with clinical signs of GER and cardiorespiratory (CR) symptoms. All the infants underwent CR and multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH (MII/pH) monitoring associated with gastric ultrasound to evaluate GER and gastric emptying time.

Results: 10 infants were enrolled, and 5 were in the DF arm. At MII/pH, infants enrolled into the DF arm showed a lower GER frequency than BF arm infants ( = 0.036). Half gastric emptying time was similar in DF and BF arm infants ( = 0.744).

Conclusion: The use of donkey-derived human milk fortifier reduced the GER frequency and consequently should be recommended in infants with feeding intolerance.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12072142DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7400944PMC
July 2020

Extracellular Vesicles in Human Preterm Colostrum Inhibit Infection by Human Cytomegalovirus In Vitro.

Microorganisms 2020 Jul 21;8(7). Epub 2020 Jul 21.

Laboratory of Molecular Virology, Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, University of Turin, 10043 Orbassano, Italy.

Breast milk is a complex biofluid that nourishes infants, supports their growth and protects them from diseases. However, at the same time, breastfeeding is a transmission route for human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), with preterm infants being at a great risk of congenital disease. The discrepancy between high HCMV transmission rates and the few reported cases of infants with severe clinical illness is likely due to the protective effect of breast milk. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-HCMV activity of human preterm colostrum and clarify the role of colostrum-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs). Preterm colostrum samples were collected and the EVs were purified and characterized. The in vitro anti-HCMV activity of both colostrum and EVs was tested against HCMV, and the viral replication step inhibited by colostrum-purified EVs was examined. We investigated the putative role EV surface proteins play in impairing HCMV infection using shaving experiments and proteomic analysis. The obtained results confirmed the antiviral action of colostrum against HCMV and demonstrated a remarkable antiviral activity of colostrum-derived EVs. Furthermore, we demonstrated that EVs impair the attachment of HCMV to cells, with EV surface proteins playing a role in mediating this action. These findings contribute to clarifying the mechanisms that underlie the protective role of human colostrum against HCMV infection.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8071087DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7409124PMC
July 2020

Long-term effects on growth of an energy-enhanced parenteral nutrition in preterm newborn: A quasi-experimental study.

PLoS One 2020 6;15(7):e0235540. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Maternal and Child Health Policlinico Umberto I, University La Sapienza, Rome, Italy.

Aim: To assess the best energy intake in Parenteral Nutrition (PN) for preterm newborns, considering both possible benefits for growth and risk of complications.

Methods: Quasi-experimental study comparing two cohorts of newborns, receiving Energy-Enhanced vs. Standard PN (Cohort A, from 1st January 2015 to 31 January 2016 and Cohort B from 1st February 2016 to 31 March 2017; respectively) after implementation of a change in the PN protocol. The primary outcome measure was growth at 24 months of life. The PN associated complications were also measured.

Results: We enrolled 132 newborns in two Cohorts, similar for prenatal and postnatal clinical characteristics. Although, body weight and length at 24 months of life were significantly higher (p<0.05) in the Cohort A (11.1, 95% CI 10.6 to 11.6 Kg; 85.0 95% CI 83.8 to 86.2 cm) compared with Cohort B (10.4, 95% CI 9.9 to 10.9 Kg; 81.3 95% CI 79.7 to 82.8 cm), body weight and length Z-Score in the first 24 months of life were similar between the two Cohorts. The rate of PN associated complications was very high in both study Cohorts (up to 98% of enrolments). Multivariate analysis showed that length at 24 months was significantly associated with receiving standard PN (cohort A) in the first week of life and on the energy intake in the first week of life. We also found a marginally insignificant association between Cohort A assignment and body weight at 24 months of life (p = 0.060).

Conclusions: Energy-enhanced PN in early life has not significant effects on long-term growth in preterm newborns. The high prevalence of PN associated complications, poses concerns about the utility of high energy intake recommended by current guidelines for PN.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0235540PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7337335PMC
September 2020

Multichannel Intraluminal Impedance and pH Monitoring: A Step Towards Pediatric Reference Values.

J Neurogastroenterol Motil 2020 07;26(3):370-377

Department of Pediatrics, Aldo Moro University of Bari - Giovanni XXIII Hospital, Bari, Italy.

Background/aims: Combined multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH monitoring (MII/pH) is considered the most accurate test to detect gastroesophageal reflux (GER), however lacking reference values. We aim to determine reference values for the pediatric population and to correlate these values with age and postprandial/fasting period.

Methods: We evaluated MII/pH traces from patients (newborns, infants, and children) admitted to 3 Italian hospitals and who underwent MII/ pH for suspected GER disease. Patients with MII/pH traces that showed significant symptom-reflux associations and/or a pathological reflux index (> 6% for newborns and infants, > 3% for children) were excluded. Traces were analysed in their entirety, and in the postprandial period (first hour after a meal) and the fasting period (the following hours before the next meal) separately.

Results: A total of 195 patients (46 newborns, 83 infants, and 66 children) were included. Age positively correlated with frequency of acidic GER events ( = 0.37, < 0.05) and negatively associated with weakly acidic GER events ( = 0.46, < 0.05).

Conclusions: This study describes the distribution of MII/pH values in a pediatric population with normally acidic GER exposure and no significant association between GER events and symptoms. These MII/pH values may be used as reference values in clinical practice for a corrected GER disease diagnosis in the pediatric population.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.5056/jnm19205DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7329155PMC
July 2020

Pre-discharge Cardiorespiratory Monitoring in Preterm Infants. the CORE Study.

Front Pediatr 2020 5;8:234. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, City of Health and Science-University of Turin, Turin, Italy.

Ensuring cardiorespiratory (CR) stability is essential for a safe discharge. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a new pre-discharge protocol named CORE on the risk of hospital readmission (RHR). Preterm infants admitted in our NICU between 2015 and 2018 were randomly assigned to CORE (exposed) or to standard (not-exposed) discharge protocol. CORE included 24 h-clinical observation, followed by 24 h-instrumental CR monitoring only for high-risk infants. RHR 12 months after discharge and length of stay represent the primary and secondary outcomes, respectively. Three hundred and twenty three preterm infants were enrolled. Exposed infants had a lower RHR (log-rank < 0.05). The difference was especially marked 3 months after discharge (9.09 vs. 21.6%; = 0.004). The hospital length of stay in exposed and not-exposed infants was 39(26-58) and 43(26-68) days, respectively ( = 0.16). The CORE protocol could help neonatologists to define the best timing for discharge reducing RHR without lengthening hospital stay.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2020.00234DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7291855PMC
June 2020

Differential impact of Holder and High Temperature Short Time pasteurization on the dynamic in vitro digestion of human milk in a preterm newborn model.

Food Chem 2020 Oct 25;328:127126. Epub 2020 May 25.

STLO, INRAE, Institut Agro, 35042, Rennes, France. Electronic address:

The high-temperature short-time (HTST, 72 °C, 15 s) pasteurization of human milk (HM) has been proposed as an alternative to the Holder method (HoP, 62.5 °C, 30 min), to increase the preservation of bioactive compounds. We have investigated the impact of HTST and HoP pasteurization on the gastrointestinal kinetics of human milk, using a dynamic in vitro system in a preterm newborn model. An increased protein aggregation on the surface of fat globules following pasteurization, albeit to a lesser extent in HTST than in HoP, was observed. Despite relevant differences in the undigested milk samples, both pasteurization methods led to similar proteolytic patterns, while raw HM presented a higher native lactoferrin content throughout digestion. The slightly decreased amino acid release following HoP, with respect to HTST and raw HM, indicated that peptidomic analysis, which is currently underway, might provide interesting insights on the differential digestive kinetics of differently pasteurized HM.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.127126DOI Listing
October 2020

Human Endogenous Retroviruses Are Preferentially Expressed in Mononuclear Cells From Cord Blood Than From Maternal Blood and in the Fetal Part of Placenta.

Front Pediatr 2020 14;8:244. Epub 2020 May 14.

Department of Pediatric Sciences and Public Health, University of Turin, Turin, Italy.

Placenta shows high transcription levels of human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) that are overexpressed during embryonic and fetal development. In order to gather further information on the degree of HERV activation in maternal and fetal tissues we assessed the transcription levels of pol genes of HERV-H, -K, and -W in PBMCs of newborns and their mothers as well as in chorion (fetal part) and decidua basalis (maternal part) of the placenta using a real time PCR assay. Transcripts of pol genes of the three HERV families were significantly higher in mononuclear cells from cord blood than from maternal blood and in the fetal part than in the maternal part of the placenta. The HERV over-expressions in cells and tissues of the offspring are further clues that they play pivotal physiologic roles during early life events and suggest that HERV-driven abnormalities of pregnancy and fetal development may derive mostly from the conceptus, not from the mother.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2020.00244DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7240011PMC
May 2020

Risk of Symptomatic Infection after Non-Primary Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection.

Microorganisms 2020 May 25;8(5). Epub 2020 May 25.

Neonatal Care Unit, Department of Public Health and Pediatric Sciences, University of Turin, 10126 Turin, Italy.

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the leading cause of congenital infection. Its occurrence is phenotypically heterogeneous. The type of maternal infection, primary or non-primary, is an important factor related to the symptomatic disease, the primary infection was long considered the only cause of severe neonatal disease. We aimed to analyze the association of primary and non-primary infection with pathological outcomes in infants and with long-term sequelae at follow-up. This was a monocentric retrospective observational study on a population of 91 infants diagnosed with a CMV infection at the Neonatal Care Unit of Neonatology at the Sant'Anna Hospital of Turin during the period of June 2005 to December 2018. Infants underwent clinical, laboratory, and neuroradiological evaluations at birth. Subsequently, the patients were monitored in an auxological, neurodevelopment, and audiological follow-up. Regarding primary vs. non-primary infection, we found a higher percentage of incidence of symptomatic and neurological localized infection, as well as long-term sequelae in the latter. However, no significant difference between the two populations was found. We underline the possibility of re-infection in previously immunized mothers (non-primary infection) with unfavorable neonatal and long-term outcomes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8050786DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7285369PMC
May 2020

Where do we Stand after Decades of Studying Human Cytomegalovirus?

Microorganisms 2020 May 8;8(5). Epub 2020 May 8.

Laboratory of Pathogenesis of Viral Infections, Department of Public Health and Pediatric Sciences, University of Turin, 10126 Turin, Italy.

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), a linear double-stranded DNA betaherpesvirus belonging to the family of Herpesviridae, is characterized by widespread seroprevalence, ranging between 56% and 94%, strictly dependent on the socioeconomic background of the country being considered. Typically, HCMV causes asymptomatic infection in the immunocompetent population, while in immunocompromised individuals or when transmitted vertically from the mother to the fetus it leads to systemic disease with severe complications and high mortality rate. Following primary infection, HCMV establishes a state of latency primarily in myeloid cells, from which it can be reactivated by various inflammatory stimuli. Several studies have shown that HCMV, despite being a DNA virus, is highly prone to genetic variability that strongly influences its replication and dissemination rates as well as cellular tropism. In this scenario, the few currently available drugs for the treatment of HCMV infections are characterized by high toxicity, poor oral bioavailability, and emerging resistance. Here, we review past and current literature that has greatly advanced our understanding of the biology and genetics of HCMV, stressing the urgent need for innovative and safe anti-HCMV therapies and effective vaccines to treat and prevent HCMV infections, particularly in vulnerable populations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8050685DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7284540PMC
May 2020

Extrauterine Growth Restriction: Definitions and Predictability of Outcomes in a Cohort of Very Low Birth Weight Infants or Preterm Neonates.

Nutrients 2020 Apr 26;12(5). Epub 2020 Apr 26.

Neonatal Unit, Department of Public Health and Pediatric, University of Turin. Via Ventimiglia III, 10126 Turin, Italy.

Extrauterine Growth Restriction (EUGR) refers to inadequate growth during hospitalization. Current definitions for EUGR are varied and can be classified as cross-sectional (weight at a given t-time <10th centile) or longitudinal (weight loss between birth and a given t-time >1SD). Different t-times are also considered in literature, such as 36 weeks of gestational age (GA) or age at discharge. The aim of this study is to investigate whether EUGR could predict the auxological outcome at 24-30 months, and to evaluate the agreement between cross-sectional and longitudinal definitions. In total, 1589 infants with GA <30 weeks or birthweight ≤ 1500 g and without major congenital anomalies were included in this study. Cross-sectional and longitudinal EUGR were calculated at 36 and 40 weeks of GA, at discharge, and at 28 days. The concordance between the two definitions was estimated by Kappa coefficient. At 24-30 months, 803 infants were measured again. The agreement between the two definitions of EUGR was low. Both EUGR and not-EUGR groups were at lower centiles for weight, but at higher centiles for head circumference at 24-30 months than at birth. Longitudinal EUGR was associated with a poorer growth outcome for weight and height circumference than cross-sectional EUGR. No differences were observed for length. An agreed definition of EUGR is highly desirable in clinical practice to assess medical and nutritional interventions in preterm neonates. Based on the results of this study, we recommend the use of the longitudinal evaluation, that proved to better predict the auxological long-term outcome with respect to the cross-sectional one.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12051224DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7281990PMC
April 2020

Pre-labor anorectal swab for SARS-CoV-2 in COVID-19 pregnant patients: is it time to think about it?

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2020 Jun 14;249:98-99. Epub 2020 Apr 14.

Obstetrics and Gynecology 1U, Department of Surgical Sciences, Sant' Anna Hospital, University of Turin, Turin, Italy.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejogrb.2020.04.023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7194541PMC
June 2020

Influence of Diabetes during Pregnancy on Human Milk Composition.

Nutrients 2020 Jan 9;12(1). Epub 2020 Jan 9.

Complex Structure Neonatology Unit, Department of Public Health and Paediatric, University of Turin, 10100 Turin, Italy.

Human milk (HM) is a unique nourishment believed to contain biological factors contributing to both short and long-term benefits. Considering that a mother's own milk is often considered the first choice for nutrition of neonates, an aspect of increased interest is the possible effect of diabetes on the mammary gland and therefore on breast milk composition. This article aims to review the published literature on this topic, and to offer additional insights on the role of this disease on the composition of HM. This review was performed by searching the MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINHAL and Cochrane Library databases. A total of 50 articles were selected, focused specifically on one of the two types of diabetes: gestational diabetes mellitus (21 studies) and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (8 studies). Overall, the findings from the literature suggest that diabetes can alter the composition of HM. Nevertheless, the studies in this field are scarce, and the related protocols present some limitations, e.g., evaluating the variability of just a few specific milk biochemical markers in association with this syndrome.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12010185DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7019231PMC
January 2020

Clinical insights gained through metabolomic analysis of human breast milk.

Expert Rev Proteomics 2019 Nov - Dec;16(11-12):909-932. Epub 2019 Dec 12.

Neonatology Unit, Department of Public Health and Pediatrics, Università degli Studi di Torino, Turin, Italy.

: Among the OMICS technologies, that have emerged in recent years, metabolomics has allowed relevant step forwards in clinical research. Several improvements in disease diagnosis and clinical management have been permitted, even in neonatology. Among potentially evaluable biofluids, breast milk (BM) results are highly interesting, representing a fluid of conjunction between mothers newborns, describing their interaction.: in this review, updating a previous review article, we discuss research articles and reviews on BM metabolomics and found in MEDLINE using metabolomics, breast milk, neonatal nutrition, breastfeeding, human milk composition, and preterm neonates as keywords.: Our research group has a profound interest in metabolomics research. In 2012, we published the first metabolomic analysis on BM samples, reporting interesting data on its composition and relevant differences with formula milk (FM), useful to improve FM composition. As confirmed by successive studies, such technology can detect the specific BM composition and its dependence on several variables, including lactation stage, gestational age, maternal or environmental conditions. Moreover, since BM contaminants or drug levels can be detected, metabolomics also results useful to determine BM safety. These are only a few practical applications of BM analysis, which will be reviewed in this paper.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14789450.2019.1703679DOI Listing
July 2020

Comparison of Oxidative Status of Human Milk, Human Milk Fortifiers and Preterm Infant Formulas.

Foods 2019 Oct 8;8(10). Epub 2019 Oct 8.

Research Center for Engineering and Agro-Food Processing, Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, 10035 Torino, Italy.

Preterm and low birth weight infants require specific nutrition to overcome the accumulated growth deficit, and to prevent morbidities related to postnatal growth failure. In order to guarantee an adequate nutrient-intake, mother's own milk, when available, or donor human milk, are usually fortified with additional nutrients, in particular proteins. Fortification with processed ingredients may result in additional intake in oxidative compounds, deriving from extensive heat treatments, that are applied during processing. The aim of the present work was to compare the antioxidant activity and oxidative compound content conveyed by different preterm infant foods and fortifiers, namely raw and pasteurized human milk, two different preterm infant formulas, three bovine milk-based fortifiers and two experimental donkey milk-based fortifiers. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses revealed significant differences between the different products. The use of human milk minimizes the intake of dietary oxidative compound in comparison to infant formulas, irrespective of pasteurization or fortification, especially as far as malondialdehyde content is concerned. The addition of fortifiers to human milk increases its antioxidant capacity, and the choice of the protein source (hydrolysed whole proteins) differently impacted the resulting total antioxidant capacity of the diet.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods8100458DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6835274PMC
October 2019

Antiviral oxysterols are present in human milk at diverse stages of lactation.

J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2019 10 11;193:105424. Epub 2019 Jul 11.

Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, University of Torino, 10043, Orbassano, Torino, Italy. Electronic address:

Oxysterols are cholesterol oxidation derivatives. Those containing an additional hydroxyl group on the side chain of the cholesterol molecule result from a physiological enzymatic synthesis and include the majority of oxysterols present in the circulation. Among these, 25-hydroxycholesterol (25OHC) and 27-hydroxycholesterol (27OHC) are characterized by a broad antiviral activity and are now considered involved in the innate immune response against viruses. Despite the emerging role of these sterols in the innate antiviral defences, no data are available on their presence in human breast milk (BM) to date. In this study, we investigated the content of oxysterols of enzymatic synthesis in BM of twelve donor mothers at different stages of lactation (i.e. in colostrum, transitional milk, and mature milk) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The side-chain oxysterols 25OHC, 27OHC, and 24S-hydroxycholesterol (24SOHC) were actually present in BM in all stages of lactation, but the concentration of 27OHC showed a remarkable peak in colostrum. Antiviral assays revealed that all the colostrum samples contained 27OHC concentrations that were active in vitro against two relevant pediatric viral pathogens: the human rotavirus and the human rhinovirus. Overall, this study discloses new antiviral components of BM and suggests a passive transfer of these protective factors to the infant via breastfeeding, especially in the first few days of lactation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsbmb.2019.105424DOI Listing
October 2019

Enteral Nutrition Tolerance And REspiratory Support (ENTARES) Study in preterm infants: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

Trials 2019 Jan 18;20(1):67. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

Neonatal Pathology and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Vittore-Buzzi Children Hospital, Milan, Italy.

Background: Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and feeding intolerance are common conditions in preterm infants and among the major causes of neonatal mortality and morbidity. For many years, preterm infants with RDS have been treated with mechanical ventilation, increasing risks of acute lung injury and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. In recent years non-invasive ventilation techniques have been developed. Showing similar efficacy and risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) and heated humidified high-flow nasal cannula (HHHFNC) have become the most widespread techniques in neonatal intensive care units. However, their impact on nutrition, particularly on feeding tolerance and risk of complications, is still unknown in preterm infants. The aim of the study is to evaluate the impact of NCPAP vs HHHFNC on enteral feeding and to identify the most suitable technique for preterm infants with RDS.

Methods: A multicenter randomized single-blind controlled trial was designed. All preterm infants with a gestational age of 25-29 weeks treated with NCPAP or HHHFNC for RDS and demonstrating stability for at least 48 h along with the compliance with inclusion criteria (age less than 7 days, need for non-invasive respiratory support, suitability to start enteral feeding) will be enrolled in the study and randomized to the NCPAP or HHHFNC arm. All patients will be monitored until discharge, and data will be analyzed according to an intention-to-treat model. The primary outcome is the time to reach full enteral feeding, while parameters of respiratory support, feeding tolerance, and overall health status will be evaluated as secondary outcomes. The sample size was calculated at 141 patients per arm.

Discussion: The identification of the most suitable technique (NCPAP vs HHHFNC) for preterm infants with feeding intolerance could reduce gastrointestinal complications, improve growth, and reduce hospital length of stay, thus improving clinical outcomes and reducing health costs. The evaluation of the timing of oral feeding could be useful in understanding the influence that these techniques could have on the development of sucking-swallow coordination. Moreover, the evaluation of the response to NCPAP and HHHFNC could clarify their efficacy as a treatment for RDS in extremely preterm infants.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03548324 . Registered on 7 June 2018.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-018-3119-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6339423PMC
January 2019

Transcriptional activity of human endogenous retroviruses is higher at birth in inversed correlation with gestational age.

Infect Genet Evol 2019 03 19;68:273-279. Epub 2018 Dec 19.

Department of Public Health and Pediatric Sciences, Citoimmunodiagnostic Laboratory, School of Medicine, University of Turin, Turin 10136, Italy; Department of Pediatrics and Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, University of Turin, Regina Margherita Children' s Hospital, Piazza Polonia 94, Turin 10126, Italy.

Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) have been studied in relation to the onset and/or progression of several diseases. However, increasing evidence highlights that they also have important physiologic roles, for instance they are involved in preimplantation embryonic growth and in placentation. We assessed the transcriptional activity of HERVs in PBMCs of healthy newborns, infants and children to gather further information on their potential physiological roles. mRNA expression of HERV-H, K and W was evaluated in PBMCs of 63 preterm newborns, 47 term newborns, 38 infants (1-24 months of age), and 36 children (25-131 months of age) using a PCR real time Taqman amplification assay and normalization to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). The expression levels of HERV-H, K, and W were significantly higher at birth than in infancy and childhood. Furthermore, HERV activation was highest in preterm newborns and a significant inverse correlation was found between HERV transcripts and duration of pregnancy. The overexpression of HERVs at birth in inversed correlation with gestational age are further clues of their potential involvement in early life events.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2018.12.018DOI Listing
March 2019

Transcriptional Activity of Human Endogenous Retroviruses in Response to Prenatal Exposure of Maternal Cigarette Smoking.

Am J Perinatol 2019 08 30;36(10):1060-1065. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Public Health and Pediatric Sciences, Citoimmunodiagnostics Laboratory, University of Turin, Medical School, Turin, Italy.

Objective: Transcription of human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) elements is usually suppressed by epigenetic factors such as DNA methylation and heterochromatin silencing by histone modifications. There is an association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and DNA methylation levels in placental tissue and in DNA from cord blood.

Study Design: We assessed the transcriptional activity of HERV-H, HERV-K, and HERV-W in umbilical cord blood from 47 term babies unexposed to tobacco smoke in utero and 23 term babies exposed to tobacco smoke in utero.

Results: In our population, the HERV-H, HERV-K, and HERV-W families were always transcriptionally active, and the levels of all HERVs (H, K, W) were significantly higher in unexposed than smoke-exposed babies.

Conclusion: This study provides preliminary information about the transcriptional activity of HERV-H, HERV-K, and HERV-W families in human umbilical cord blood.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0038-1675768DOI Listing
August 2019