Publications by authors named "Alena Skálová"

102 Publications

ALK Rearrangements Characterize 2 Distinct Types of Salivary Gland Carcinomas: Clinicopathologic and Molecular Analysis of 4 Cases and Literature Review.

Am J Surg Pathol 2021 Mar 22. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

*Institute of Pathology ¶Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Comprehensive Cancer Center (CCC) Erlangen-EMN, Erlangen §DERMPATH Muenchen ∥Institute of Pathology, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich, Germany †Department of Pathology, Charles University, Faculty of Medicine in Plzen ‡Bioptic Laboratory Ltd, Plzen, Czech Republic #Department of Translational Research, University of Pisa, School of Medicine, Pisa, Italy.

The majority of salivary gland carcinomas are characterized by recurrent gene fusions that proved highly valuable diagnostically, but only rarely of therapeutic impact. Most of these fusion-positive carcinomas belong to the low-grade or intermediate-grade biological category. To date, only 5 cases of salivary gland carcinomas carrying an oncogenic ALK fusion have been reported in 4 recent studies, but their phenotypic spectrum and their nosological classification remain uncharacterized. We herein describe in detail the clinicopathologic and molecular features of 4 ALK-fusion-positive salivary carcinomas and review previously reported cases to assess if they could be classified into a defined World Health Organization (WHO) category. Patients were 3 men and 1 woman aged from 67 to 79 years (median: 70 y). All tumors originated in the parotid gland. Their size ranged from 1.1 to 3 cm (mean, 2 cm). Three tumors were de novo high-grade salivary duct carcinomas (SDCs) and 1 was a low-grade intercalated-type intraductal carcinoma. Histologically, high-grade tumors were predominantly solid, composed of intimately admixed basal (CK5, androgen) and luminal (CK5, androgen) components. The remarkable basal component showed squamoid basophilic pattern imparting an adenosquamous-like appearance in all cases. Conventional apocrine intraductal high-grade carcinoma was noted in 1 case. Prominent intraductal growth of the solid basal component (highlighted by p63 staining) was seen in all cases. The tumor cells expressed CK7 (3/3), mammaglobin (3/3, 1 focal), GATA3 (3/3, 1 focal), variably CK5 (3/3), and focally the androgen receptor (1/3), but lacked expression of HER2/neu, SOX10, MUC4, TTF1, S100, and Napsin A. The low-grade tumor showed classic histologic and immunophenotypic features of intercalated-type noninvasive intraductal carcinoma. Molecular profiling showed rearrangements involving exon 20 of ALK in all cases, confirmed by ALK immunohistochemistry (IHC and FISH). The fusion partner was EML4 (n=2) and STRN (n=1) in high-grade tumors and EML4 in the intraductal carcinoma. Two patients with high-grade tumors developed progressive disease (1 died at 9 mo; 1 alive under palliative therapy at 5 mo). This series and a review of 5 published cases indicate that ALK rearrangements characterize 2 distinct subsets of salivary gland carcinomas in the spectrum of high-grade androgen-poor, basal-like SDC (total reported: 5 cases) and low-grade intercalated-type intraductal carcinomas (4 cases). Given the therapeutic relevance of ALK fusions, inclusion of ALK IHC in any atypical-looking or androgen-poor SDC and in high-grade adenocarcinoma-not otherwise specified is recommended. Absence of aberrant ALK expression in genetically characterized secretory (n=15) and intraductal (n=9) carcinomas lacking ALK fusions underlines the value of ALK IHC as a diagnostic screening method for identifying potential cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAS.0000000000001698DOI Listing
March 2021

High-grade Transformation/Dedifferentiation in Salivary Gland Carcinomas: Occurrence Across Subtypes and Clinical Significance.

Adv Anat Pathol 2021 May;28(3):107-118

International Head and Neck Scientific Group, Padua, Italy.

High-grade transformation (HGT) or dedifferentiation has been described in a variety of salivary gland carcinomas, including acinic cell carcinoma, secretory carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma, polymorphous adenocarcinoma, low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma. High-grade (HG) transformed tumors are composed of a conventional low-grade component characterized by specific microscopic and immunohistochemical features for the given entity, intermingled with or juxtaposed to areas of HG morphology. This is usually either poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, carcinoma not otherwise specified, or undifferentiated carcinoma, in which the original line of differentiation is lost. The HG component is composed of solid nests of anaplastic cells with large vesicular pleomorphic nuclei, prominent nucleoli, and abundant cytoplasm. Frequent mitoses and extensive necrosis may be present. The Ki-67 labeling index is consistently higher in the HG component. The molecular genetic mechanisms responsible for HGT of salivary gland carcinomas are largely unknown, though p53 inactivation and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 overexpression and/or gene amplification have been demonstrated in the HG component in a few examples, the frequency varies for each histologic type. Salivary gland carcinomas with HGT are more aggressive than conventional carcinomas, with a higher local recurrence rate and a poorer prognosis. They have a high propensity for cervical lymph node metastasis suggesting a need for a wider resection and neck dissection. HGT of salivary gland carcinoma can occur either at initial presentation or less commonly at the time of recurrence, sometimes following postoperative radiotherapy. The potential for HGT in almost any type of salivary gland carcinoma warrants a thorough sampling of all salivary gland malignancies to prevent oversight of a HG component.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAP.0000000000000298DOI Listing
May 2021

Risk of Postoperative Bleeding in Tonsillectomy for Peritonsillar Abscess, as Opposed to in Recurrent and Chronic Tonsillitis-A Retrospective Study.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 02 17;18(4). Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Department of Immunochemistry Diagnostics, University Hospital in Pilsen, Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen, Charles University, E. Benese 1128/13, 305 99 Pilsen, Czech Republic.

Tonsillectomy is a routine surgery in otorhinolaryngology and the occurrence of postoperative bleeding is not a rare complication. The aim of this retrospective, observational, analytic, cohort study is to compare the incidence of this complication for the most common indications. A group of patients indicated for tonsillectomies for peritonsillar abscess (group I) was compared to a group of patients indicated for chronic and recurrent tonsillitis (group II). There are a lot of pathophysiological differences in patients indicated for acute tonsillectomy for peritonsillar abscess and in patients indicated for elective tonsillectomy for chronic or recurrent tonsillitis. No technique to minimize the risk of bleeding after tonsillectomy has been found and a large part of postoperative bleeding occurs in postoperative home-care, which makes this issue topical. In total, 2842 unilateral tonsillectomies from the years 2014-2019 were included in the study. Bleeding occurred in 10.03% and, surprisingly, despite completely different conditions in the field of surgery (oedema, acute inflammation in peritonsillar abscess), there was no statistically significant difference between incidence of postoperative bleeding in the studied groups ( = 0.9920). The highest incidence of bleeding was found in the patients of group I on the eighth postoperative day, with those aged 20-24 years ( = 0.0235) being the most at risk, and in group II, on the sixth postoperative day, with those aged 25-29 years ( = 0.0128) and 45-49 years ( = 0.0249) being the most at risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041946DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7921921PMC
February 2021

Pleomorphic adenoma: the great mimicker of malignancy.

Histopathology 2020 Dec 27. Epub 2020 Dec 27.

Department of Pathology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL, USA.

Pleomorphic adenoma (PA) is the most common salivary gland neoplasm, and its diagnosis is straightforward in the majority of cases. However, not infrequently, PA shows unusual and uncommon histological features that can be confused with those of malignancy. The difficulties in diagnosing PA arise from its ability to mimic invasion, show atypical or metaplastic cytomorphology, and show morphological features that overlap with those of established salivary gland carcinomas. In addition, recognising early malignant transformation to carcinoma ex-pleomorphic adenoma continues to be a frequent challenge. This review describes the diagnostic pitfalls of PA, and offers a systematic approach to avoid them by combining classic histopathology with novel immunohistochemical and molecular tests.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/his.14322DOI Listing
December 2020

Rearranged Tumors of the Breast: A Diagnostic Dilemma.

Int J Surg Pathol 2021 May 16;29(3):343-345. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

60569Charles University, Plzen, Czech Republic.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1066896920981634DOI Listing
May 2021

Cervical lymphocele: A rare complication following salvage surgery for ocular adnexal apocrine adenocarcinoma. A case report and review of the literature.

Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub 2020 Nov 26. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Department of Dentistry, University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen, Charles University, Alej Svobody 80, 304 60 Pilsen, Czech Republic.

Background: An ocular adnexal apocrine adenocarcinoma (OAAA) is an extremely rare, but potentially aggressive and life-threatening tumor with ill-defined management based only on recommendations from a limited number of reported cases. The development of cervical lymphocele following neck dissection is a very rare complication, but one with well established methods for prevention and treatment. Here we describe a previously unreported case of salvage surgery including neck dissection for OAAA in addition to an emergence of cervical lymphocele. A literature review of current knowledge on both pathological conditions is included.

Methods And Results: A 58-year-old man suffering from OAAA, previously treated with multiple eye-sparing excisions and adjuvant proton therapy, underwent salvage surgery for locoregional recurrence of the tumor. A partial orbitectomy with orbital exenteration, primary reconstruction and left-sided neck dissection was performed. The procedure was complicated by a cervical lymphocele resolved after the surgical therapy. The patient remained disease-free during the one-year follow-up.

Conclusion: OAAA is a locally aggressive tumor with potential to local or distant metastatic spread. Whole-body staging, regular clinico-radiological follow-up and stage-dependent therapy with surgery as the first-choice treatment is required. A cervical lymphocele as a complication of especially left-sided neck dissection is managed with a conservative or surgical therapy according to the level of lymph leakage, extent and localization of lesions, presence of local or systemic disorders and the period from primary surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5507/bp.2020.051DOI Listing
November 2020

Heterotopic acinic cell carcinoma and its clinical implications.

Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub 2021 Mar 12;165(1):13-18. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine in Plzen, Charles University Prague, Czech Republic.

This is a review of the clinical and histopathological published data on very rare heterotopic acinic cell carcinomas (AcCCs) with suggested optimal management. Extrasalivary AcCCs originate primarily in parotid lymph nodes. They present at low clinical stage, show mostly low-grade histopathology and are circumscribed with a complete nodal capsule. Extracapsular dissection was advocated as adequate therapy. In rare cases with positive surgical margins, a completion parotidectomy or adjuvant radiotherapy should follow. Heterotopic high-grade AcCCs are rare, necessitating radical surgery including neck dissection and adjuvant radiotherapy. The short term prognosis is excellent, long term outcomes are not known. Longer term follow-up is essential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5507/bp.2020.047DOI Listing
March 2021

Molecular Profiling of Clear Cell Myoepithelial Carcinoma of Salivary Glands With EWSR1 Rearrangement Identifies Frequent PLAG1 Gene Fusions But No EWSR1 Fusion Transcripts.

Am J Surg Pathol 2021 01;45(1):1-13

Institute of Biomedicine, University of Turku.

Myoepithelial carcinoma of salivary glands is an underrecognized and challenging entity with a broad morphologic spectrum, including an EWSR1-rearranged clear cell variant. Myoepithelial carcinoma is generally aggressive with largely unknown genetic features. A retrospective review of Salivary Gland Tumor Registry in Pilsen searching for the key words "clear cell myoepithelial carcinoma," "hyalinizing clear cell," and "clear cell malignant myoepithelioma" yielded 94 clear cell myoepithelial carcinomas (CCMCs) for molecular analysis of EWSR1 rearrangement using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Tumors positive for EWSR1 gene rearrangement were tested by next-generation sequencing (NGS) using fusion-detecting panels. NGS results were confirmed by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction or by FISH. Twenty-six tumors originally diagnosed as CCMC (26/94, 27.6%) revealed split signals for EWSR1 by FISH. Six of these tumors (6/26, 23%) displayed amplification of the EWSR1 locus. Fifteen cases were analyzable by NGS, whereas 9 were not, and tissue was not available in 2 cases. None of the CCMCs with EWSR1 rearrangements detected by FISH had an EWSR1 fusion transcript. Fusion transcripts were detected in 6 cases (6/15, 40%), including LIFR-PLAG1 and CTNNB1-PLAG1, in 2 cases each, and CHCHD7-PLAG1 and EWSR1-ATF1 fusions were identified in 1 case each. Seven cases, including those with PLAG1 fusion, were positive for PLAG1 rearrangement by FISH, with notable exception of CHCHD7-PLAG1, which is an inversion not detectable by FISH. One single case with EWSR1-ATF1 fusion in NGS showed ATF1 gene rearrangement by FISH and was reclassified as clear cell carcinoma (CCC). In addition, another 4 cases revealed ATF1 rearrangement by FISH and were reclassified as CCC as well. Moreover, 12/68 (17%) CCMCs with intact EWSR1 gene were selected randomly and analyzed by NGS. PLAG1 fusions were found in 5 cases (5/12, 41.6%) with LIFR (2 cases), FGFR1 (2 cases), and CTNNB1 (1 case) as partner genes. Overall, PLAG1 gene rearrangements were detected in 10/38 (26%) tested cases. None of the tumors had SMARCB1 loss by immunohistochemistry as a possible explanation for the EWSR1 abnormalities in FISH. Novel findings in our NGS study suggest that EWSR1-FISH positive CCMC is a gene fusion-driven disease with frequent oncogenic PLAG1 fusions, including LIFR-PLAG1 and CTNNB1-PLAG1 in most cases. Productive EWSR1 fusions are found only in a minority of EWSR1-ATF1-rearranged cases, which were in part reclassifiable as CCCs. Detectable EWSR1-FISH abnormality in CCMCs without gene fusion perhaps represents a passenger mutation with minor or no oncologic effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAS.0000000000001591DOI Listing
January 2021

FNA diagnostics of secondary malignancies in the salivary gland: Bi-institutional experience of 36 cases.

Diagn Cytopathol 2021 Feb 5;49(2):241-251. Epub 2020 Oct 5.

Pathology, Fimlab Laboratories, Tampere, Finland.

Objective: Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is a key diagnostic method in the evaluation of salivary gland lesions. Secondary tumors of salivary glands represent only 5% of all malignancies of major salivary glands. The goal of our study was to examine the cytological and clinical features of secondary tumors sampled by FNA.

Materials And Methods: A series of 36 secondary tumors from the pathology departments of two university hospitals are presented. Clinical referrals to FNA, cytological features, immunohistochemical results, and histopathological diagnoses were reviewed in all cases.

Results: The study population consisted of 36 cases (19 males and 17 females) with mean age 70.9 ± 13.0 years (range 41-96 years). The most common site of the metastasis was parotid gland (n = 26). The primary malignancy was known in 17 cases at the time of FNA diagnosis. The most common primary site was skin of head and neck area (11 cases) followed by lungs (n = 5) and tonsils (n = 5), kidney (n = 2) and breast (n = 2) and thyroid gland, gastrointestinal tract and soft tissue, 1 case of each. In 8 cases, the primary site remained unknown. The diagnostic or confirmatory immunocytochemistry was performed on cell blocks in 21 cases.

Conclusions: FNA is a reliable technique in the diagnosis of salivary gland secondary malignancies. The knowledge of the personal history of malignancy is essential for the successful immunocytochemical targeted diagnosis without any delay.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dc.24629DOI Listing
February 2021

Molecular Profiling of Salivary Oncocytic Mucoepidermoid Carcinomas Helps to Resolve Differential Diagnostic Dilemma With Low-grade Oncocytic Lesions.

Am J Surg Pathol 2020 12;44(12):1612-1622

Institute of Biomedicine, University of Turku.

Oncocytic mucoepidermoid carcinoma (OMEC) is a rare but diagnostically challenging variant of mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC). OMEC is notable for differential diagnostic considerations that are raised as a result of overlap with other benign and low-grade oncocytic salivary gland tumors. Diffuse and strong immunoreactivity of p63 protein may be useful in distinguishing OMEC from its mimics. However, focal p63 staining can be present in benign oncytomas. Presence of mucin-containing cells, mucinous cystic formation, and foci of extravasated mucin are considered a hallmark of MEC. True mucocytes may be, however, very few and hardly discernable in OMECs. Recent evidence has shown that most MECs harbor gene fusions involving MAML2. A retrospective review of archived pathology files and the authors' own files was conducted to search for "low-grade/uncertain oncocytic tumor," "oncocytoma," and "oncocytic carcinoma" in the period from 1996 to 2019. The tumors with IHC positivity for p63 and/or p40, and S100 negativity, irrespective of mucicarmine staining, were tested by next-generation sequencing using fusion-detecting panels to detect MAML2 gene rearrangements. Two index cases from consultation practice (A.S. and A.A.) of purely oncocytic low-grade neoplasms without discernible mucinous cells showed a CRTC1-MAML2 fusion using next-generation sequencing, and were reclassified as OMEC. In total, 22 cases of oncocytic tumors, retrieved from the authors' files, and from the Salivary Gland Tumor Registry, harbored the MAML2 gene rearrangements. Presence of mucocytes, the patterns of p63 and SOX10 immunopositivity, and mucicarmine staining were inconsistent findings. Distinguishing OMEC devoid of true mucinous cells from oncocytoma can be very challenging, but it is critical for proper clinical management. Diffuse and strong positivity for p63 and visualization of hidden mucocytes by mucicarmine staining may be misleading and does not always suffice for correct diagnosis. Our experience suggests that ancillary studies for the detection of MAML2 rearrangement may provide useful evidence in difficult cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAS.0000000000001590DOI Listing
December 2020

MUC4 is a valuable marker for distinguishing secretory carcinoma of the salivary glands from its mimics.

Histopathology 2020 Sep 15. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

Institute of Pathology, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg, University Hospital, Erlangen, Germany.

Aims: Secretory carcinoma (SC) (synonym: mammary analogue secretory carcinoma) is a low-grade salivary gland tumour that occurs in both major and minor salivary glands. SC is known for its wide morphological, architectural and immunohistochemical spectrum, which overlaps with those of several salivary gland neoplasms, including acinic cell carcinoma (AciCC) and intercalated duct-type intraductal carcinoma (IDC) in major salivary glands, and polymorphous adenocarcinoma (PAC) in minor salivary glands. These tumours share with SC some morphological features and SOX10 immunoreactivity; also, with the exception of AciCC, they all coexpress S100 and mammaglobin.

Methods And Results: We compared MUC4 and mammaglobin expression in 125 salivary gland carcinomas (54 genetically confirmed SCs, 20 AciCCs, 21 PACs, and 30 IDCs) to evaluate the potential of these two markers to differentiate these entities. Moderate to strong diffuse MUC4 positivity was detected in 49 SCs (90.7%), as compared with none of the IDCs and PACs. In contrast, mammaglobin was frequently expressed in SCs (30 of 36 cases; 83.3%), IDCs (24/28; 85.7%), and PACs (7/19; 36.8%). Two of three high-grade SCs lost MUC4 expression in the high-grade tumour component. No significant correlation was found between MUC4 expression and the fusion variant in SC (ETV6-NTRK versus non-ETV6-NTRK).

Conclusion: The results of our study identify MUC4 as a sensitive (90.7%) and specific (100%) marker for SC, with high positive (100%) and negative (93.4%) predictive values. Thus, MUC4 may be used as a surrogate for SC in limited biopsy material and in cases with equivocal morphology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/his.14251DOI Listing
September 2020

Expanding the Molecular Spectrum of Secretory Carcinoma of Salivary Glands With a Novel VIM-RET Fusion.

Am J Surg Pathol 2020 10;44(10):1295-1307

Institute of Biomedicine, Pathology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.

Background: Secretory carcinoma (SC), originally described as mammary analogue SC, is a predominantly low-grade salivary gland neoplasm characterized by a recurrent t(12;15)(p13;q25) translocation, resulting in ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion. Recently, alternative ETV6-RET, ETV6-MAML3, and ETV6-MET fusions have been found in a subset of SCs lacking the classic ETV6-NTRK3 fusion transcript, but still harboring ETV6 gene rearrangements.

Design: Forty-nine cases of SC revealing typical histomorphology and immunoprofile were analyzed by next-generation sequencing using the FusionPlex Solid Tumor kit (ArcherDX). All 49 cases of SC were also tested for ETV6, RET, and NTRK3 break by fluorescence in situ hybridization and for the common ETV6-NTRK3 fusions using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.

Results: Of the 49 cases studied, 37 (76%) occurred in the parotid gland, 7 (14%) in the submandibular gland, 2 (4%) in the minor salivary glands, and 1 (2%) each in the nasal mucosa, facial skin, and thyroid gland. SCs were diagnosed more frequently in males (27/49 cases; 55%). Patients' age at diagnosis varied from 15 to 80 years, with a mean age of 49.9 years. By molecular analysis, 40 cases (82%) presented the classic ETV6-NTRK3 fusion, whereas 9 cases (18%) revealed an alternate fusion. Of the 9 cases negative for the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion, 8 cases presented with ETV6-RET fusion. In the 1 remaining case in the parotid gland, next-generation sequencing analysis identified a novel VIM-RET fusion transcript. In addition, the analysis indicated that 1 recurrent high-grade case in the submandibular gland was positive for both ETV6-NTRK3 and MYB-SMR3B fusion transcripts.

Conclusions: A novel finding in our study was the discovery of a VIM-RET fusion in 1 patient with SC of the parotid gland who could possibly benefit from RET-targeted therapy. In addition, 1 recurrent high-grade case was shown to harbor 2 different fusions, namely, ETV6-NTRK3 and MYB-SMR3B. The expanded molecular spectrum provides a novel insight into SC oncogenesis and carries important implications for molecular diagnostics, as this is the first SC-associated translocation with a non-ETV6 5' fusion partner. This finding further expands the definition of SC while carrying implications for selecting the appropriate targeted therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAS.0000000000001535DOI Listing
October 2020

What is hiding behind S100 protein and SOX10 positive oncocytomas? Oncocytic pleomorphic adenoma and myoepithelioma with novel gene fusions in a subset of cases.

Hum Pathol 2020 09 13;103:52-62. Epub 2020 Jul 13.

Department of Pathology, Charles University, Faculty of Medicine in Plzen, Plzen, 30605, Czech Republic; Bioptic Laboratory Ltd, Plzen, 32600, Czech Republic.

Oncocytomas (OCs) in salivary glands are rare benign tumors composed of mitochondria-rich epithelial cells (oncocytes), mostly localized in the parotid gland. The treatment of choice is simple excision. Extensive oncocytic metaplasia of pleomorphic adenoma (PA) and myoepithelioma (ME) can be diagnostically challenging and may camouflage the correct diagnosis. These tumors should be treated more carefully compared with OC, given the risk of frequent recurrences and the possibility of malignant transformation. We have investigated 89 oncocytic lesions from our files, including OC (n = 74) and metaplastic oncocytic variant of PA/ME (n = 15). All OCs were stained for S100 protein and SOX10. The tumors with immunohistochemical expression of one or both markers were tested by next-generation sequencing (NGS). The NGS results were confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and/or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Ten cases originally diagnosed as OC, and 1 low-grade uncertain oncocytic tumor (11/74) revealed nuclear-cytoplasmic and/or nuclear positivity for S100 protein and/or SOX10, respectively. Fusion transcripts CHCHD7-PLAG1 and GEM-PLAG1 were found in 2 cases (1 fusion in each), and these were confirmed by RT-PCR and PLAG1 break-apart FISH probe, respectively. Another 5 cases were positive for PLAG1 rearrangement by FISH. In the control group of 15 oncocytic PA/ME, 4/15 tested tumors harbored gene fusions including NFT3-PLAG1, CHCHD7-PLAG1, FBXO32-PLAG1, and C1orf116-PLAG1 (1 fusion in each case) as detected by NGS. Two fusions were confirmed by RT-PCR, 1 case by FISH, and 1 case was not analyzable by FISH. We additionally tested 24 OCs negative for S100 protein and SOX10 by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and by FISH for rearrangement of PLAG1 gene, but none of them were positive. SOX10 and/or S100 protein immunopositivity in conjunction with rearrangement of the PLAG1 gene assisted in reclassification of a subset of oncocytomas as oncocytic variants of PA and ME. Therefore, we recommend to include S100 protein and SOX10 IHC when diagnosing tumors with predominantly oncocytoma-like differentiation. In addition, by NGS, 3 new gene fusions were detected in oncocytic ME, including NTF3-PLAG1, FBXO32-PLAG1, and GEM-PLAG1, and a new fusion C1orf116-PLAG1 was detected in oncocytic PA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humpath.2020.07.009DOI Listing
September 2020

A Comparison of F-FDG-PET/MRI and F-FDG-PET/CT in the Cancer Staging of Locoregional Lymph Nodes.

In Vivo 2020 Jul-Aug;34(4):2029-2032

Department of Immunochemistry Diagnostics, University Hospital in Pilsen, Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen, Charles University, Pilsen, Czech Republic

Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the yields of 2-deoxy-2-[F]-fluoro-D-glucose positron-emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (F-FDG-PET/MRI) and F-FDG-PET/computed tomography (CT) for the detection of metastatic involvement of locoregional neck nodes in patients with head and neck malignancy.

Patients And Methods: A total of 90 patients (66 men and 24 women) met the inclusion criteria. Preoperative staging was performed: 53 examinations using PET/CT and 37 using PET/MRI.

Results: For PET/MRI, the study demonstrated a sensitivity of 89%, specificity of 64%, positive predictive value of 85%, and negative predictive value of 70%; PET/CT had a sensitivity of 95%, specificity 47%, positive predictive value of 82%, and negative predictive value of 78%.

Conclusion: Both methods have a high yield in N-clinical staging with statistically insignificant differences. We assume PET/MRI to be the first-choice method in organ-targeted examinations, for pediatric patients and repeat examinations. In cases of MRI contraindication, PET/CT can be used with no impact on the quality of care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21873/invivo.12002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7439898PMC
March 2020

Solitary fibrous tumors of the head and neck region revisited: a single-institution study of 20 cases and review of the literature.

Hum Pathol 2020 05 23;99:1-12. Epub 2020 Mar 23.

Department of Pathology, Charles University, The Faculty of Medicine and Faculty Hospital in Pilsen, Alej Svobody 80, Pilsen, 304 60, Czech Republic; Bioptická laboratoř s.r.o., Mikulášske nám. 4, Pilsen, 326 00, Czech Republic. Electronic address:

A solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare, NAB2-STAT6 fusion gene-associated mesenchymal neoplasm. It most commonly arises in the pleural site, but it can occur at many other sites, and rarely also in the head and neck (H&N) region. STFs may show many growth patterns and therefore can be easily mistaken for other more common H&N spindle cell or epithelial lesions. In this study, we present our experience in the diagnosis of 20 cases of SFT in the H&N region and discuss their most notable mimickers. In all cases, STAT6 expression was found positive by immunohistochemistry, and the NAB2-STAT6 fusion was confirmed by next-generation sequencing. Three major fusion variants were detected: NAB2ex2-STAT6int1 (5/20, 25%), NAB2ex6-STAT6ex16 (4/20, 20%), and NAB2ex4-STAT6ex2 (3/20, 15%). Clinical follow-up was available for 16 patients (median follow-up time: 84 months). One patient with a morphologically malignant SFT experienced multiple local recurrences, followed by dissemination into the lungs and meninges. This malignant SFT also displayed an aberrant FLI1 expression, which was not previously reported in SFT cases. We also summarize findings from 200 cases of SFT of the H&N region, which included cases from our study, and from previous studies that reported on the fusion status of the STAT6 gene. The results suggest that metastatic disease developed only in cases with STAT6 variants that included the DNA-binding domain (STAT6-full variants), which contradicts expectations from previous reports and deserves further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humpath.2020.03.007DOI Listing
May 2020

Histologic Classification and Molecular Signature of Polymorphous Adenocarcinoma (PAC) and Cribriform Adenocarcinoma of Salivary Gland (CASG): An International Interobserver Study.

Am J Surg Pathol 2020 04;44(4):545-552

Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center.

Polymorphous adenocarcinoma (PAC) shows histologic diversity with streaming and targetoid features whereas cribriform adenocarcinoma of salivary gland (CASG) demonstrates predominantly cribriform and solid patterns with glomeruloid structures and optically clear nuclei. Opinions diverge on whether CASG represents a separate entity or a variant of PAC. We aimed to assess the level of agreement among 25 expert Head and Neck pathologists in classifying these tumors. Digital slides of 48 cases were reviewed and classified as: PAC, CASG, tumors with ≥50% of papillary architecture (PAP), and tumors with indeterminate features (IND). The consensus diagnoses were correlated with a previously reported molecular alteration. The consensus diagnoses were PAC in 18/48, CASG in16/48, PAP in 3/48, and IND in 11/48. There was a fair interobserver agreement in classifying the tumors (κ=0.370). The full consensus was achieved in 3 (6%) cases, all of which were classified as PAC. A moderate agreement was reached for PAC (κ=0.504) and PAP (κ=0.561), and a fair agreement was reached for CASG (κ=0.390). IND had only slight diagnostic concordance (κ=0.091). PAC predominantly harbored PRKD1 hotspot mutation, whereas CASG was associated with fusion involving PRKD1, PRKD2, or PRKD3. However, such molecular events were not exclusive as 7% of PAC had fusion and 13% of CASG had mutation. In conclusion, a fair to moderate interobserver agreement can be achieved in classifying PAC and CASG. However, a subset (23%) showed indeterminate features and was difficult to place along the morphologic spectrum of PAC/CASG among expert pathologists. This may explain the controversy in classifying these tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAS.0000000000001431DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7437128PMC
April 2020

Ameloblastic fibrosarcoma: clinicopathological and molecular analysis of seven cases highlighting frequent BRAF and occasional NRAS mutations.

Histopathology 2020 May 16;76(6):814-821. Epub 2020 Apr 16.

Sarcoma Centre, Western German Cancer Centre, University of Duisburg-Essen Medical School, Essen, Germany.

Aims: Ameloblastic fibrosarcoma (AFS) is an aggressive odontogenic neoplasm featuring malignant mesenchymal stroma in addition to an ameloblastic epithelial component, and is hence considered to be the malignant counterpart of ameloblastic fibroma (AF). AFS is exceedingly rare, with <110 cases having been reported so far. Although BRAF mutations are recognised driver mutations in ameloblastoma, the molecular pathogenesis of AFS remains elusive.

Methods And Results: We herein describe seven AFSs that were analysed, for the first time, for mutations in the BRAF-NRAS pathway. The patients were four females and three males aged 23-57 years (median, 26 years). Three tumours developed after one or multiple recurrences of AF (4-20 years after initial diagnosis), two showed transition from AF-like bland areas, and two developed de novo. All patients were treated with surgery; adjuvant chemotherapy was given to one patient. At the last follow-up, five patients were alive and well (19-344 months). The remainder were lost to follow-up. Histological examination showed variable sarcomatous overgrowth with varying degrees of atypia and increased mitotic activity. The epithelial component varied greatly according to the degree of sarcomatous overgrowth. Molecular testing revealed BRAF V600E mutations in five cases and NRAS p.Gln61Lys mutation in one case. One tumour was wild-type.

Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first study on BRAF/NRAS mutations in AFS. Given the activity of RAF and MEK inhibitors across different cancers harbouring V600E mutations, our data strongly suggest that all AFS cases should be genetically tested, and that targeted treatment approaches for this extremely rare sarcoma subtype should be clinically investigated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/his.14053DOI Listing
May 2020

Sinonasal Undifferentiated Carcinoma (SNUC): From an Entity to Morphologic Pattern and Back Again-A Historical Perspective.

Adv Anat Pathol 2020 Mar;27(2):51-60

International Head and Neck Scientific Group, Padua, Italy.

Since the first description of sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma (SNUC) as a distinctive highly aggressive sinonasal neoplasm with probable origin from the sinonasal mucosa (Schneiderian epithelium), SNUC has been the subject of ongoing study and controversy. In particular, the SNUC category gradually became a "wastebasket" for any undifferentiated or unclassifiable sinonasal malignancy of definite or probable epithelial origin. However, with the availability of more specific and sensitive immunohistochemical antibodies and increasing implementation of novel genetic tools, the historical SNUC category became the subject of progressive subdivision leading to recognition of specific genetically defined, reproducible subtypes. These recently recognized entities are characterized by distinctive genetic aberrations including NUTM1-rearranged carcinoma (NUT carcinoma) and carcinomas associated with inactivation of different members of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling gene complex such as SMARCB1-deficient and less frequently SMARCA4-deficient carcinoma. The ring became almost closed, with recent studies highlighting frequent oncogenic IDH2 mutations in the vast majority of histologically defined SNUCs, with a frequency of 82%. A review of these cases suggests the possibility that "true SNUC" probably represents a distinctive neoplastic disease entity, morphologically, phenotypically, and genetically. This review addresses this topic from a historical perspective, with a focus on recently recognized genetically defined subsets within the SNUC spectrum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAP.0000000000000258DOI Listing
March 2020

Biomarkers - a possibility for monitoring of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

Neuro Endocrinol Lett 2019 Oct;40(2):85-92

Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen, Charles University in Prague, Pilsen, Czech Republic.

Objectives: Sleep apnea syndrome affects approximately 4% of adult males and 2% of adult females. It is associated with significant cardio-, cerebrovascular, metabolic and hormonal comorbidities and ranks among the more expensive medical specialties due to the requirement of high-quality technical diagnostic and therapeutic equipment as well as well-educated and experienced personnel. The aim of this study is to detect the relationship between C-reactive protein (CRP), pentraxin-3 (PTX-3), interleukin 6 (IL6), high-sensitivity troponin I (hsTnI), brain natriuretic protein (BNP) and galectin-3 serum levels and obstru-ctive sleep apnea syndrome.

Design: Prospective cohort study.

Material And Methods: A group of 146 patients with middle to severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) were monitored, and the results were compared with the results from a control group of healthy individuals.

Results: We assessed serum levels of the following biomarkers: CRP, PTX-3, IL6, hsTnI, BNP, and galectin-3. PTX-3 serum levels were statistically significantly higher (p<0.0001) in patients with OSAS, compared to controls. Statistical results related to the other biomarkers did not suggest any clinical value. ROC analysis showed that PTX-3 might be able to distinguish patients with OSAS from healthy individuals (AUC=7438).

Conclusion: The elevation of PTX-3 serum levels is significantly associated with middle to severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. The PTX-3 biomarker appears to be a promising alternative method for sleep apnea syndrome investigations.
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October 2019

Immunohistochemical and genetic analysis of respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartomas and seromucinous hamartomas: are they precursor lesions to sinonasal low-grade tubulopapillary adenocarcinomas?

Hum Pathol 2020 03 5;97:94-102. Epub 2019 Nov 5.

Department of Pathology, Charles University, Faculty of Medicine in Plzen, Plzen 30605, Czech Republic; Bioptic Laboratory, ltd, Plzen 32600, Czech Republic.

Respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartoma (REAH) and seromucinous hamartoma (SH) are rare tumor-like lesions of the nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, and nasopharynx. The pathogenesis of REAH/SH is still unclear. Neoplastic proliferation, chronic mechanical irritation, inflammation, or possible embryological tissue misplacement are speculated as possible mechanisms of their development. Low-grade tubulopapillary adenocarcinoma (LGTA) is a rare variant of nonsalivary, nonintestinal type sinonasal adenocarcinoma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunohistochemical and genetic profiles of 10 cases of REAH/SH, with serous, mucinous, and respiratory components evaluated separately and to compare these findings with the features of 9 cases of LGTA. All cases of REAH/SH and LGTA were analyzed immunohistochemically with a cocktail of mucin antigens (MUC1, MUC2, MUC4, MUC5AC, MUC6) and with epithelial (CK7, CK20, CDX2, SATB2) and myoepithelial markers (S100 protein, p63, SOX10). The next-generation sequencing assay was performed using FusionPlex Solid Tumor Kit (ArcherDx) in 10 cases of REAH/SH, and the EGFR-ZNF267 gene fusion was detected in 1 of them. Two female REAH/SH cases were assessed for the presence of clonality. Using the human androgen receptor assay, 1 case was proved to be clonal. The serous component of REAH/SH was positive for CK7/MUC1 and SOX10 similarly to LGTA. Although REAH/SH and LGTA are histopathologically and clinically separate entities, the overlap in their morphological and immunohistochemical profiles suggests that REAH/SH might be a precursor lesion of LGTA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humpath.2019.09.018DOI Listing
March 2020

Don't stop the champions of research now: a brief history of head and neck pathology developments.

Hum Pathol 2020 01 23;95:1-23. Epub 2019 Aug 23.

Department of Pathology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Clements University Hospital, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. Electronic address:

The field of head and neck pathology was just developing 50 years ago but has certainly come a long way in a relatively short time. Thousands of developments in diagnostic criteria, tumor classification, malignancy staging, immunohistochemistry application, and molecular testing have been made during this time, with an exponential increase in literature on the topics over the past few decades: There were 3506 articles published on head and neck topics in the decade between 1969 and 1978 (PubMed source), with a staggering 89266 manuscripts published in the most recent decade. It is daunting and impossible to narrow the more than 162000 publications in this field and suggest only a few topics of significance. However, the breakthrough in this anatomic discipline has been achieved in 3 major sites: oropharyngeal carcinoma, salivary gland neoplasms, and sinonasal tract tumors. This review will highlight selected topics in these anatomic sites in which the most profound changes in diagnosis have occurred, focusing on the information that helps to guide daily routine practice of surgical pathology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humpath.2019.08.017DOI Listing
January 2020

Biomarker immunoprofile and molecular characteristics in salivary duct carcinoma: clinicopathological and prognostic implications.

Hum Pathol 2019 11 19;93:37-47. Epub 2019 Aug 19.

Department of Pathology, Charles University, Faculty of Medicine in Plzen, Plzen, Czech Republic; Medical Faculty of Charles University, Faculty Hospital, E. Benese 13, Plzen 305 99, Czech.

Salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) is one of the most aggressive salivary gland tumors, and prognosis remains poor for most patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic implications of biomarker immunoprofile in a cohort of SDC and to identify molecular characteristics through next-generation sequencing (NGS) in a subset of cases. Clinicopathological and follow-up information of 25 cases diagnosed as SDC was collected. Immunoexpression of AR, HER-2/neu, GATA3, CK5/6, and MIB1 was analyzed, and ERBB2 (HER-2/Neu) gene amplification was investigated by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Cases were classified under the "SDC revised classification system." Eight SDC cases were analyzed by targeted NGS for detection of gene fusions and variants. Overall survival and disease-free survival were analyzed with Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression. Most cases expressed AR (100%), GATA3 (73%), and CK5/6 (76.5%), and 42% expressed HER-2/neu. ERBB2 gene amplification was proven by fluorescence in situ hybridization in 7 of 15 (46%) cases. Apocrine HER2 (AR+/HER2+) subtype was significantly associated with lower overall survival (P = .05). NGS analysis revealed 9 pathogenic mutations in 7 SDC cases, and the most frequently mutated gene was HRAS (4/9) followed by PIK3CA (2/9) and TP53 (2/9). One case (1/9) presented homozygous deletion of locus 9p21 (CDKN2A), and another case (1/9) showed MDM2 amplification. In conclusion, we demonstrated that Apocrine HER2 (AR+/HER2+) is a potential biomarker of poor outcome in SDC. Furthermore, NGS analysis revealed recurrent mutations in SDC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humpath.2019.08.009DOI Listing
November 2019

New Insights into Tumor Heterogeneity: A Case of Solid-Oncocytic Epithelial-Myoepithelial Carcinoma of the Parotid Gland Harboring a HRAS and Heterogeneous Terminating ARID1A Mutation.

Head Neck Pathol 2020 Jun 15;14(2):554-558. Epub 2019 Jul 15.

Department of Pathology and Molecular Pathology, University Hospital Zurich, Schmelzbergstr. 12, 8091, Zurich, Switzerland.

Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma (EMC) can be a challenging diagnosis due to a lack of obvious invasion and bland cytology. We report an unusual case of a low-grade EMC with prominent fibrous stroma, an extensive solid-oncocytic differentiation and limited areas of morphological clearly identifiable characteristic biphasic (tubular) differentiation, clear cells and PAS-positive secretions/calcifications. Both areas were investigated by next generation sequencing (Oncomine comprehensive assay) and revealed a typical concordant HRAS p.Q61R mutation. An additional heterogeneous ARID1A (p.E672*) terminating mutation with loss of heterozygosity, which could be visualized predominantly in the solid-oncocytic differentiation by immunohistochemical loss of ARID1A protein expression, was found. This is the first case of an EMC of the salivary gland to be described with two separate tumor clones involving concordant HRAS and heterogeneous ARID1A mutations. The latter seem to be a "second hit" and was predominantly found in the solid-oncocytic differentiation, suggesting a potential morpho-molecular association.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12105-019-01055-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7235098PMC
June 2020

Analysis of the Clinical Relevance of Histological Classification of Benign Epithelial Salivary Gland Tumours.

Adv Ther 2019 08 17;36(8):1950-1974. Epub 2019 Jun 17.

Coordinator of the International Head and Neck Scientific Group, Padua, Italy.

Introduction: A vast increase in knowledge of numerous aspects of malignant salivary gland tumours has emerged during the last decade and, for several reasons, this has not been the case in benign epithelial salivary gland tumours. We have performed a literature review to investigate whether an accurate histological diagnosis of the 11 different types of benign epithelial salivary gland tumours is correlated to any differences in their clinical behaviour.

Methods: A search was performed for histological classifications, recurrence rates and risks for malignant transformation, treatment modalities, and prognosis of these tumours. The search was performed primarily through PubMed, Google Scholar, and all versions of WHO classifications since 1972, as well as numerous textbooks on salivary gland tumours/head and neck/pathology/oncology. A large number of archival salivary tumours were also reviewed histologically.

Results: Pleomorphic adenomas carry a considerable risk (5-15%) for malignant transformation but, albeit to a much lesser degree, so do basal cell adenomas and Warthin tumours, while the other eight types virtually never develop into malignancy. Pleomorphic adenoma has a rather high risk for recurrence while recurrence occurs only occasionally in sialadenoma papilliferum, oncocytoma, canalicular adenoma, myoepithelioma and the membranous type of basal cell adenoma. Papillomas, lymphadenoma, sebaceous adenoma, cystadenoma, basal cell adenoma (solid, trabecular and tubular subtypes) very rarely, if ever, recur.

Conclusions: A correct histopathological diagnosis of these tumours is necessary due to (1) preventing confusion with malignant salivary gland tumours; (2) only one (pleomorphic adenoma) has a considerable risk for malignant transformation, but all four histological types of basal cell adenoma can occasionally develop into malignancy, as does Warthin tumour; (3) sialadenoma papilliferum, oncocytoma, canalicular adenoma, myoepithelioma and Warthin tumour only occasionally recur; while (4) intraductal and inverted papilloma, lymphadenoma, sebaceous adenoma, cystadenoma, basal cell adenoma (apart from the membranous type) virtually never recur. No biomarker was found to be relevant for predicting recurrence or potential malignant development. Guidelines for appropriate treatment strategies are given.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12325-019-01007-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6822986PMC
August 2019

NCOA4-RET and TRIM27-RET Are Characteristic Gene Fusions in Salivary Intraductal Carcinoma, Including Invasive and Metastatic Tumors: Is "Intraductal" Correct?

Am J Surg Pathol 2019 10;43(10):1303-1313

Institute of Biomedicine, Pathology, University of Turku, and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.

Intraductal carcinoma (IC) is the new WHO designation for tumors previously encompassed by "low-grade cribriform cystadenocarcinoma" and "low-grade salivary duct carcinoma." The relationship of IC to salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) is controversial, even though they are considered to be distinct entities. IC is a rare low-grade malignant salivary gland neoplasm with histopathological features reminiscent of atypical ductal hyperplasia or ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast, showing diffuse S100 protein and mammaglobin positivity, while it is partially defined genetically. Recently, RET rearrangements including NCOA4-RET and TRIM27-RET have been described in IC. Here, we genetically characterize the largest cohort of IC to date (33 cases) including 8 cases with focal or widespread invasive growth and 1 case with lymph node metastasis. Thirty-three cases of IC were analyzed by next-generation sequencing (NGS) using the FusionPlex Solid Tumor kit (ArcherDX). Identified gene fusions were confirmed using fluorescence in situ hybridization break-apart and fusion probes and an reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction designed specifically for the detected breakpoints. Ten cases of SDC were analyzed for comparison using NGS panels that detect mutations and fusion transcripts. NGS analysis detected an NCOA4-RET fusion transcript in 11 cases of intercalated duct-type IC joining exon 7 or 8 of NCOA4 gene and exon 12 of the RET gene. Eight cases of IC had an invasive growth pattern, including one with widespread invasion and lymph node metastasis. Three invasive ICs harbored an NCOA4-RET fusion transcript, while 1 case was negative, and 2 cases were not analyzable. In addition, a novel TRIM27-RET fusion transcript between exon 3 of TRIM27 and exon 12 of RET was identified in 2 cases of IC with apocrine features, and one of them displayed invasive growth. Two IC cases with invasive growth harbored novel fusions TUT1-ETV5 and KIAA1217-RET, respectively. A total of 42.4% of the cases in this series of IC harbored fusions involving RET. Such fusion transcripts were not detected in any of the 10 SDC cases. We have confirmed NCOA4-RET as a predominant fusion in intercalated duct-type IC, including 3 cases with invasive growth pattern. A novel finding in our series was a case of widely invasive intercalated duct-type IC, with a single lymph node metastasis that revealed an NCOA4-RET fusion transcript. We also demonstrated that a subset of apocrine ICs harbored a TRIM27-RET gene fusion, including one case with invasive growth. In contrast, neither NCOA4-RET nor TRIM27-RET fusions were detected in any tested SDCs. Thus, the distinct molecular findings in IC and SDC support that the tumors are separate malignant salivary tumor entities. The presence of tumor-type-specific NCOA4-RET or TRIM27-RET translocations in a subset of widely invasive carcinomas with intercalated duct-like immunoprofiles suggests that a recharacterization of IC including its redesignation as "intercalated duct carcinoma, invasive or noninvasive" may be appropriate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAS.0000000000001301DOI Listing
October 2019

Nuclear NR4A3 Immunostaining Is a Specific and Sensitive Novel Marker for Acinic Cell Carcinoma of the Salivary Glands.

Am J Surg Pathol 2019 09;43(9):1264-1272

Institute of Pathology.

Recently, we discovered the recurrent genomic rearrangement [t(4;9)(q13;q31)] enabling upregulation of the transcription factor Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 4 Group A Member 3 (NR4A3) through enhancer hijacking as the oncogenic driver event in acinic cell carcinoma (AciCC) of the salivary glands. In the current study, we evaluated the usefulness of NR4A3 immunostaining and NR4A3 fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in the differential diagnosis of AciCC, comparing a total of 64 AciCCs including 17% cases with high-grade transformation, 29 secretory (mammary analog) carcinomas (MASC), and 70 other salivary gland carcinomas. Nuclear NR4A3 immunostaining was a highly specific (100%) and sensitive (98%) marker for AciCC with only 1 negative case, whereas NR4A3 FISH was less sensitive (84%). None of the MASCs or other salivary gland carcinomas displayed any nuclear NR4A3 immunostaining. The recently described HTN3-MSANTD3 gene fusion was observed in 4 of 49 (8%) evaluable AciCCs, all with nuclear NR4A3 immunostaining. In summary, NR4A3 immunostaining is a highly specific and sensitive marker for AciCC, which may be especially valuable in cases with high-grade transformation and in "zymogen granule"-poor examples within the differential diagnostic spectrum of AciCC and MASC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAS.0000000000001279DOI Listing
September 2019

Well-differentiated Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Larynx: Confusion of Terminology and Uncertainty of Early Studies.

Adv Anat Pathol 2019 Jul;26(4):246-250

Coordinator of the International Head and Neck Scientific Group, Padua, Italy.

Well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma (also known as "carcinoid") of the larynx is an exceedingly rare tumor that has an epithelial origin. These tumors are malignant and have a low, but definite, risk of metastasis. Although it can be challenging, this tumor should be differentiated from moderately differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma (also known as "atypical carcinoid"). The clinical and pathologic features of this tumor, as well as treatment and prognosis, are reviewed in detail.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAP.0000000000000236DOI Listing
July 2019

Cytopathological features of secretory carcinoma of salivary glands and ancillary techniques in its diagnostics: impact of new Milan system for reporting salivary gland cytopathology.

APMIS 2019 Jul 24;127(7):491-502. Epub 2019 May 24.

Department of Pathology, Fimlab Laboratories, Tampere, Finland.

Secretory carcinoma (SC) of salivary glands is a newly described low-grade malignancy characterized by the presence of ETV6 rearrangement. Only a few cases and very small series with cytomorphology were reported so far. Six cases of fine-needle aspirations (FNAs) from afterward histologically, immunohistochemically and genetically confirmed SCs were retrieved from the archives of the authors. Ancillary immunocytochemistry (ICC) and translocation detection were performed on cell blocks (CBs). All aspirates were sufficiently cellular and cells were arranged in more or less cohesive groups with only mild nuclear polymorphism. The cytoplasm was eosinophilic, granulated and vacuolated, especially in CBs. Secretory material within the microcystic spaces was periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) positive. Triple positivity of immunomarkers S-100 protein, mammaglobin and vimentin was present. The proliferation index was low. Ancillary techniques suggested the possibility of SC in a few cytology cases; nevertheless, the final diagnosis was based on histomorphology, immunohistochemistry and genetics. The SC of salivary glands is detectable pre-operatively using ICC and genetics. The presence of the diagnostic ETV6 rearrangement increases the accuracy of FNA to the maximum. According to the Milan system, cases genetically not confirmed should be categorized as Suspicious for Malignancy or Salivary Gland Neoplasm of Uncertain Malignant Potential (SUMP), both requiring surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apm.12950DOI Listing
July 2019