Publications by authors named "Aleksandra Zurowska"

69 Publications

Countermeasures against COVID-19: how to navigate medical practice through a nascent, evolving evidence base - a European multicentre mixed methods study.

BMJ Open 2021 02 17;11(2):e043015. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Division of Pediatric Nephrology and Gastroenterology, Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Comprehensive Center for Pediatrics, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria

Objectives: In a previously published Delphi exercise the European Pediatric Dialysis Working Group (EPDWG) reported widely variable counteractive responses to COVID-19 during the first week of statutory public curfews in 12 European countries with case loads of 4-680 infected patients per million. To better understand these wide variations, we assessed different factors affecting countermeasure implementation rates and applied the capability, opportunity, motivation model of behaviour to describe their determinants.

Design: We undertook this international mixed methods study of increased depth and breadth to obtain more complete data and to better understand the resulting complex evidence.

Setting: This study was conducted in 14 paediatric nephrology centres across 12 European countries during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Participants: The 14 participants were paediatric nephrologists and EPDWG members from 12 European centres.

Main Outcome Measures: 52 countermeasures clustered into eight response domains (access control, patient testing, personnel testing, personal protective equipment policy, patient cohorting, personnel cohorting, suspension of routine care, remote work) were categorised by implementation status, drivers (expert opinion, hospital regulations) and resource dependency. Governmental strictness and media attitude were independently assessed for each country and correlated with relevant countermeasure implementation factors.

Results: Implementation rates varied widely among response domains (median 49.5%, range 20%-71%) and centres (median 46%, range 31%-62%). Case loads were insufficient to explain response rate variability. Increasing case loads resulted in shifts from expert opinion-based to hospital regulation-based decisions to implement additional countermeasures despite increased resource dependency. Higher governmental strictness and positive media attitude towards countermeasure implementation were associated with higher implementation rates.

Conclusions: COVID-19 countermeasure implementation by paediatric tertiary care centres did not reflect case loads but rather reflected heterogeneity of local rules and of perceived resources. These data highlight the need of ongoing reassessment of current practices, facilitating rapid change in 'institutional behavior' in response to emerging evidence of countermeasure efficacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-043015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7893209PMC
February 2021

Influenza and pneumococcus vaccination rates in pediatric dialysis patients in Europe: Recommendations vs reality A European Pediatric Dialysis Working Group and European Society for Pediatric Nephrology Dialysis Working Group Study.

Turk J Med Sci 2021 Feb 4. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Background: Children on dialysis are under increased risk of influenza and invasive pneumococcal disease. Although, vaccination against these microorganisms are recommended in dialysis patients and despite the fact that these vaccines can reduce disease burden and rates of hospitalization due to infection, vaccination rates are below expected and desired. We aimed to evaluate influenza and pneumococcal vaccination and infection rates in European pediatric dialysis centers.

Methods: In 16 centers from 11 countries, 357 pediatric dialysis patients were evaluated retrospectively during one year of observation period between 01.01.2014 and 01.01.2015.

Results: In all centers, vaccination policy included immunization of dialysis patients with inactive influenza vaccine and pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV). 50% of centers recommended pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine following routine PCV series. Significantly higher pneumococcal vaccination rate (43.9 %) was seen in PD patients compared to those on HD (32.9 %) (p=0.035), while the rates for influenza were similar (42.4 % and 46.1 respectively, p=0.496). Among all dialysis patients, 2,2 % (n=8) developed pneumonia and 6.4 % (n=23) infected by influenza. Pneumococcic pneumonia rate was 5 % for 140 patients who received anti-pneumococcal vaccine, while only one pneumonia episode was recorded out of 217 unvaccinated patients (p=0.007). The influenza virus infection rates were similar for patients vaccinated and non-vaccinated (7 % and 6 %, respectively).

Conclusions: Although influenza and pneumococcal vaccines are highly recommended in pediatric dialysis patients, vaccination rates were lower than expected. Pneumococcal vaccination rates were higher in PD compared to the patients on HD. The rate of children with influenza infection was higher than pneumonia. The efficacy of influenza and pneumococcal vaccines was highlighted by the low infection rates. Higher pneumonia rates in patients vaccinated against pneumococcus compared to unvaccinated ones might be due to coexisting risk factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3906/sag-2012-26DOI Listing
February 2021

Mild X-linked Alport syndrome due to the COL4A5 G624D variant originating in the Middle Ages is predominant in Central/East Europe and causes kidney failure in midlife.

Kidney Int 2020 Dec 10. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Centre for Rare Diseases, Medical University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland; Clinical Genetics Unit, Department of Biology and Medical Genetics, , Medical University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland. Electronic address:

A study of 269 children enrolled into a National Registry for children with persistent glomerular hematuria identified 131 individuals with genetically confirmed X-linked Alport Syndrome. A single variant c.1871G>A p.Gly624Asp (G624D) in COL4A5 was predominant and accounted for 39% of X-linked Alport Syndrome in unrelated Polish families (44 of 113). To evaluate its origins, the genetic variation in a 2.79 Mb segment encompassing the COL4A5 locus on chromosome X was assessed. All G624D alleles were found on the same rare haplotype background, indicating a founder effect dating back to the 12-13th century. The phenotypic data of 131 children with X-linked Alport Syndrome and their 195 affected adult relatives revealed that the G624D variant was associated with a significantly milder clinical course in comparison to other pathogenic COL4A5 variants. Furthermore the clinical course of this genetically uniform cohort was milder than that observed in individuals with other COL4A5 missense mutations. In spite of the benign clinical manifestation throughout childhood and early adulthood, the G624D variant confers significant risk for both kidney failure and deafness in males, albeit 20-30 years later than that observed in individuals with other COL4A5 pathogenic variants (50% cumulative risk of starting dialysis at 54 years (95% confidence interval: 50-62) v. 26 years (95% confidence interval: 22-30)). Thus, males with G624D are candidates for existing and emerging therapies for Alport Syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.kint.2020.10.040DOI Listing
December 2020

Rapid response in the COVID-19 pandemic: a Delphi study from the European Pediatric Dialysis Working Group.

Pediatr Nephrol 2020 09 17;35(9):1669-1678. Epub 2020 May 17.

Division of Pediatric Nephrology and Gastroenterology, Comprehensive Center for Pediatrics, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090, Vienna, Austria.

Background: COVID-19 was declared a global health emergency. Since children are less than 1% of reported cases, there is limited information to develop evidence-based practice recommendations. The objective of this study was to rapidly gather expert knowledge and experience to guide the care of children with chronic kidney disease during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Methods: A four-round multi-center Delphi exercise was conducted among 13 centers in 11 European countries of the European Pediatric Dialysis Working Group (EPDWG) between March, 16th and 20th 2020. Results were analyzed using a mixed methods qualitative approach and descriptive statistics.

Results: Thirteen COVID-19 specific topics of particular need for guidance were identified. Main themes encompassed testing strategies and results (n = 4), changes in use of current therapeutics (n = 3), preventive measurements of transmission and management of COVID-19 (n = 3), and changes in standard clinical care (n = 3). Patterns of center-specific responses varied according to regulations and to availability of guidelines.

Conclusions: As limited quantitative evidence is available in real time during the rapid spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, qualitative expert knowledge and experience represent the best evidence available. This Delphi exercise demonstrates that use of mixed methodologies embedded in an established network of experts allowed prompt analysis of pediatric nephrologists' response to COVID-19 during this fast-emerging public health crisis. Such rapid sharing of knowledge and local practices is essential to timely and optimal guidance for medical management of specific patient groups in multi-country health care systems such as those of Europe and the US.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00467-020-04584-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7230035PMC
September 2020

Indoxyl sulfate associates with cardiovascular phenotype in children with chronic kidney disease.

Pediatr Nephrol 2019 12 19;34(12):2571-2582. Epub 2019 Aug 19.

Division of Pediatric Nephrology, Center for Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, University Children's Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.

Background: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Serum levels of gut-derived uremic toxins increase with deterioration of kidney function and are associated with cardiac comorbidities in adult CKD patients.

Methods: Indoxyl sulfate (IS) and p-cresyl sulfate (pCS) were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography in serum of children participating in the Cardiovascular Comorbidity in Children with CKD (4C) Study. Results were correlated with measurements of the carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), central pulse wave velocity (PWV), and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) in children aged 6-17 years with initial eGFR of 10-60 ml/min per 1.73 m.

Results: The median serum levels of total IS and of pCS, measured in 609 patients, were 5.3 μmol/l (8.7) and 17.0 μmol/l (21.6), respectively. In a multivariable regression model, IS and pCS showed significant positive associations with urea and negative associations with eGFR and uric acid. Furthermore, positive associations of pCS with age, serum albumin, and non-Mediterranean residency and a negative association with glomerular disease were observed. By multivariable regression analysis, only IS was significantly associated with a higher cIMT SDS at baseline and progression of PWV SDS within 12 months, independent of other risk factors.

Conclusions: Serum levels of gut-derived uremic toxins IS and pCS correlated inversely with eGFR in children. Only IS was significantly associated with surrogate markers of cardiovascular disease in this large pediatric CKD cohort.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00467-019-04331-6DOI Listing
December 2019

Determinants of Statural Growth in European Children With Chronic Kidney Disease: Findings From the Cardiovascular Comorbidity in Children With Chronic Kidney Disease (4C) Study.

Front Pediatr 2019 5;7:278. Epub 2019 Jul 5.

Division of Pediatric Nephrology, Center for Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.

Failure of statural growth is one of the major long-term sequelae of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children. In recent years effective therapeutic strategies have become available that lead to evidence based practice recommendations. To assess the current growth performance of European children and adolescents with CKD, we analyzed a cohort of 594 patients from 12 European countries who were followed prospectively for up to 6 years in the 4C Study. While all patients were on conservative treatment with a mean estimated glomerular filtration rate of 28 ml/min/1.73 m at study entry, 130 children commenced dialysis during the observation period. At time of enrolment the mean height standard deviation score (SDS) was -1.57; 36% of patients had a height below the third percentile. The prevalence of growth failure varied between countries from 7 to 44% Whereas patients on conservative treatment showed stable growth, height SDS gradually declined on those on dialysis. Parental height, pubertal status and treatment with recombinant growth hormone (GH) were positively, and the diagnosis of syndromic disease and CKD stage were negatively associated with height SDS during the observation period. Unexpectedly, higher body mass index (BMI) SDS was associated with lower height SDS both at enrolment and during follow up. Renal anemia, metabolic acidosis, and hyperparathyroidism were mostly mild and not predictive of growth rates by multivariable analysis. GH therapy was applied in only 15% of growth retarded patients with large variation between countries. When adjusting for all significant covariates listed above, the country of residence remained a highly significant predictor of overall growth performance. In conclusion, growth failure remains common in European children with CKD, despite improved general management of CKD complications. The widespread underutilization of GH, an approved efficacious therapy for CKD-associated growth failure, deserves further exploration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2019.00278DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6625460PMC
July 2019

Twenty years of growth hormone treatment in dialyzed children in Poland-Results of national multicenter study.

Adv Med Sci 2019 Mar 20;64(1):90-99. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

Department of Pediatrics and Nephrology, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.

Purpose: The aim of the study was to analyze the effect of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) therapy and to establish factors influencing growth rate in dialyzed children in Poland.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed medical records of 81 children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on chronic dialysis treated with rhGH for ≥12 months between 1994 and 2014. The following data were recorded: cause of ESRD, dialysis modality, age at the dialysis and rhGH initiation [years]. In addition, growth [cm], [standard deviation score - SDS], body mass index [SDS], skeletal age [years], bone mineral density [SDS], hemoglobin, total protein, albumin, urea, creatinine, calcium, phosphorus, calcium phosphorus product, PTH, and alkaline phosphatase were measured at the baseline and after 12 months.

Results: Growth velocity in 81 children during one-year rhGH treatment was 7.33 ± 2.63 cm (ΔSDS 0.36 ± 0.43). Height SDS increased significantly (-3.31 ± 1.12 vs. -2.94 ± 1.15, p < 0.001). Children on peritoneal dialysis (PD) (n = 51) were younger than children on hemodialysis (HD) (n = 30) (9.92 ± 3.72 vs. 12.32 ± 3.11 years, p = 0.003). ΔSDS did not differ between PD and HD children (0.40 ± 0.33 vs. 0.30 ± 0.47, p = 0.311). Growth velocity (ΔSDS) correlated with age at dialysis initiation (r=-0.30, p = 0.009), age at rhGH treatment initiation (r=-0.35, p = 0.002), skeletal age (r=-0.36, p = 0.002), BMI SDS (r=-0.27, p = 0.019), and PTH (r=-0.27, p = 0.017). No correlation between growth velocity and other parameters was observed.

Conclusions: Treatment with rhGH in children with ESRD is effective and safe irrespective of dialysis modality. Early initiation of rhGH therapy is a crucial factor determining response to the treatment in children with ESRD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.advms.2018.12.001DOI Listing
March 2019

Multicenter analysis of the efficacy and safety of a non-standard immunosuppressive therapy with rituximab in children with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome.

Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2019 Apr 13;46(4):313-321. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Paediatric Nephrology and Dialysis, University of Poznan, Poznan, Poland.

The aim of the study was a multicenter analysis of the efficacy and safety of a non-standard immunosuppressive therapy with rituximab (Rtx) in children with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) with particular emphasis on the possibility of permanent discontinuation or dose reduction of other immunosuppressive drugs such as glucocorticoids and cyclosporine A after 6 months of observation. The study group consisted of 30 children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome, who were unresponsive to standard immunosuppressive treatment, and hospitalized in the years 2010-2017 in eight paediatric nephrology centres in Poland. The children were administered a single initial infusion of rituximab at the dose of 375 mg/m of the body surface area. Proteinuria, the daily supply of glucocorticoids, and cyclosporine were assessed at the moment of the start of the treatment and after 6 months since its commencement. Before Rtx therapy, complete remission was found in 13 patients (43%) and partial remission was found in 8 patients (26%). These numbers increased to 16 (53%) and 12 (40%), respectively. At the start of the treatment 23 patients (76.6%) were treated with cyclosporine A. After 6 months, this number decreased to 15 patients (35%). At the start of the treatment, 18 patients (60%) were treated with prednisone. After 6 months, this number decreased to 8 patients (44%). Children with SRNS may potentially benefit from Rtx treatment despite relative risk of side effects. The benefits may include reduction of proteinuria or reduction of other immunosuppressants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1440-1681.13046DOI Listing
April 2019

Pioneer women in Pediatric Nephrology in Poland.

G Ital Nefrol 2018 Feb;35(Suppl 70):117-119

Gdańsk Medical University, Poland.

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February 2018

Vaccination Practices in Pediatric Dialysis Patients Across Europe. A European Pediatric Dialysis Working Group and European Society for Pediatric Nephrology Dialysis Working Group Study.

Nephron 2018 12;138(4):280-286. Epub 2017 Dec 12.

Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy.

Background: Data on the immunization practices in pediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients are scarce. The purpose of this study was to evaluate current vaccination practices for children on dialysis across European pediatric nephrology centers.

Methods: A total of 18 tertiary pediatric nephrology centers from 12 European countries were included in the study. The data on universal national immunization programs and immunization practices for children with chronic disease or risk were recorded from European Center for Disease Prevention and Control and the World Health Organization. The immunization practices and center protocols for monitoring antibody titers after vaccination in dialysis patients were obtained through a questionnaire.

Results: All centers included in the study recommended immunization against hepatitis B virus (HBV), diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, Hemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), poliomyelitis, measles, mumps, rubella (MMR), and streptococcus pneumonia in dialysis patients. In 16 centers, dialysis patients were vaccinated against influenza virus annually. HBV protective antibody titers were measured in 17 centers (during dialysis period in 14 centers, during pre-renal transplantation preparations in 14 centers or in both times in 11 centers). Hepatitis A virus (HAV) was reported to be followed in 13 centers, in 8 centers during dialysis period, and in 11 centers during pre-RTx preparations. MMR and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) protective antibody titers were measured during the dialysis period or before renal transplantation (RTx) in 12 and 15 centers, respectively, and in 6 centers both titers were checked both times.

Conclusion: There are variations in vaccination practice across Europe. Children with CKD, those undergoing dialysis, and transplant candidates should receive age-appropriate vaccinations before RTx as well as before the transition to adult nephrology clinics and antibody levels should be monitored to evaluate the immunization status before and after RTx.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000485398DOI Listing
September 2019

A randomized clinical trial indicates that levamisole increases the time to relapse in children with steroid-sensitive idiopathic nephrotic syndrome.

Kidney Int 2018 02 18;93(2):510-518. Epub 2017 Oct 18.

Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Emma Children's Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Hôpital Universitaire des Enfants Reine Fabiola, Brussels, Belgium.

Levamisole has been considered the least toxic and least expensive steroid-sparing drug for preventing relapses of steroid-sensitive idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (SSINS). However, evidence for this is limited as previous randomized clinical trials were found to have methodological limitations. Therefore, we conducted an international multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trial to reassess its usefulness in prevention of relapses in children with SSINS. The efficacy and safety of one year of levamisole treatment in children with SSINS and frequent relapses were evaluated. The primary analysis cohort consisted of 99 patients from 6 countries. Between 100 days and 12 months after the start of study medication, the time to relapse (primary endpoint) was significantly increased in the levamisole compared to the placebo group (hazard ratio 0.22 [95% confidence interval 0.11-0.43]). Significantly, after 12 months of treatment, six percent of placebo patients versus 26 percent of levamisole patients were still in remission. During this period, the most frequent serious adverse event (four of 50 patients) possibly related to levamisole was asymptomatic moderate neutropenia, which was reversible spontaneously or after treatment discontinuation. Thus, in children with SSINS and frequent relapses, levamisole prolonged the time to relapse and also prevented recurrence during one year of treatment compared to prednisone alone. However, regular blood controls are necessary for safety issues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.kint.2017.08.011DOI Listing
February 2018

Association of Serum Soluble Urokinase Receptor Levels With Progression of Kidney Disease in Children.

JAMA Pediatr 2017 11 6;171(11):e172914. Epub 2017 Nov 6.

Department of Medicine, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois.

Importance: Conventional methods to diagnose and monitor chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children, such as creatinine level and cystatin C-derived estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and assessment of proteinuria in spot or timed urine samples, are of limited value in identifying patients at risk of progressive kidney function loss. Serum soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) levels strongly predict incident CKD stage 3 in adults.

Objective: To determine whether elevated suPAR levels are associated with renal disease progression in children with CKD.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Post hoc analysis of 2 prospectively followed up pediatric CKD cohorts, ie, the ESCAPE Trial (1999-2007) and the 4C Study (2010-2016), with serum suPAR level measured at enrollment and longitudinal eGFR measured prospectively. In the 2 trials, a total of 898 children were observed at 30 (ESCAPE Trial; n = 256) and 55 (4C Study; n = 642) tertiary care hospitals in 13 European countries. Renal diagnoses included congenital anomalies of the kidneys and urinary tract (n = 637 [70.9%]), tubulointerstitial nephropathies (n = 92 [10.2%]), glomerulopathies (n = 69 [7.7%]), postischemic CKD (n = 42 [4.7%]), and other CKD (n = 58 [6.5%]). Total follow-up duration was up to 7.9 years, and median follow-up was 3.1 years. Analyses were conducted from October 2016 to December 2016.

Exposures: Serum suPAR level was measured at enrollment, and eGFR was measured every 2 months in the ESCAPE Trial and every 6 months in the 4C Study. The primary end point of CKD progression was a composite of 50% eGFR loss, eGFR less than 10 mL/min/1.73 m2, or initiation of renal replacement therapy.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary end point in this study was renal survival, defined as a composite of 50% loss of GFR that persisted for at least 1 month, the start of renal replacement therapy, or an eGFR less than 10 mL/min/1.73 m2.

Results: Of the 898 included children, 560 (62.4%) were male, and the mean (SD) patient age at enrollment was 11.9 (3.5) years. The mean (SD) eGFR was 34 (16) mL/min/1.73 m2. The 5-year end point-free renal survival was 64.5% (95% CI, 57.4-71.7) in children with suPAR levels in the lowest quartile compared with 35.9% (95% CI, 28.7-43.0) in those in the highest quartile (P < .001). By multivariable analysis, the risk of attaining the end point was higher in children with glomerulopathies and increased with age, blood pressure, proteinuria, and lower eGFR at baseline. In patients with baseline eGFR greater than 40 mL/min/1.73 m2, higher log-transformed suPAR levels were associated with a higher risk of CKD progression after adjustment for traditional risk factors (hazard ratio, 5.12; 95% CI, 1.56-16.7; P = .007).

Conclusions And Relevance: Patients with high suPAR levels were more likely to have progression of their kidney disease. Further studies should determine whether suPAR levels can identify children at risk for future CKD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2017.2914DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6121753PMC
November 2017

Infants Requiring Maintenance Dialysis: Outcomes of Hemodialysis and Peritoneal Dialysis.

Am J Kidney Dis 2017 May 10;69(5):617-625. Epub 2016 Dec 10.

Dialysis Unit, IRCCS Giannina Gaslini, Genoa, Italy.

Background: The impact of different dialysis modalities on clinical outcomes has not been explored in young infants with chronic kidney failure.

Study Design: Cohort study.

Setting & Participants: Data were extracted from the ESPN/ERA-EDTA Registry. This analysis included 1,063 infants 12 months or younger who initiated dialysis therapy in 1991 to 2013.

Factor: Type of dialysis modality.

Outcomes & Measurements: Differences between infants treated with peritoneal dialysis (PD) or hemodialysis (HD) in patient survival, technique survival, and access to kidney transplantation were examined using Cox regression analysis while adjusting for age at dialysis therapy initiation, sex, underlying kidney disease, and country of residence.

Results: 917 infants initiated dialysis therapy on PD, and 146, on HD. Median age at dialysis therapy initiation was 4.5 (IQR, 0.7-7.9) months, and median body weight was 5.7 (IQR, 3.7-7.5) kg. Although the groups were homogeneous regarding age and sex, infants treated with PD more often had congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT; 48% vs 27%), whereas those on HD therapy more frequently had metabolic disorders (12% vs 4%). Risk factors for death were younger age at dialysis therapy initiation (HR per each 1-month later initiation, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.90-0.97) and non-CAKUT cause of chronic kidney failure (HR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.08-2.04). Mortality risk and likelihood of transplantation were equal in PD and HD patients, whereas HD patients had a higher risk for changing dialysis treatment (adjusted HR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.17-2.31).

Limitations: Inability to control for unmeasured confounders not included in the Registry database and missing data (ie, comorbid conditions). Low statistical power because of relatively small number of participants.

Conclusions: Despite a widespread preconception that HD should be reserved for cases in which PD is not feasible, in Europe, we found 1 in 8 infants in need of maintenance dialysis to be initiated on HD therapy. Patient characteristics at dialysis therapy initiation, prospective survival, and time to transplantation were very similar for infants initiated on PD or HD therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2016.09.024DOI Listing
May 2017

Kidney Versus Combined Kidney and Liver Transplantation in Young People With Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease: Data From the European Society for Pediatric Nephrology/European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant (ESPN/ERA-EDTA) Registry.

Am J Kidney Dis 2016 Nov 21;68(5):782-788. Epub 2016 Aug 21.

Department of Pediatric, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Background: The choice for either kidney or combined liver-kidney transplantation in young people with kidney failure and liver fibrosis due to autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) can be challenging. We aimed to analyze the characteristics and outcomes of transplantation type in these children, adolescents, and young adults.

Study Design: Cohort study.

Setting & Participants: We derived data for children, adolescents, and young adults with ARPKD with either kidney or combined liver-kidney transplants for 1995 to 2012 from the ESPN/ERA-EDTA Registry, a European pediatric renal registry collecting data from 36 European countries.

Factor: Liver transplantation.

Outcomes & Measurements: Transplantation and patient survival.

Results: 202 patients with ARPKD aged 19 years or younger underwent transplantation after a median of 0.4 (IQR, 0.0-1.4) years on dialysis therapy at a median age of 9.0 (IQR, 4.1-13.7) years. 32 (15.8%) underwent combined liver-kidney transplantation, 163 (80.7%) underwent kidney transplantation, and 7 (3.5%) were excluded because transplantation type was unknown. Age- and sex-adjusted 5-year patient survival posttransplantation was 95.5% (95% CI, 92.4%-98.8%) overall: 97.4% (95% CI, 94.9%-100.0%) for patients with kidney transplantation in contrast to 87.0% (95% CI, 75.8%-99.8%) with combined liver-kidney transplantation. The age- and sex-adjusted risk for death after combined liver-kidney transplantation was 6.7-fold (95% CI, 1.8- to 25.4-fold) greater than after kidney transplantation (P=0.005). Five-year death-censored kidney transplant survival following combined liver-kidney and kidney transplantation was similar (92.1% vs 85.9%; P=0.4).

Limitations: No data for liver disease of kidney therapy recipients.

Conclusions: Combined liver-kidney transplantation in ARPKD is associated with increased mortality compared to kidney transplantation in our large observational study and was not associated with improved 5-year kidney transplant survival. Long-term follow-up of both kidney and liver involvement are needed to better delineate the optimal transplantation strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2016.06.019DOI Listing
November 2016

Hemodialysis in children with ventriculoperitoneal shunts: prevalence, management and outcomes.

Pediatr Nephrol 2016 Jan 19;31(1):137-43. Epub 2015 Sep 19.

Nephro-Urology Unit, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, NHS Foundation Trust, London, WC1N 3JH, UK.

Background: Hemodialysis (HD) in children with a concomitant ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) is rare. Registry data suggest that peritoneal dialysis with a VPS is safe, but little is known about HD in the presence of a VPS.

Methods: We performed a 10-year survey to determine the prevalence of a VPS, complications and outcome in children with a VPS on HD in 15 dialysis units from the 13 countries participating in the European Pediatric Dialysis Working Group.

Results: Eleven cases of HD with a VPS were reported (prevalence 1.33 %; 328 patient-months) and compared with prospective Registry data. The median age at start of dialysis was 9.6 [inter-quartile range (IQR) 1.0-15.0] years and median HD vintage was 2.4 (IQR 1.7-3.0) years. Dialysis was performed through a central venous line (CVL) and through an arteriovenous fistula in six and five children, respectively. Three CVL infections occurred in two children, but these children did not develop VPS infections or meningitis. Symptoms of hemodynamic instability were reported in six (55 %) children at least once per week, with hypotension or hypertension occurring in four of these children and nausea, vomiting and headaches occurring in two; four other children reported less frequent symptoms. Seizures on dialysis occurred in two children, at a frequency of less than once per month, with one child also experiencing visual disturbances. During follow-up (median 4.0; IQR 0.38-7.63 years), three children remained on HD and eight had a functioning transplant. No patients were switched to PD.

Conclusions: Hemodialysis in children with a VPS is safe, but associated with frequent symptoms of hemodynamic instability. No episodes of VPS infection or meningitis were seen among the children in the survey, not even in those with CVL sepsis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00467-015-3204-5DOI Listing
January 2016

Normal 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels Are Associated with Less Proteinuria and Attenuate Renal Failure Progression in Children with CKD.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2016 Jan 11;27(1):314-22. Epub 2015 Jun 11.

Center for Pediatric & Adolescent Medicine, University of Heidelberg, Germany.

Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) for renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockade are routinely used to slow CKD progression. However, vitamin D may also promote renoprotection by suppressing renin transcription through cross-talk between RAAS and vitamin D-fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23)-Klotho pathways. To determine whether vitamin D levels influence proteinuria and CKD progression in children, we performed a post hoc analysis of the Effect of Strict Blood Pressure Control and ACE Inhibition on Progression of CKD in Pediatric Patients (ESCAPE) cohort. In 167 children (median eGFR 51 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)), serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), FGF-23, and Klotho levels were measured at baseline and after a median 8 months on ACEi. Children with lower 25(OH)D levels had higher urinary protein/creatinine ratios at baseline (P=0.03) and at follow-up (P=0.006). Levels of 25(OH)D and serum vitamin D-binding protein were not associated, but 25(OH)D ≤50 nmol/L associated with higher diastolic BP (P=0.004). ACEi therapy also associated with increased Klotho levels (P<0.001). The annualized loss of eGFR was inversely associated with baseline 25(OH)D level (P<0.001, r=0.32). Five-year renal survival was 75% in patients with baseline 25(OH)D ≥50 nmol/L and 50% in those with lower 25(OH)D levels (P<0.001). This renoprotective effect remained significant but attenuated with ACEi therapy (P=0.05). Renal survival increased 8.2% per 10 nmol/L increase in 25(OH)D (P=0.03), independent of eGFR; proteinuria, BP, and FGF-23 levels; and underlying renal diagnosis. In children with CKD, 25(OH)D ≥50 nmol/L was associated with greater preservation of renal function. This effect was present but attenuated with concomitant ACEi therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2014090947DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4696567PMC
January 2016

Pleuro-peritoneal or pericardio-peritoneal leak in children on chronic peritoneal dialysis-A survey from the European Paediatric Dialysis Working Group.

Pediatr Nephrol 2015 Nov 9;30(11):2021-7. Epub 2015 Jun 9.

Renal Unit, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, London, WC1N 3JH, UK.

Background: Pleural or pericardial effusions secondary to pleuro-peritoneal fistula (PPF) and pericardio-peritoneal fistula (PcPF) are rare but serious complications of peritoneal dialysis (PD).

Methods: We conducted a 10-year survey across all participating centres in the European Paediatric Dialysis Working Group to review the incidence, diagnostic techniques, therapeutic options and outcome of children on chronic PD with PPF and/or PcPF.

Results: Of 1506 children on PD there were ten cases (8 of PPF, 1 each of PcPF and PPF + PcPF), with a prevalence of 0.66%. The median age at presentation was 1.5 [inter-quartile range (IQR) 0.4-2.4] years, and nine children were <3 years. The time on PD before onset of symptoms was 4.3 (IQR 1.3-19.8) months. Eight children had herniae and seven had abdominal surgery in the preceding 4 weeks. Symptoms at presentation were respiratory distress, reduced ultrafiltration and tachycardia. PD was stopped in all children; three were managed conservatively and thoracocentesis was performed in seven (with pleurodesis in 3). PD was restarted in only three children, in two of them with success.

Conclusion: In conclusion, PPF and PcPF are rare in children on chronic PD, but are associated with significant morbidity, requiring a change of dialysis modality in all cases. Risk factors for PPF development include age of <3 years, herniae and recent abdominal surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00467-015-3137-zDOI Listing
November 2015

Effect of hypertension and antihypertensive medications on residual renal function in children treated with chronic peritoneal dialysis.

Adv Med Sci 2015 Mar 27;60(1):18-24. Epub 2014 Aug 27.

Dialysis Unit, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Cracow, Poland.

Purpose: To evaluate the effect of hypertension (HTN) and antihypertensive medications (AHM) on residual renal function (RRF) in children on CAPD and APD.

Material/methods: We retrospectively evaluated underlying kidney disease, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP), presence and control of HTN (SBP/DBP≥95th percentile), AHM, RRF (daily diuresis, residual glomerular filtration rate [rGFR]), biochemical parameters, BMI Z-score, and dialysis parameters during 12-month follow-up in 87 children (38 CAPD, 49 APD) aged 10.22±4.31 years. The rate of RRF loss was expressed as absolute and relative [%] reduction.

Results: At baseline, HTN was found in 74.7% patients (CAPD/APD: 84.2%/67.3%, P=0.06), most commonly in HUS and least frequently in CAKUT. The proportion of CAPD/APD patients with poorly controlled HTN was 70.0%/63.3% (P=0.50). Relative daily diuresis loss in children with uncontrolled HTN was higher (P=0.017) compared to children with SBP/DBP <95th percentile. No effect of AHM on the rate of RRF loss was found. In multivariate analysis, absolute daily diuresis loss was related to baseline diuresis (β=-0.30, P<0.001) and proteinuria (β=-0.31, P=0.004); absolute rGFR loss to baseline rGFR (β=-0.73, P<0.001) and glucose load after 12 months (β=-0.36, P=0.02); relative daily diuresis loss to mean BMI Z-score (β=-0.44, P=0.04); and relative rGFR to baseline rGFR (β=-0.37, P<0.001) and SBP percentile (β=-0.21, P=0.045).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.advms.2014.08.006DOI Listing
March 2015

Do children with end-stage renal disease live shorter? Analysis of mortality on the basis of data from the Polish Registry of Renal Replacement Therapy in Children.

Adv Med Sci 2015 Mar 14;60(1):13-7. Epub 2014 Aug 14.

Dialysis & Nephrology Unit, Regional Hospital in Rzeszów, Poland.

Purpose: The mortality of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is much higher than that of the general population. To date no data has been published on the mortality of children with ESRD in Poland. The aim of this study was to compare the risk of death for pediatric patients on renal replacement therapy (RRT) with that of the general pediatric population and to identify the risk factors of death.

Material/methods: Data of 779 children with ESRD registered in the Polish Registry of Children on RRT was analyzed. The relative risk of death was calculated as the ratio of the mortality rate in ESRD patients to the mortality rate in age-adjusted general population.

Results: The mortality rate of children with ESRD was 74-fold higher than that of the age- and gender-adjusted general pediatric population (4.05 vs. 0.05/100 person-years). The highest mortality rate (4.53/100 patient-years) was found in the youngest age group. Younger age and duration of dialysis therapy were identified as mortality risk factors. The major causes of death in ESRD patients were infections and cardiovascular complications, whereas deaths in general child population were mainly due to accidents or congenital defects.

Conclusions: The mortality in Polish children with ESRD is 74-fold higher than that of the general pediatric population. Infections, followed by cardiovascular complications, constitute the main causes of mortality in children subjected to RRT. The risk of death is the highest among children who started RRT at a younger age and in those subjected to long-term dialysis treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.advms.2014.07.001DOI Listing
March 2015

Serum fibroblast growth factor 23 and calcium-phosphorus metabolism parameters in children with chronic kidney disease - preliminary report.

Dev Period Med 2014;18(2):194-202

Marszałkowska 24, 00-576 Warszawa,

Introduction: In chronic kidney disease (CKD) the function of all factors regulating mineral metabolism is disturbed, leading inevitably to renal osteodystrophy and vascular calcification. The aimof the study is to assess concentrations of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF 23), osteoprotegerin (OPG) and other parameters of calcium-phosphate metabolism in children with CKD.

Material And Methods: 37 children with CKD 3-5, aged 1.6-17 years were included in the study. In all children serum levels of calcium (sCa), phosphate (sP), creatinine, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), FGF 23, intact parathormone (PTH), OPG and receptor activator nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) were measured.

Results: Total calcium concentration was within normal limits in all children included in this study. Hyperphosphatemia was found in 2 children from group CKD 3 (12%), 6 from CKD 4 (54%) and 1 from CKD 5 (11%). FGF 23 level increased consecutively in subsequent CKD stages achieving the highest values in CKD 5 group. In all children with CKD, serum levels of OPG were correlated with FGF 23. In children with CKD 3-4 negative correlation between FGF 23 and PTH (r=-0.45; p=0.02) and positive correlation between FGF 23 and RANKL (r=0,59; p=0.006) has been found. Positive correlation between OPG concentration and HCO3 -and BE levels has been observed, as well as negative correlation between RANKL/OPG ratio and HCO3 -and BE levels.

Conclusion: Despite maintaining serum calcium, phosphorus and PTH levels within recommended limits, elevated levels of FGF 23 and OPG were observed in children with chronic kidney disease, especially in it's end-stage.
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January 2014

Adherence to transition guidelines in European paediatric nephrology units.

Pediatr Nephrol 2014 Sep 9;29(9):1617-24. Epub 2014 Apr 9.

Nottingham Children's Hospital, Children's Renal and Urology Unit, QMC Campus, Derby Road, Nottingham, NG7 2UH, UK.

Background: There is increasing focus on the problems involved in the transition and transfer of young adult patients from paediatric to adult renal units. This situation was addressed by the 2011 International Pediatric Nephrology Association/International Society of Nephrology (IPNA/ISN) Consensus Statement on transition.

Methods: We performed a survey of transition practices of 15 paediatric nephrology units across Europe 2 years after publication of the consensus statement.

Results: Two thirds of units were aware of the guidelines, and one third had integrated them into their transition practice. Forty-seven per cent of units transfer five or fewer patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 5 per year to a median of five adult centres, with higher numbers of CKD stages 2-4 patients. Seventy-three per cent of units were required by the hospital or government to transfer patients by a certain age. Eighty per cent of units commenced transition planning after the patient turned 15 years of age and usually within 1-2 years of the compulsory transfer age. Forty-seven per cent of units used a transition or transfer clinic. Prominent barriers to effective transition were patient and parent attachment to the paediatric unit and difficulty in allowing the young person to perform self-care.

Conclusions: Whereas awareness of the consensus statement is suboptimal, it has had some impact on practice. Adult nephrologists receive transferred patients infrequently, and the process of transition is introduced too late by paediatricians. Government- and hospital-driven age-based transfer policies distract focus from the achievement of competencies in self care. Variable use of transition clinics, written patient information and support groups is probably due to economic and human-resource limitations. The consensus statement provides a standard for evolving and evaluating transition policies jointly agreed upon by paediatric and adult units.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00467-014-2809-4DOI Listing
September 2014

The management of childhood urinary incontinence.

Pediatr Nephrol 2015 Jan 11;30(1):41-50. Epub 2014 Mar 11.

Department of Pediatrics, Nephrology, Hypertension, Medical University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland,

The International Children's Continence Society (ICCS) has undertaken an enormous effort to standardize both the terminology and management of various aspects of incontinence in children, including enuresis, bladder overactivity, dysfunctional voiding and psychological comorbidities. A number of guidelines have been published to aid those involved in the care of children with lower urinary tract symptoms. This review addresses a number of recommended diagnostic and therapeutic strategies, including urotherapy and pharmacological treatment, with emphasis on a focused medical history, information acquired from bladder diaries and uroflow evaluations. The major role of urotherapy is underlined with supportive pharmacotherapy, when indicated. The article provides both a summary of ICCS guidelines and a brief review of recently published papers related to the contemporary management of childhood incontinence, a health issue still underestimated by both the child's caregivers and healthcare providers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00467-014-2791-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4240910PMC
January 2015

Treatment strategies to prevent renal damage in hypertensive children.

Curr Hypertens Rep 2014 Apr;16(4):423

Department Pediatrics, Nephrology & Hypertension, Medical University Gdansk, Ul. Debinki 7, 80-211, Gdansk, Poland,

Hypertension secondary to chronic kidney disease prevails in earlier childhood and obesity-related primary hypertension in adolescence. Both are associated with a high risk of renal and cardiovascular morbidity. In children with chronic kidney disease, uncontrolled hypertension may accelerate progression to end-stage renal disease before adulthood is reached and increase a child's risk of cardiac death a thousand-fold. Obesity-related hypertension is a slow and silent killer, and though early markers of renal damage are recognized during childhood, end-stage renal disease is a risk in later life. Renal damage will be a formidable multiplier of cardiovascular risk for adults in whom obesity and hypertension tracks from childhood. Management options to prevent renal damage will vary for these different target groups. This review provides a summary of the available renoprotective strategies in order to aid physicians involved in the care of this challenging group of children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11906-014-0423-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3960483PMC
April 2014

Survival and clinical outcomes of children starting renal replacement therapy in the neonatal period.

Kidney Int 2014 Jul 5;86(1):168-74. Epub 2014 Feb 5.

Centre de référence des maladies rénales rares, Hospices Civils de Lyon and Université Claude-Bernard Lyon 1, Lyon, France.

End-stage renal disease requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) during the neonatal period is a very rare condition, and little information is available regarding long-term RRT and outcomes. To gain more information, we performed a collaborative study on patient characteristics and treatment outcomes in children who started RRT as neonates during their first month of life between 2000 and 2011 who were prospectively registered in the ESPN/ERA-EDTA, the IPPN (since 2007), the Japanese registry, or the Australian and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant (ANZDATA) registry. During the first month of life, 264 patients from 32 countries started RRT and were followed for a median of 29 months (interquartile range 11-60 months). Most neonates (242) started on peritoneal dialysis, 21 started on hemodialysis, and 1 patient with a transplant. The most important causes of renal failure were congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract in 141, cystic kidneys in 35, and cortical necrosis in 30. Within 2 years after the start of RRT, 69 children changed dialysis modality and 53 received a renal transplant. After a median of 7 months, 45 children had died, mainly because of infection, resulting in an estimated 2-year survival of 81%, and 5-year survival of 76%. Growth retardation (63%), anemia (55%), and hypertension (57%) were still major problems after 2 years. Thus, relatively good medium-term patient survival may be achieved with RRT started during the neonatal period, but specific therapeutic challenges continue to exist in this age group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ki.2013.561DOI Listing
July 2014

Genotype-phenotype associations in WT1 glomerulopathy.

Kidney Int 2014 May 8;85(5):1169-78. Epub 2014 Jan 8.

Division of Pediatric Nephrology, Center for Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.

WT1 mutations cause a wide spectrum of renal and extrarenal manifestations. Here we evaluated disease prevalence, phenotype spectrum, and genotype-phenotype correlations of 61 patients with WT1-related steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome relative to 700 WT1-negative patients, all with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. WT1 patients more frequently presented with chronic kidney disease and hypertension at diagnosis and exhibited more rapid disease progression. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis was equally prevalent in both cohorts, but diffuse mesangial sclerosis was largely specific for WT1 disease and was present in 34% of cases. Sex reversal and/or urogenital abnormalities (52%), Wilms tumor (38%), and gonadoblastoma (5%) were almost exclusive to WT1 disease. Missense substitutions affecting DNA-binding residues were associated with diffuse mesangial sclerosis (74%), early steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome onset, and rapid progression to ESRD. Truncating mutations conferred the highest Wilms tumor risk (78%) but typically late-onset steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. Intronic (KTS) mutations were most likely to present as isolated steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (37%) with a median onset at an age of 4.5 years, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis on biopsy, and slow progression (median ESRD age 13.6 years). Thus, there is a wide range of expressivity, solid genotype-phenotype associations, and a high risk and significance of extrarenal complications in WT1-associated nephropathy. We suggest that all children with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome undergo WT1 gene screening.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ki.2013.519DOI Listing
May 2014

Factors influencing choice of renal replacement therapy in European paediatric nephrology units.

Pediatr Nephrol 2013 Dec 11;28(12):2361-8. Epub 2013 Jul 11.

Children's Renal & Urology Unit, Nottingham Children's Hospital, QMC Campus, Derby Road, Nottingham, NG7 2UH, UK,

Background: Many factors may impact upon choice of renal replacement therapy (RRT) for children and adolescents, including patient and family choice, patient size and distance from the renal centre as well as logistic issues such as facilities and staffing at the unit. We report a survey of factors influencing treatment choice in 14 European paediatric nephrology units.

Methods: A questionnaire was developed by consensus and completed by 14 members of the European Paediatric Dialysis Working Group on facilities, staffing and family assessments impacting on choice of therapy as well as choice of therapy for 97 patients commencing initial RRT in 2011.

Results: All units offered all modalities of RRT, but there were limitations for pre-emptive transplantation (PET) and largely adult surgical dependence for creation of arteriovenous fistulae and transplantation. The average waiting time for a deceased donor kidney was 18.5 (range 3-36) months. Full time dietetic support was available in six of the 14 units. There was no social worker, psychology, play therapy or teaching support in three, two, seven and four units, respectively. Assessment by other members of the multidisciplinary team and home visits before choice of therapy was carried out in 50 % of units, and although all patients were discussed at team meetings, the medical opinion predominated. In terms of types of RRT, 50 % of patients were commenced on chronic peritoneal dialysis (PD), 34 % on haemodialysis (HD) and 16 % underwent pre-emptive transplantation (PET). Chronic PD predominated in patients aged <5 years and HD predominated in those aged >10 years. Patient and family choice and age or size of patient were predominant factors in choice of therapy with a predictable decline in renal function favouring PET and social factors HD.

Conclusions: Chronic peritoneal dialysis predominated as primary choice of RRT, especially in younger children. The PET rates remain low. The influence of surgeons predominanted, and national transplant rules may be significant. Most units had insufficient multiprofessional support, which may impact upon initial choice of therapy as well as sustaining families through RRT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00467-013-2555-zDOI Listing
December 2013

Mutational analysis in podocin-associated hereditary nephrotic syndrome in Polish patients: founder effect in the Kashubian population.

J Appl Genet 2013 Aug 5;54(3):327-33. Epub 2013 May 5.

Department of Biology and Genetics, Medical University of Gdansk, Debinki str. 1, 80211, Gdansk, Poland.

Hereditary nephrotic syndrome is caused by mutations in a number of different genes, the most common being NPHS2. The aim of the study was to identify the spectrum of NPHS2 mutations in Polish patients with the disease. A total of 141 children with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) were enrolled in the study. Mutational analysis included the entire coding sequence and intron boundaries of the NPHS2 gene. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and TaqMan genotyping assay were applied to detect selected NPHS2 sequence variants in 575 population-matched controls. Twenty patients (14 %) had homozygous or compound heterozygous NPHS2 mutations, the most frequent being c.1032delT found in 11 children and p.R138Q found in four patients. Carriers of the c.1032delT allele were exclusively found in the Pomeranian (Kashubian) region, suggesting a founder effect origin. The 14 % NPHS2 gene mutation detection rate is similar to that observed in other populations. The heterogeneity of mutations detected in the studied group confirms the requirement of genetic testing the entire NPHS2 coding sequence in Polish patients, with the exception of Kashubs, who should be initially screened for the c.1032delT deletion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13353-013-0147-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3721000PMC
August 2013

Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis in children on chronic PD: a survey from the European Paediatric Dialysis Working Group.

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2013 Jul 24;28(7):1908-14. Epub 2013 Jan 24.

Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Background: Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) is a rare complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD) that is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in adults. There are scarce data for children. We performed a 10-year survey to determine the prevalence, risk factors and outcome for EPS in children.

Methods: Chronic PD patients in 14 dialysis units participating in the European Paediatric Dialysis Working Group between January 2001 and December 2010 were included in this study.

Results: Twenty-two cases of EPS were reported (prevalence 1.5%; 8.7 per 1000 patient-years on PD). Median PD vintage was 5.9 (1.6-10.2) in EPS and 1.7 (0.7-7.7) years in the remainder of the PD population (P<0.0001). EPS patients had a significantly higher peritonitis rate than non-EPS patients (P=0.2). EPS was diagnosed while the child was on PD in 17 (77%), after conversion to haemodialysis (HD) in 3 and after transplantation in 2. Fifteen of 17 (88%) developed ultrafiltration (UF) failure. The median interval between UF failure and presentation with bowel obstruction was 2.8 (0.02-5.8) months. Twenty (91%) had clinical and radiological signs of bowel obstruction. Enterolysis was performed in 14 and 19 received immunosuppression or tamoxifen. Nine required parenteral nutrition. At final follow-up 4.8 (1.3-8.7) years after EPS diagnosis, 3 patients died, 11 had a functioning transplant and 8 were on HD.

Conclusions: The prevalence of EPS in European children on PD is comparable with that of adult PD patients, but mortality from paediatric EPS is significantly lower. A high index of suspicion is required for the diagnosis of EPS in children with longer dialysis duration, a high peritonitis rate and UF failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfs603DOI Listing
July 2013