Publications by authors named "Aleksandrina Patyshakuliyeva"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Evidence for ligninolytic activity of the ascomycete fungus .

Biotechnol Biofuels 2020 16;13:75. Epub 2020 Apr 16.

1Laboratory of Food Chemistry, Wageningen University and Research, Bornse Weilanden 9, 6708 WG Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Background: The ascomycete fungus has been appreciated for its targeted carbohydrate-active enzymatic arsenal. As a late colonizer of herbivorous dung, the fungus acts specifically on the more recalcitrant fraction of lignocellulose and this lignin-rich biotope might have resulted in the evolution of ligninolytic activities. However, the lignin-degrading abilities of the fungus have not been demonstrated by chemical analyses at the molecular level and are, thus far, solely based on genome and secretome predictions. To evaluate whether might provide a novel source of lignin-active enzymes to tap into for potential biotechnological applications, we comprehensively mapped wheat straw lignin during fungal growth and characterized the fungal secretome.

Results: Quantitative C lignin internal standard py-GC-MS analysis showed substantial lignin removal during the 7 days of fungal growth (24% w/w), though carbohydrates were preferably targeted (58% w/w removal). Structural characterization of residual lignin by using py-GC-MS and HSQC NMR analyses demonstrated that C-oxidized substructures significantly increased through fungal action, while intact β--4' aryl ether linkages, -coumarate and ferulate moieties decreased, albeit to lesser extents than observed for the action of basidiomycetes. Proteomic analysis indicated that the presence of lignin induced considerable changes in the secretome of . This was particularly reflected in a strong reduction of cellulases and galactomannanases, while HO-producing enzymes clearly increased. The latter enzymes, together with laccases, were likely involved in the observed ligninolysis.

Conclusions: For the first time, we provide unambiguous evidence for the ligninolytic activity of the ascomycete fungus and expand the view on its enzymatic repertoire beyond carbohydrate degradation. Our results can be of significance for the development of biological lignin conversion technologies by contributing to the quest for novel lignin-active enzymes and organisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13068-020-01713-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7161253PMC
April 2020

Macroalgae Derived Fungi Have High Abilities to Degrade Algal Polymers.

Microorganisms 2019 Dec 26;8(1). Epub 2019 Dec 26.

Fungal Physiology, Westerdijk Fungal Biodiversity Institute & Fungal Molecular Physiology, Utrecht University, Uppsalalaan 8, 3584 CT Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Marine fungi associated with macroalgae are an ecologically important group that have a strong potential for industrial applications. In this study, twenty-two marine fungi isolated from the brown seaweed sp were examined for their abilities to produce algal and plant biomass degrading enzymes. Growth of these isolates on brown and green algal biomass revealed a good growth, but no preference for any specific algae. Based on the analysis of enzymatic activities, macroalgae derived fungi were able to produce algae specific and (hemi-)cellulose degrading enzymes both on algal and plant biomass. However, the production of algae specific activities was lower than the production of cellulases and xylanases. These data revealed the presence of different enzymatic approaches for the degradation of algal biomass by macroalgae derived fungi. In addition, the results of the present study indicate our poor understanding of the enzymes involved in algal biomass degradation and the mechanisms of algal carbon source utilization by marine derived fungi.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8010052DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7023191PMC
December 2019

Evolutionary Adaptation to Generate Mutants.

Methods Mol Biol 2018 ;1775:133-137

Centre for Structural and Functional Genomics, Department of Biology, Concordia University, Montreal, QC, Canada.

In this chapter we describe a method to generate mutants of filamentous fungi using their genomic plasticity and rapid adaptability to their environment. This method is based on spontaneous mutations occurring in relation to improved growth of fungi on media by repeated inoculation resulting in adaptation of the strain to the condition. The critical aspect of this method is the design of the selective media, which will depend strongly on the phenomenon that will be studied. This method is advantageous over UV or chemical random mutagenesis as it results in a lower frequency of undesired mutations and can result in strains that combined with (post)genomic approaches can enhance our understanding of the mechanisms driving various biological processes. In addition, it can be used to obtain better strains for various industrial applications. The method described here is specific for sporulating fungi and has so far not yet been tested for nonsporulating fungi.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-7804-5_12DOI Listing
February 2019

The physiology of Agaricus bisporus in semi-commercial compost cultivation appears to be highly conserved among unrelated isolates.

Fungal Genet Biol 2018 03 22;112:12-20. Epub 2017 Dec 22.

Fungal Physiology, Westerdijk Fungal Biodiversity Institute & Fungal Molecular Physiology, Utrecht University, Uppsalalaan 8, 3584 CT Utrecht, The Netherlands; Department of Microbiology, University of Helsinki, Viikinkaari 9, Helsinki, Finland.

The white button mushroom Agaricus bisporus is one of the most widely produced edible fungus with a great economical value. Its commercial cultivation process is often performed on wheat straw and animal manure based compost that mainly contains lignocellulosic material as a source of carbon and nutrients for the mushroom production. As a large portion of compost carbohydrates are left unused in the current mushroom cultivation process, the aim of this work was to study wild-type A. bisporus strains for their potential to convert the components that are poorly utilized by the commercial strain A15. We therefore focused our analysis on the stages where the fungus is producing fruiting bodies. Growth profiling was used to identify A. bisporus strains with different abilities to use plant biomass derived polysaccharides, as well as to transport and metabolize the corresponding monomeric sugars. Six wild-type isolates with diverse growth profiles were compared for mushroom production to A15 strain in semi-commercial cultivation conditions. Transcriptome and proteome analyses of the three most interesting wild-type strains and A15 indicated that the unrelated A. bisporus strains degrade and convert plant biomass polymers in a highly similar manner. This was also supported by the chemical content of the compost during the mushroom production process. Our study therefore reveals a highly conserved physiology for unrelated strains of this species during growth in compost.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fgb.2017.12.004DOI Listing
March 2018

Improving cellulase production by Aspergillus niger using adaptive evolution.

Biotechnol Lett 2016 Jun 15;38(6):969-74. Epub 2016 Feb 15.

Fungal Molecular Physiology, CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Objectives: To evaluate the potential of adaptive evolution as a tool in generating strains with an improved production of plant biomass degrading enzymes.

Results: An Aspergillus niger cellulase mutant was obtained by adaptive evolution. Physiological properties of this mutant revealed a five times higher cellulose production than the parental strain. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that the expression of noxR, encoding the regulatory subunit of the NADPH oxidase complex, was reduced in the mutant compared to the parental strain. Subsequent analysis of a noxR knockout strain showed the same phenotypic effect as observed for the evolution mutant, confirming the role of NoxR in cellulose degradation.

Conclusions: Adaptive evolution is an efficient approach to modify a strain and activate genes involved in polysaccharide degradation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10529-016-2060-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4853455PMC
June 2016

Accumulation of recalcitrant xylan in mushroom-compost is due to a lack of xylan substituent removing enzyme activities of Agaricus bisporus.

Carbohydr Polym 2015 Nov 26;132:359-68. Epub 2015 Jun 26.

Wageningen University, Laboratory of Food Chemistry, Bornse Weilanden 9, 6708 WG Wageningen, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

The ability of Agaricus bisporus to degrade xylan in wheat straw based compost during mushroom formation is unclear. In this paper, xylan was extracted from the compost with water, 1M and 4M alkali. Over the phases analyzed, the remaining xylan was increasingly substituted with (4-O-methyl-)glucuronic acid and arabinosyl residues, both one and two arabinosyl residues per xylosyl residue remained. In the 1M and 4M KOH soluble solids of spent compost, 33 and 49 out of 100 xylosyl residues, respectively, were substituted. The accumulation of glucuronic acid substituents matched with the analysis that the two A. bisporus genes encoding for α-glucuronidase activity (both GH115) were not expressed in the A. bisporus mycelium in the compost during fruiting. Also, in a maximum likelihood tree it was shown that it is not likely that A. bisporus possesses genes encoding for the activity to remove arabinose from xylosyl residues having two arabinosyl residues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2015.06.065DOI Listing
November 2015

Compost Grown Agaricus bisporus Lacks the Ability to Degrade and Consume Highly Substituted Xylan Fragments.

PLoS One 2015 3;10(8):e0134169. Epub 2015 Aug 3.

Wageningen University, Laboratory of Food Chemistry, Bornse Weilanden 9, 6708 WG, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

The fungus Agaricus bisporus is commercially grown for the production of edible mushrooms. This cultivation occurs on compost, but not all of this substrate is consumed by the fungus. To determine why certain fractions remain unused, carbohydrate degrading enzymes, water-extracted from mushroom-grown compost at different stages of mycelium growth and fruiting body formation, were analyzed for their ability to degrade a range of polysaccharides. Mainly endo-xylanase, endo-glucanase, β-xylosidase and β-glucanase activities were determined in the compost extracts obtained during mushroom growth. Interestingly, arabinofuranosidase activity able to remove arabinosyl residues from doubly substituted xylose residues and α-glucuronidase activity were not detected in the compost enzyme extracts. This correlates with the observed accumulation of arabinosyl and glucuronic acid substituents on the xylan backbone in the compost towards the end of the cultivation. Hence, it was concluded that compost grown A. bisporus lacks the ability to degrade and consume highly substituted xylan fragments.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0134169PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4523207PMC
May 2016

Uncovering the abilities of Agaricus bisporus to degrade plant biomass throughout its life cycle.

Environ Microbiol 2015 Aug 4;17(8):3098-109. Epub 2015 Aug 4.

Fungal Physiology, CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre & Fungal Molecular Physiology, Utrecht University, Padualaan 8, 3584 CH, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

The economically important edible basidiomycete mushroom Agaricus bisporus thrives on decaying plant material in forests and grasslands of North America and Europe. It degrades forest litter and contributes to global carbon recycling, depolymerizing (hemi-)cellulose and lignin in plant biomass. Relatively little is known about how A. bisporus grows in the controlled environment in commercial production facilities and utilizes its substrate. Using transcriptomics and proteomics, we showed that changes in plant biomass degradation by A. bisporus occur throughout its life cycle. Ligninolytic genes were only highly expressed during the spawning stage day 16. In contrast, (hemi-)cellulolytic genes were highly expressed at the first flush, whereas low expression was observed at the second flush. The essential role for many highly expressed plant biomass degrading genes was supported by exo-proteome analysis. Our data also support a model of sequential lignocellulose degradation by wood-decaying fungi proposed in previous studies, concluding that lignin is degraded at the initial stage of growth in compost and is not modified after the spawning stage. The observed differences in gene expression involved in (hemi-)cellulose degradation between the first and second flushes could partially explain the reduction in the number of mushrooms during the second flush.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1462-2920.12967DOI Listing
August 2015

Bacillus subtilis attachment to Aspergillus niger hyphae results in mutually altered metabolism.

Environ Microbiol 2015 Jun 15;17(6):2099-113. Epub 2014 Aug 15.

Molecular Genetics, Groningen Biomolecular Sciences and Biotechnology Institute, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Interaction between microbes affects the growth, metabolism and differentiation of members of the microbial community. While direct and indirect competition, like antagonism and nutrient consumption have a negative effect on the interacting members of the population, microbes have also evolved in nature not only to fight, but in some cases to adapt to or support each other, while increasing the fitness of the community. The presence of bacteria and fungi in soil results in various interactions including mutualism. Bacilli attach to the plant root and form complex communities in the rhizosphere. Bacillus subtilis, when grown in the presence of Aspergillus niger, interacts similarly with the fungus, by attaching and growing on the hyphae. Based on data obtained in a dual transcriptome experiment, we suggest that both fungi and bacteria alter their metabolism during this interaction. Interestingly, the transcription of genes related to the antifungal and putative antibacterial defence mechanism of B. subtilis and A. niger, respectively, are decreased upon attachment of bacteria to the mycelia. Analysis of the culture supernatant suggests that surfactin production by B. subtilis was reduced when the bacterium was co-cultivated with the fungus. Our experiments provide new insights into the interaction between a bacterium and a fungus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1462-2920.12564DOI Listing
June 2015

An improved and reproducible protocol for the extraction of high quality fungal RNA from plant biomass substrates.

Fungal Genet Biol 2014 Nov 18;72:201-206. Epub 2014 Jun 18.

Department of Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 56, 00014 Helsinki, Finland.

Isolation of high quantity and quality RNA is a crucial step in the detection of meaningful gene expression data. Obtaining intact fungal RNA from complex lignocellulosic substrates is often difficult, producing low integrity RNA which perform poorly in downstream applications. In this study we developed an RNA extraction method using CsCl centrifugation procedure, modified from previous reports and adapted for isolation of RNA from plant biomass. This method provided high level of integrity and good quantity of RNA which were suitable for reliable analyses of gene expression and produced consistent and reproducible results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fgb.2014.06.001DOI Listing
November 2014

The genome of the white-rot fungus Pycnoporus cinnabarinus: a basidiomycete model with a versatile arsenal for lignocellulosic biomass breakdown.

BMC Genomics 2014 Jun 18;15:486. Epub 2014 Jun 18.

INRA, UMR1163 Biotechnologie des Champignons Filamenteux, Aix-Marseille Université, Polytech Marseille, 163 avenue de Luminy, CP 925, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09, France.

Background: Saprophytic filamentous fungi are ubiquitous micro-organisms that play an essential role in photosynthetic carbon recycling. The wood-decayer Pycnoporus cinnabarinus is a model fungus for the study of plant cell wall decomposition and is used for a number of applications in green and white biotechnology.

Results: The 33.6 megabase genome of P. cinnabarinus was sequenced and assembled, and the 10,442 predicted genes were functionally annotated using a phylogenomic procedure. In-depth analyses were carried out for the numerous enzyme families involved in lignocellulosic biomass breakdown, for protein secretion and glycosylation pathways, and for mating type. The P. cinnabarinus genome sequence revealed a consistent repertoire of genes shared with wood-decaying basidiomycetes. P. cinnabarinus is thus fully equipped with the classical families involved in cellulose and hemicellulose degradation, whereas its pectinolytic repertoire appears relatively limited. In addition, P. cinnabarinus possesses a complete versatile enzymatic arsenal for lignin breakdown. We identified several genes encoding members of the three ligninolytic peroxidase types, namely lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase and versatile peroxidase. Comparative genome analyses were performed in fungi displaying different nutritional strategies (white-rot and brown-rot modes of decay). P. cinnabarinus presents a typical distribution of all the specific families found in the white-rot life style. Growth profiling of P. cinnabarinus was performed on 35 carbon sources including simple and complex substrates to study substrate utilization and preferences. P. cinnabarinus grew faster on crude plant substrates than on pure, mono- or polysaccharide substrates. Finally, proteomic analyses were conducted from liquid and solid-state fermentation to analyze the composition of the secretomes corresponding to growth on different substrates. The distribution of lignocellulolytic enzymes in the secretomes was strongly dependent on growth conditions, especially for lytic polysaccharide mono-oxygenases.

Conclusions: With its available genome sequence, P. cinnabarinus is now an outstanding model system for the study of the enzyme machinery involved in the degradation or transformation of lignocellulosic biomass.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-15-486DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4101180PMC
June 2014

Carbohydrate utilization and metabolism is highly differentiated in Agaricus bisporus.

BMC Genomics 2013 Sep 30;14:663. Epub 2013 Sep 30.

CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre, Uppsalalaan 8, 3584 CT Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Background: Agaricus bisporus is commercially grown on compost, in which the available carbon sources consist mainly of plant-derived polysaccharides that are built out of various different constituent monosaccharides. The major constituent monosaccharides of these polysaccharides are glucose, xylose, and arabinose, while smaller amounts of galactose, glucuronic acid, rhamnose and mannose are also present.

Results: In this study, genes encoding putative enzymes from carbon metabolism were identified and their expression was studied in different growth stages of A. bisporus. We correlated the expression of genes encoding plant and fungal polysaccharide modifying enzymes identified in the A. bisporus genome to the soluble carbohydrates and the composition of mycelium grown compost, casing layer and fruiting bodies.

Conclusions: The compost grown vegetative mycelium of A. bisporus consumes a wide variety of monosaccharides. However, in fruiting bodies only hexose catabolism occurs, and no accumulation of other sugars was observed. This suggests that only hexoses or their conversion products are transported from the vegetative mycelium to the fruiting body, while the other sugars likely provide energy for growth and maintenance of the vegetative mycelium. Clear correlations were found between expression of the genes and composition of carbohydrates. Genes encoding plant cell wall polysaccharide degrading enzymes were mainly expressed in compost-grown mycelium, and largely absent in fruiting bodies. In contrast, genes encoding fungal cell wall polysaccharide modifying enzymes were expressed in both fruiting bodies and vegetative mycelium, but different gene sets were expressed in these samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-14-663DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3852267PMC
September 2013

Genome sequence of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus reveals mechanisms governing adaptation to a humic-rich ecological niche.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2012 Oct 8;109(43):17501-6. Epub 2012 Oct 8.

Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Unité Mixte de Recherche 1136 Université Henri Poincaré, Interactions Arbres/Micro-organismes, 54280 Champenoux, France.

Agaricus bisporus is the model fungus for the adaptation, persistence, and growth in the humic-rich leaf-litter environment. Aside from its ecological role, A. bisporus has been an important component of the human diet for over 200 y and worldwide cultivation of the "button mushroom" forms a multibillion dollar industry. We present two A. bisporus genomes, their gene repertoires and transcript profiles on compost and during mushroom formation. The genomes encode a full repertoire of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes similar to that of wood-decayers. Comparative transcriptomics of mycelium grown on defined medium, casing-soil, and compost revealed genes encoding enzymes involved in xylan, cellulose, pectin, and protein degradation are more highly expressed in compost. The striking expansion of heme-thiolate peroxidases and β-etherases is distinctive from Agaricomycotina wood-decayers and suggests a broad attack on decaying lignin and related metabolites found in humic acid-rich environment. Similarly, up-regulation of these genes together with a lignolytic manganese peroxidase, multiple copper radical oxidases, and cytochrome P450s is consistent with challenges posed by complex humic-rich substrates. The gene repertoire and expression of hydrolytic enzymes in A. bisporus is substantially different from the taxonomically related ectomycorrhizal symbiont Laccaria bicolor. A common promoter motif was also identified in genes very highly expressed in humic-rich substrates. These observations reveal genetic and enzymatic mechanisms governing adaptation to the humic-rich ecological niche formed during plant degradation, further defining the critical role such fungi contribute to soil structure and carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems. Genome sequence will expedite mushroom breeding for improved agronomic characteristics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1206847109DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3491501PMC
October 2012

The Paleozoic origin of enzymatic lignin decomposition reconstructed from 31 fungal genomes.

Science 2012 Jun;336(6089):1715-9

Biology Department, Clark University, Worcester, MA 01610, USA.

Wood is a major pool of organic carbon that is highly resistant to decay, owing largely to the presence of lignin. The only organisms capable of substantial lignin decay are white rot fungi in the Agaricomycetes, which also contains non-lignin-degrading brown rot and ectomycorrhizal species. Comparative analyses of 31 fungal genomes (12 generated for this study) suggest that lignin-degrading peroxidases expanded in the lineage leading to the ancestor of the Agaricomycetes, which is reconstructed as a white rot species, and then contracted in parallel lineages leading to brown rot and mycorrhizal species. Molecular clock analyses suggest that the origin of lignin degradation might have coincided with the sharp decrease in the rate of organic carbon burial around the end of the Carboniferous period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1221748DOI Listing
June 2012