Publications by authors named "Alemnew F Dagnew"

15 Publications

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Adjuvanted recombinant zoster vaccine in adult autologous stem cell transplant recipients: polyfunctional immune responses and lessons for clinical practice.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2021 Aug 18:1-11. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

GSK, Wavre, Belgium.

Immunocompromised individuals, particularly autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant (auHSCT) recipients, are at high risk for herpes zoster (HZ). We provide an in-depth description of humoral and cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses by age (protocol-defined) or underlying disease (post-hoc) as well as efficacy by underlying disease (post-hoc) of the adjuvanted recombinant zoster vaccine (RZV) in a randomized observer-blind phase III trial (ZOE-HSCT, NCT01610414). 1846 adult auHSCT recipients were randomized to receive a first dose of either RZV or placebo 50-70 days post-auHSCT, followed by the second dose at 1-2 months (M) later. In cohorts of 114-1721 participants, at 1 M post-second vaccine dose: Anti-gE antibody geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) and median gE-specific CD4[2+] T-cell frequencies (CD4 T cells expressing ≥2 of four assessed activation markers) were similar between 18-49 and ≥50-year-olds. Despite lower anti-gE antibody GMCs in non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphoma (NHBCL) patients, CD4[2+] T-cell frequencies were similar between NHBCL and other underlying diseases. The proportion of polyfunctional CD4 T cells increased over time, accounting for 79.6% of gE-specific CD4 T cells at 24 M post-dose two. Vaccine efficacy against HZ ranged between 42.5% and 82.5% across underlying diseases and was statistically significant in NHBCL and multiple myeloma patients. In conclusion, two RZV doses administered early post-auHSCT induced robust, persistent, and polyfunctional gE-specific immune responses. Efficacy against HZ was also high in NHBCL patients despite the lower humoral response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2021.1953346DOI Listing
August 2021

Immune responses to the adjuvanted recombinant zoster vaccine in immunocompromised adults: a comprehensive overview.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2021 Jun 30:1-12. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

GSK, Rockville, MD, USA.

Immunocompromised (IC) persons are at increased risk for herpes zoster (HZ) and its complications, mainly due to impairment of cell-mediated immunity (CMI). The adjuvanted recombinant zoster vaccine (RZV) demonstrated efficacy against HZ in autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant (auto-HSCT) recipients and hematologic malignancy (HM) patients. We review immune responses to RZV in 5 adult IC populations, 4 of which were receiving multiple, concomitant immunosuppressive medications: auto-HSCT and renal transplant recipients, HM and solid tumor patients, and human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults. Although administered in most cases when immunosuppression was near its maximum, including concomitantly with chemotherapy cycles, RZV induced robust and persistent humoral and, more importantly, CMI responses in all 5 IC populations. Based on the overall clinical data generated in older adults and IC individuals, RZV is expected to provide benefit in a broad adult population at risk for HZ.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2021.1930846DOI Listing
June 2021

Safety Profile of the Adjuvanted Recombinant Zoster Vaccine in Immunocompromised Populations: An Overview of Six Trials.

Drug Saf 2021 Jul 11;44(7):811-823. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

GSK, Avenue Fleming 20, 1300, Wavre, Belgium.

Introduction: The adjuvanted recombinant zoster vaccine (RZV) has demonstrated high efficacy against herpes zoster in older adults and immunocompromised populations. We present comprehensive safety data from six clinical trials in immunocompromised populations (autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant and renal transplant recipients, patients with hematologic malignancies, patients with solid tumors, and human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults) who are at an increased risk of herpes zoster.

Methods: In all trials, immunocompromised adults ≥ 18 years of age were administered RZV or placebo. Safety was evaluated in the total vaccinated cohort. Solicited adverse events (AEs) were collected for 7 days and unsolicited AEs for 30 days after each dose. Serious AEs, fatal serious AEs, and potential immune-mediated diseases were collected from dose 1 until 12 months post-last dose or study end. Data were pooled for solicited AEs; unsolicited AEs, (fatal) serious AEs, and potential immune-mediated diseases were analyzed for each individual trial. All AEs were analyzed for sub-strata of adults 18-49 years of age and ≥ 50 years of age.

Results: In total, 1587 (RZV) and 1529 (placebo) adults were included in the pooled total vaccinated cohort. Solicited AEs were more common after RZV than placebo, were generally more common in the younger age stratum, and were mostly mild to moderate and resolved within 3 days (median duration). Unsolicited AEs and serious AEs were in line with underlying diseases and therapies. Across studies, the percentage of adults reporting one or more unsolicited AE was comparable between RZV and placebo, irrespective of age stratum. The percentage of adults reporting one or more serious AE, fatal serious AE, or potential immune-mediated diseases was generally similar for RZV and placebo, irrespective of age stratum. Overall, no safety concerns were identified.

Conclusions: Recombinant zoster vaccine has a clinically acceptable safety profile. With the previously published vaccine efficacy and immunogenicity results, these data support a favorable benefit-risk profile of RZV vaccination in immunocompromised populations who are at an increased risk of herpes zoster.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40264-021-01076-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8217041PMC
July 2021

Efficacy and serious adverse events profile of the adjuvanted recombinant zoster vaccine in adults with pre-existing potential immune-mediated diseases: a pooled post hoc analysis on two parallel randomized trials.

Rheumatology (Oxford) 2021 03;60(3):1226-1233

GSK, Rockville, MD, USA.

Abstract Objective: In the ZOE-50 (NCT01165177) and ZOE-70 (NCT01165229) phase 3 clinical trials, the adjuvanted recombinant zoster vaccine (RZV) demonstrated ≥90% efficacy in preventing herpes zoster (HZ) in all age groups ≥50 years. Given the increased HZ risk associated with certain underlying autoimmune diseases or their treatment regimes, we conducted a post hoc analysis of RZV's efficacy against HZ and safety profile [specifically, the occurrence of serious adverse events (SAEs)] in ZOE-50/70 participants who reported pre-existing potential immune-mediated diseases (pIMDs) at enrolment and were not on immunosuppressive therapies.

Methods: Adults aged ≥50 (ZOE-50) and ≥70 (ZOE-70) years were randomized to receive two doses of RZV or placebo 2 months apart. In this subgroup analysis of participants with at least one pIMD at enrolment, the efficacy was calculated for two-dose recipients who did not develop confirmed HZ before 30 days post-dose 2. SAE occurrence was evaluated for all participants who received at least one dose.

Results: Of the 14 645 RZV and 14 660 placebo recipients from the ZOE-50/70 studies, 983 and 960, respectively, reported at least one pre-existing pIMD at enrolment and were included in these analyses. The most frequent pre-existing conditions were psoriasis, spondyloarthropathy and RA. Efficacy against HZ was 90.5% (95% CI: 73.5, 97.5%) overall with the lowest being 84.4% (95% CI: 30.8, 98.3%) in the 70-79-year-old age group. SAEs and fatal SAEs were similar between RZV and placebo recipients.

Conclusion: In ZOE-50/70 participants with pre-existing pIMDs, RZV was highly efficacious against HZ and SAE incidence was similar between RZV and placebo recipients.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, https://clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01165177 (ZOE-50), NCT01165229 (ZOE-70).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/keaa424DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7937016PMC
March 2021

The Adjuvanted Recombinant Zoster Vaccine in Adults Aged ≥65 Years Previously Vaccinated With a Live-Attenuated Herpes Zoster Vaccine.

J Infect Dis 2020 Feb 27. Epub 2020 Feb 27.

GSK, Rockville, Maryland, United States.

Background: Efficacy of the live-attenuated herpes zoster (HZ) vaccine (ZVL) wanes substantially over time. We evaluated immunogenicity and safety of the adjuvanted recombinant zoster vaccine (RZV) in previous ZVL recipients.

Methods: Adults aged ≥65 years previously vaccinated with ZVL ≥5 years before (HZ-PreVac, N=215) were group-matched with ZVL-naïve individuals (HZ-NonVac, N=215) and vaccinated with RZV. Glycoprotein E (gE)-specific humoral and cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses and the correlation between them, polyfunctional gE-specific CD4 T-cell responses, safety, and confirmed HZ cases were assessed.

Results: Through 12 months post-dose 2, anti-gE antibody concentrations, gE-specific CD4 T-cell frequencies and activation marker profiles were similar between groups. Safety outcomes were also similar. No HZ episodes were confirmed.

Conclusions: RZV induced strong humoral and polyfunctional CMI responses that persisted above pre-vaccination levels through 1 year post-dose 2 in adults aged ≥65 years irrespective of previous ZVL vaccination. RZV's safety profile was not impacted either.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiaa083DOI Listing
February 2020

Immunogenicity and safety of the adjuvanted recombinant zoster vaccine in adults with haematological malignancies: a phase 3, randomised, clinical trial and post-hoc efficacy analysis.

Lancet Infect Dis 2019 09 6;19(9):988-1000. Epub 2019 Aug 6.

CureVac, Tübingen, Germany.

Background: The adjuvanted recombinant zoster vaccine (Shingrix) can prevent herpes zoster in older adults and autologous haemopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. We evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of this vaccine in adults with haematological malignancies receiving immunosuppressive cancer treatments.

Methods: In this phase 3, randomised, observer-blind, placebo-controlled study, done at 77 centres worldwide, we randomly assigned (1:1) patients with haematological malignancies aged 18 years and older to receive two doses of the adjuvanted recombinant zoster vaccine or placebo 1-2 months apart during or after immunosuppressive cancer treatments, and stratified participants according to their underlying diseases. The co-primary objectives of the study were the evaluation of safety and reactogenicity of the adjuvanted recombinant zoster vaccine compared with placebo from the first vaccination up to 30 days after last vaccination in all participants; evaluation of the proportion of participants with a vaccine response in terms of anti-glycoprotein E humoral immune response to the adjuvanted recombinant zoster vaccine at month 2 in all participants, excluding those with non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia; and evaluation of the anti-glycoprotein E humoral immune responses to the vaccine compared with placebo at month 2 in all participants, excluding those with non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. We assessed immunogenicity in the per-protocol cohort for immunogenicity and safety in the total vaccinated cohort. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01767467, and with the EU Clinical Trials Register, number 2012-003438-18.

Findings: Between March 1, 2013, and Sept 10, 2015, we randomly assigned 286 participants to adjuvanted recombinant zoster vaccine and 283 to placebo. 283 in the vaccine group and 279 in the placebo group were vaccinated. At month 2, 119 (80·4%, 95% CI 73·1-86·5) of 148 participants had a humoral vaccine response to adjuvanted recombinant zoster vaccine, compared with one (0·8%, 0·0-4·2) of 130 participants in the placebo group, and the adjusted geometric mean anti-glycoprotein E antibody concentration was 23 132·9 mIU/mL (95% CI 16 642·8-32 153·9) in the vaccine group and 777·6 mIU/mL (702·8-860·3) in the placebo group (adjusted geometric mean ratio 29·75, 21·09-41·96; p<0·0001) in all patients, excluding those with non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Humoral and cell-mediated immune responses persisted above baseline until month 13 in all strata and, as expected, vaccine was more reactogenic than placebo (within 7 days after vaccination pain was reported by 221 [79·5%] of 278 vaccine group participants and 45 [16·4%] of 274 placebo group participants; fatigue was reported by 162 [58·3%] of 278 vaccine group participants and 102 [37·2%] of 274 placebo group participants). Incidences of unsolicited or serious adverse events, potential immune-mediated diseases, disease-related events, and fatal serious adverse events were similar between the groups.

Interpretation: The immunocompromised adult population with haematological malignancies is at high risk for herpes zoster. The adjuvanted recombinant zoster vaccine, which is currently licensed in certain countries for adults aged 50 years and older, is likely to benefit this population.

Funding: GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals SA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(19)30163-XDOI Listing
September 2019

Medical conditions at enrollment do not impact efficacy and safety of the adjuvanted recombinant zoster vaccine: a pooled post-hoc analysis of two parallel randomized trials.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2019 28;15(12):2865-2872. Epub 2019 Jun 28.

The Westmead Institute for Medical Research, Westmead, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

In two pivotal efficacy studies (ZOE-50; ZOE-70), the adjuvanted recombinant zoster vaccine (RZV) demonstrated >90% efficacy against herpes zoster (HZ).Adults aged ≥50 or ≥70 years (ZOE-50 [NCT01165177]; ZOE-70 [NCT01165229]) were randomized to receive 2 doses of RZV or placebo 2 months apart. Vaccine efficacy and safety were evaluated post-hoc in the pooled (ZOE-50/70) population according to the number and type of selected medical conditions present at enrollment.At enrollment, 82.3% of RZV and 82.7% of placebo recipients reported ≥1 of the 15 selected medical conditions. Efficacy against HZ ranged from 84.5% (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 46.4-97.1) in participants with respiratory disorders to 97.0% (95%CI: 82.3-99.9) in those with coronary heart disease. Moreover, efficacy remained >90% irrespective of the number of selected medical conditions reported by a participant.As indicated by the similarity of the point estimates, this post-hoc analysis suggests that RZV efficacy remains high in all selected medical conditions, as well as with increasing number of medical conditions. No safety concern was identified by the type or number of medical conditions present at enrollment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2019.1627818DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6930113PMC
May 2020

A phase I, open-label trial on the safety and immunogenicity of the adjuvanted tuberculosis subunit vaccine H1/IC31® in people living in a TB-endemic area.

Trials 2018 Jan 10;19(1):24. Epub 2018 Jan 10.

Armauer Hansen Research Institute (AHRI), Jimma Road, PO Box 1005, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Background: H1/IC31® is a tuberculosis (TB) subunit vaccine candidate consisting of the fusion protein of Ag85B and ESAT-6 (H1) formulated with the IC31® adjuvant. Previous trials have reported on the H1/IC31® vaccine in M. tuberculosis (Mtb)-naïve, BCG-vaccinated and previously Mtb-infected individuals. In this trial, conducted between December 2008 and April 2010, the safety and immunogenicity of H1/IC31® was assessed in participants living in Ethiopia - a highly TB-endemic area.

Methods: Healthy male participants aged 18-25 years were recruited into four groups. Participants in group 1 (N = 12) and group 2 (N = 12) were Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) negative and QuantiFERON-TB Gold in-tube test (QFT) negative (Mtb-naïve groups), participants in group 3 (N = 3) were TST positive and QFT negative (BCG group), and participants in group 4 (N = 12) were both TST and QFT positive (Mtb-infected group). H1 vaccine alone (group 1) or H1 formulated with the adjuvant IC31® (groups 2, 3 and 4) was administered intramuscularly on day 0 and day 56. Safety and immunogenicity parameters were evaluated for up to 32 weeks after day 0.

Results: The H1/IC31®vaccine was safe and generally well tolerated. There was little difference among the four groups, with a tendency towards a higher incidence of adverse events in Mtb-infected compared to Mtb-naïve participants. Two serious adverse events were reported in the Mtb-infected group where a relationship to the vaccine could not be excluded. In both cases the participants recovered without sequelae within 72 h. Immunogenicity assays, evaluated in the 29 participants who received both vaccinations, showed a stronger response to TB antigens in the Mtb-naïve group vaccinated with the adjuvant.

Conclusion: The trial confirmed the need for an adjuvant for the vaccine to be immunogenic and highlighted the importance of early phase testing of a novel TB vaccine candidate in TB-endemic areas.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT01049282. Retrospectively registered on 14 January 2010.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-017-2354-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5764015PMC
January 2018

Non-inferiority of mammalian cell-derived quadrivalent subunit influenza virus vaccines compared to trivalent subunit influenza virus vaccines in healthy children: a phase III randomized, multicenter, double-blind clinical trial.

Int J Infect Dis 2015 Dec 14;41:65-72. Epub 2015 Nov 14.

Novartis Pharmaceuticals Canada Inc., 385 Bouchard Blvd, Dorval, Quebec, H9S 1A9, Canada. Electronic address:

Objectives: The safety and immunogenicity of mammalian cell-derived quadrivalent influenza vaccine (QIVc) as compared with trivalent influenza vaccines (TIV1c/TIV2c) was evaluated in children aged ≥4 to <18 years.

Methods: Two thousand three hundred and thirty-three subjects were randomized 2:1:1 to receive either one or two doses of study vaccine depending on previous vaccination status. Hemagglutination inhibition antibody responses for all four influenza strains were performed 3 weeks after the last dose. Reactogenicity and safety were also assessed (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01992107).

Results: QIVc met the non-inferiority criteria against all four vaccine strains and demonstrated superiority for both influenza B strains over the unmatched B lineage included in the comparator vaccines, when geometric mean titers and seroconversion rates were compared at 3 weeks after the last vaccination. Similar percentages of subjects experienced solicited and unsolicited adverse events (AEs) across all subgroups. Unsolicited AEs, serious AEs, medically attended AEs, and new onset chronic disease were reported in comparable percentages of subjects in all study groups. No vaccine-related serious AEs or deaths occurred.

Conclusions: QIVc demonstrated a similar safety profile and immunogenicity responses against all four vaccine strains without signs of immune interference on addition of an alternate lineage B strain compared with TIV1c/TIV2c and may provide broader protection against both influenza B lineages in children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2015.11.004DOI Listing
December 2015

Immunogenicity and safety of concomitant administration of a combined hepatitis A/B vaccine and a quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine in healthy adults.

J Travel Med 2015 Mar-Apr;22(2):105-14. Epub 2014 Dec 7.

Department of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, University of Munich, Munich, Germany.

Background: This phase 3b randomized, open-label study evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of coadministration of a hepatitis A and/or B vaccine with a quadrivalent oligosaccharide meningococcal CRM197 -conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-CRM), in the context of an accelerated hepatitis A and/or B immunization schedule.

Methods: A total of 252 healthy adult subjects were randomized to three groups to receive hepatitis A/B only (HepA/B), hepatitis A/B coadministered with MenACWY-CRM (HepA/B+MenACWY-CRM), or MenACWY-CRM only (MenACWY-CRM). Hepatitis A and/or B vaccination was administered in the form of a single booster dose or a primary three-dose series, depending on the hepatitis A and/or B vaccination history of subjects. Antibody responses to hepatitis A/B vaccination were assessed 1 month following the last hepatitis A and/or B dose. Serum bactericidal activity with human complement (hSBA) against meningococcal serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y was assessed 1 month post-MenACWY-CRM vaccination. Safety was monitored throughout the study.

Results: At 1 month following the final hepatitis A and/or B vaccination, concomitant administration of hepatitis A/B and MenACWY-CRM was non-inferior to administration of hepatitis A/B alone in terms of geometric mean concentrations of antibodies against the hepatitis A and B antigens. One month post-MenACWY-CRM vaccination, the percentages of subjects achieving hSBA titers ≥8 for serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y in the HepA/B+MenACWY-CRM group (76, 87, 99, and 94%, respectively) were comparable to those in the MenACWY-CRM group (67, 82, 96, and 88%, respectively). The percentages of subjects reporting adverse events (AEs) were similar across study groups and a majority of the reported AEs were mild to moderate in nature. There were no study vaccine-related serious AEs.

Conclusions: MenACWY-CRM can be administered concomitantly with a hepatitis A and/or B vaccine in the context of an accelerated hepatitis A and/or B immunization schedule without increasing safety concerns or compromising the immune responses to any of the vaccine antigens. [NCT01453348].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jtm.12180DOI Listing
November 2015

Immunogenicity and safety of a novel quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-CRM) in healthy Korean adolescents and adults.

Int J Infect Dis 2014 Nov 12;28:204-10. Epub 2014 Oct 12.

Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.

Objectives: This phase III placebo-controlled study evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of MenACWY-CRM vaccination in healthy Korean adolescents and adults.

Methods: Serum bactericidal activity with human complement (hSBA) was measured before and 1 month after vaccination against all four meningococcal serogroups. The IgG concentration specific for serogroup W capsular polysaccharide was measured in a subset of subjects in a post-hoc analysis. Adverse reactions were monitored throughout the study.

Results: Four hundred and fifty subjects were randomized 2:1 to receive MenACWY-CRM (N=297) or a saline placebo (N=153). MenACWY-CRM induced a good immune response against all four serogroups, with seroprotection rates (hSBA titers ≥8) of 79%, 99%, 98%, and 94% for serogroups A, C, W, and Y, respectively. Seroresponse rates were high for serogroups A, C, and Y, i.e. 76%, 86%, and 69%, respectively; the rate for serogroup W was 28%. MenACWY-CRM vaccine induced serum bactericidal antibodies against all four serogroups in a majority of subjects regardless of their baseline hSBA titers. MenACWY-CRM was generally well tolerated with most reactions being transient and mild to moderate in severity.

Conclusions: Findings of this first study of a quadrivalent meningococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccine in Korean adults and adolescents demonstrated that a single dose of MenACWY-CRM was well tolerated and immunogenic, as indicated by the percentages of subjects with hSBA titers ≥8 (79%, 99%, 98%, and 94% of subjects) and geometric mean titers (48, 231, 147, and 107) against serogroups A, C, W, and Y, respectively, at 1 month post-vaccination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2014.06.008DOI Listing
November 2014

Safety and immunogenicity of typhoid fever and yellow fever vaccines when administered concomitantly with quadrivalent meningococcal ACWY glycoconjugate vaccine in healthy adults.

J Travel Med 2015 Jan-Feb;22(1):48-56. Epub 2014 Oct 13.

Department of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, University of Munich, Munich, Germany.

Background: Compact and short pre-travel immunization schedules, which include several vaccinations in a single visit, are desirable for many travelers. However, concomitant vaccination could potentially compromise immunogenicity and/or safety of the individual vaccines and, therefore, possible vaccine interferences should be carefully assessed. This article discusses the immunogenicity and safety of travel vaccines for typhoid fever (TF) and yellow fever (YF), when administered with or without a quadrivalent meningococcal glycoconjugate ACWY-CRM vaccine (MenACWY-CRM).

Methods: Healthy adults (18-≤60 years) were randomized to one of three vaccine regimens: TF + YF + MenACWY-CRM (group I; n = 100), TF + YF (group II; n = 101), or MenACWY-CRM (group III; n = 100). Immunogenicity at baseline and 4 weeks post-vaccination (day 29) was assessed by serum bactericidal assay using human complement (hSBA), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), or a neutralization test. Adverse events (AEs) and serious adverse events (SAEs) were collected throughout the study period.

Results: Non-inferiority of post-vaccination geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) and geometric mean titers (GMTs) was established for TF and YF vaccines, respectively, when given concomitantly with MenACWY-CRM vaccine versus when given alone. The percentages of subjects with seroprotective neutralizing titers against YF on day 29 were similar in groups I and II. The antibody responses to meningococcal serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y were within the same range when MenACWY-CRM was given separately or together with TF and YF vaccines. The percentage of subjects reporting AEs was the same for TF and YF vaccines with or without MenACWY-CRM vaccine. There were no reports of SAEs or AEs leading to study withdrawals.

Conclusions: These data provide evidence that MenACWY-CRM can be administered with typhoid Vi polysaccharide vaccine and live attenuated YF vaccine without compromising antibody responses stimulated by the individual vaccines. MenACWY-CRM can, therefore, be incorporated into travelers' vaccination programs without necessitating an additional clinic visit (NCT01466387).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jtm.12164DOI Listing
September 2015

Co-administration of a meningococcal glycoconjugate ACWY vaccine with travel vaccines: a randomized, open-label, multi-center study.

Travel Med Infect Dis 2014 Sep-Oct;12(5):485-93. Epub 2014 May 9.

Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics, Inc., Cambridge, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Potential interactions between vaccines may compromise the immunogenicity and/or safety of individual vaccines so must be assessed before concomitant administration is recommended. In this study, the immunogenicity and safety of travel vaccines against Japanese encephalitis (JEV) and rabies (PCECV) administered together with or without a quadrivalent meningococcal glycoconjugate ACWY-CRM vaccine were evaluated (NCT01466387).

Method: Healthy adults aged 18 to ≤60 years were randomized to one of four vaccine regimens: JEV + PCECV + MenACWY-CRM, JEV + PCECV, PCECV or MenACWY-CRM. Immunogenicity at baseline and 28 days post-complete vaccination was assessed by serum bactericidal assay using human complement or neutralization tests. Adverse events (AEs) were collected throughout the study period.

Results: JEV + PCECV + MenACWY-CRM was non-inferior to JEV + PCECV. Post-vaccination seroprotective neutralizing titers or concentrations were achieved in 98-99% (JE) and 100% (rabies) of subjects across the vaccine groups. Antibody responses to vaccine meningococcal serogroups were in the same range for MenACWY-CRM and JEV + PCECV + MenACWY-CRM. Rates of reporting of AEs were similar for JEV + PCECV and JEV + PCECV + MenACWY-CRM.

Conclusions: MenACWY-CRM was administered with an inactivated adjuvanted JE and a purified chick embryo cell-culture rabies vaccine without compromising immunogenicity or safety of the individual vaccines. These data provide evidence that MenACWY-CRM could be effectively incorporated into travel vaccination programs.

Trial Number: NCT01466387.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tmaid.2014.04.011DOI Listing
March 2015

Diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection in healthy young adults in a country with high tuberculosis burden and BCG vaccination at birth.

BMC Res Notes 2012 Aug 7;5:415. Epub 2012 Aug 7.

Armauer Hansen Research Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Background: One third of the world's population is thought to have latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) with the potential for subsequent reactivation of disease. To better characterize this important population, studies comparing Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) and the new interferon-γ release assays including QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) have been conducted in different parts of the world, but most of these have been in countries with a low incidence of tuberculosis (TB). The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the use of QFT-GIT assay as compared with TST in the diagnosis of LTBI in Ethiopia, a country with a high burden of TB and routine BCG vaccination at birth.

Methods: Healthy medical and paramedical male students at the Faculty of Medicine, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia were enrolled into the study from December 2008 to February 2009. The TST and QFTG-IT assay were performed using standard methods.

Results: The mean age of the study participants was 20.9 years. From a total of 107 study participants, 46.7% (95%CI: 37.0% to 56.6%) had a positive TST result (TST≥10 mm), 43.9% (95%CI: 34.3% to 53.9%) had a positive QFT-GIT assay result and 44.9% (95%CI: 35.2% to 54.8%) had BCG scar. There was strong agreement between TST (TST ≥10mm) and QFT-GIT assay (Kappa = 0.83, p value = 0.000).

Conclusion: The TST and QFT-GIT assay show similar efficacy for the diagnosis of LTBI in healthy young adults residing in Ethiopia, a country with high TB incidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1756-0500-5-415DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3478185PMC
August 2012

Variation in reported neonatal group B streptococcal disease incidence in developing countries.

Clin Infect Dis 2012 Jul 20;55(1):91-102. Epub 2012 Apr 20.

Immunology and Parasitology, Department of Microbiology, College of Health Sciences, Mekelle University, Ethiopia.

Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of neonatal sepsis in developed countries. Its burden in the developing world is less clear. Studies reporting neonatal GBS disease incidence from developing countries were identified from 5 literature databases. Studies were assessed with respect to case finding and culture methods. Only 20 studies were identified. The GBS incidence ranged 0-3.06 per 1000 live births with variation within and between geographic regions. All but 1 study identified GBS cases within a hospital setting, despite the potential for births in the community. Possible case under-ascertainment was only discussed in 2 studies. A higher GBS incidence was reported when using automated culture methods. Prospective, population-based surveillance is urgently needed in developing countries to provide an accurate assessment of the neonatal GBS disease burden. This will be crucial for the design of interventions, including novel vaccines, and the understanding of their potential to impact mortality from neonatal sepsis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/cis395DOI Listing
July 2012
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