Publications by authors named "Alena Cerníková"

4 Publications

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Early medieval diet in childhood and adulthood and its reflection in the dental health of a Central European population (Mikulčice, 9-10 centuries, Czech Republic).

Arch Oral Biol 2019 Nov 14;107:104526. Epub 2019 Aug 14.

Department of Anthropology, National Museum, Václavské náměstí 68, 110 00 Praha 1, Czech Republic. Electronic address:

Objectives: The aim of this study is to provide a detailed view of dental health in relationship to the diet of the Great Moravian population, with emphasis on childhood diet.

Design: We studied skeletal samples of the early medieval population of the Mikulčice agglomeration (Czech Republic) originating from the cemetery of the church VI (91 adults). Stable isotope analysis of carbon and nitrogen (intra-individual sampling - tooth and bone) was performed on this material, and dental characteristics (carious lesions, intensity of caries (I-CE), dental wear, linear enamel hypoplasia) evaluated.

Results: Isotopic signals obtained from tooth and bone samples of the same individuals differ significantly. Tooth samples show higher δC and lower δN than bone samples. δN in tooth and bone samples is related to socio-economic status. We discovered a relationship between isotopic signals from tooth or bone and intensity of caries and dental wear.

Conclusion: We provide the first direct information about the diet of the juvenile part of the Great Moravian population from Mikulčice. The diet of children differed from the diet of adults. Children consumed more millet and less animal protein than adults. The social stratification of this population was obvious in dietary composition from childhood. Elites consumed more animal proteins than non-elite individuals. Tooth decay was related to relative consumption of plant and animal proteins. Greater dental wear is related to a diet based on C3 plants. There was no significant connection between diet composition and the formation of enamel hypoplasia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.archoralbio.2019.104526DOI Listing
November 2019

Reactions of green lizards (Lacerta viridis) to major repellent compounds secreted by Graphosoma lineatum (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae).

Zoology (Jena) 2015 Jun 24;118(3):176-82. Epub 2015 Mar 24.

Institute of Applied Mathematics and Information Technologies, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Albertov 6, 128 43 Prague, Czech Republic.

The chemical defence of Heteroptera is primarily based on repellent secretions which signal the potential toxicity of the bug to its predators. We tested the aversive reactions of green lizards (Lacerta viridis) towards the major compounds of the defensive secretion of Graphosoma lineatum, specifically: (i) a mixture of three aldehydes: (E)-hex-2-enal, (E)-oct-2-enal, (E)-dec-2-enal; (ii) a mixture of these three aldehydes and tridecane; (iii) oxoaldehyde: (E)-4-oxohex-2-enal; (iv) secretion extracted from metathoracic scent glands of G. lineatum adults and (v) hexane as a non-polar solvent. All chemicals were presented on a palatable food (Tenebrio molitor larvae). The aversive reactions of the green lizards towards the mealworms were evaluated by observing the approach latencies, attack latencies and approach-attack intervals. The green lizards exhibited a strong aversive reaction to the mixture of three aldehydes. Tridecane reduced the aversive reaction to the aldehyde mixture. Oxoaldehyde caused the weakest, but still significant, aversive reaction. The secretion from whole metathoracic scent glands also clearly had an aversive effect on the green lizards. Moreover, when a living specimen of G. lineatum or Pyrrhocoris apterus (another aposematic red-and-black prey) was presented to the green lizards before the trials with the aldehyde mixture, the aversive effect of the mixture was enhanced. In conclusion, the mixture of three aldehydes had the strong aversive effect and could signal the potential toxicity of G. lineatum to the green lizards.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.zool.2015.02.001DOI Listing
June 2015

Influence of Trichobilharzia regenti (Digenea: Schistosomatidae) on the defence activity of Radix lagotis (Lymnaeidae) Haemocytes.

PLoS One 2014 5;9(11):e111696. Epub 2014 Nov 5.

Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Science, Department of Parasitology, Prague, Czech Republic.

Radix lagotis is an intermediate snail host of the nasal bird schistosome Trichobilharzia regenti. Changes in defence responses in infected snails that might be related to host-parasite compatibility are not known. This study therefore aimed to characterize R. lagotis haemocyte defence mechanisms and determine the extent to which they are modulated by T. regenti. Histological observations of R. lagotis infected with T. regenti revealed that early phases of infection were accompanied by haemocyte accumulation around the developing larvae 2-36 h post exposure (p.e.) to the parasite. At later time points, 44-92 h p.e., no haemocytes were observed around T. regenti. Additionally, microtubular aggregates likely corresponding to phagocytosed ciliary plates of T. regenti miracidia were observed within haemocytes by use of transmission electron microscopy. When the infection was in the patent phase, haemocyte phagocytic activity and hydrogen peroxide production were significantly reduced in infected R. lagotis when compared to uninfected counterparts, whereas haemocyte abundance increased in infected snails. At a molecular level, protein kinase C (PKC) and extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) were found to play an important role in regulating these defence reactions in R. lagotis. Moreover, haemocytes from snails with patent infection displayed lower PKC and ERK activity in cell adhesion assays when compared to those from uninfected snails, which may therefore be related to the reduced defence activities of these cells. These data provide the first integrated insight into the immunobiology of R. lagotis and demonstrate modulation of haemocyte-mediated responses in patent T. regenti infected snails. Given that immunomodulation occurs during patency, interference of snail-host defence by T. regenti might be important for the sustained production and/or release of infective cercariae.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0111696PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4221104PMC
June 2015

Urban-rural differences in stature in the population of medieval Bohemia.

Anthropol Anz 2013 ;70(1):43-55

Department of Anthropology and Human Genetics, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.

This study explores differences in stature and their diachronic trends between the urban and rural medieval populations of Bohemia. We estimated stature from the lengths of the long bones of subjects living in Prague (urban) and rural areas of present Czech territory. Our results indicate the absence of significant urban/rural differences in stature in the population living between the 11th and 14th century. For both sexes, the temporal variations in stature in this period show a statistically non-significant decrease in the rural, and increase in the urban, population samples. These findings suggest a uniformity of living conditions in the medieval population in this area of Central Europe. Economic factors causative for urban versus rural stature differences appear later in the Modern Age, probably in relation to industrialization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1127/0003-5548/2012/0276DOI Listing
June 2013