Publications by authors named "Aleksandra Vojvodic"

114 Publications

Surface stability of perovskite oxides under OER operating conditions: a first principles approach.

Faraday Discuss 2021 Apr 23. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

The activity-stability conundrum has long been the Achilles' heel in the design of catalysts, in particular, for electrochemical reactions such as water splitting. Here, we use ab initio thermodynamics to delineate the surface stoichiometry of a group of perovskite oxides with different activities towards the oxygen evolution reaction (OER), in order to get a measure of their stability under OER operating conditions. In particular, we compare the surface stability of SrIrO3, SrRuO3 and SrTiO3, establishing atomistic insights into the stability and dissolution of these oxide surfaces.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9fd00146hDOI Listing
April 2021

2H-MoS on MoCT MXene Nanohybrid for Efficient and Durable Electrocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution.

ACS Nano 2020 Nov 13;14(11):16140-16155. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), 2 Fusionopolis Way, Innovis, Singapore 138634, Singapore.

The development of highly efficient and durable earth-abundant hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) catalysts is crucial for the extensive implementation of the hydrogen economy. Members of the 2D MXenes family, particularly MoCT, have recently been identified as promising HER catalysts. However, their inherent oxidative instability in air and aqueous electrolyte solutions is hindering their widespread use. Herein, we present a simple and scalable method to circumvent adventitious oxidation in MoCT MXenes sulfidation to form a MoCT/2H-MoS nanohybrid. The intimate epitaxial coupling at the MoCT/2H-MoS nanohybrid interface afforded superior HER activities, requiring only 119 or 182 mV overpotential to yield -10 or -100 mA cm current densities, respectively. Density functional theory calculations reveal strongest interfacial adhesion was found within the nanohybrid structure as compared to the physisorbed nanohybrid, and the possibility to tune the HER overpotential through manipulating the extent of MXene sulfidation. Critically, the presence of 2H-MoS suppresses further oxidation of the MXene layer, enabling the nanohybrid to sustain industrially relevant current densities of over -450 mA cm with exceptional durability. Less than 30 mV overpotential degradation was observed after 10 continuous days of electrolysis at a fixed -10 mA cm current density or 100,000 successive cyclic voltammetry cycles. The exceptional HER durability of the MoCT/2H-MoS nanohybrid presents a major step forward to realize practical implementation of MXenes as noble metal free catalysts for broad-based applications in water splitting and energy conversion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.0c08671DOI Listing
November 2020

Role of Undercoordinated Sites for the Catalysis in Confined Spaces Formed by Two-Dimensional Material Overlayers.

J Phys Chem Lett 2020 Nov 26;11(21):9400-9407. Epub 2020 Oct 26.

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-6315, United States.

Adding a two-dimensional (2D) overlayer on a metal surface is a promising route for activating reactants confined in the interfacial space. However, an atomistic understanding of the role played by undercoordinated sites of the 2D overlayer in the activation of molecules in this nanoscaled confined space is yet to be developed. In this paper, we study CO dissociation as a prototypical reaction to investigate CO activation in the confined space enclosed by Rh(111) and a monolayer of hexagonal boron nitride (-BN). The effect of the space size (i.e., the distance between -BN and the metal surface), the type of undercoordinated sites, and the size of the defect are explicitly studied by density functional theory with dispersion correction. The following temperature-programmed X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurement suggests that a small portion of the CO dissociated during the desorption, leaving the residual atomic oxygen incorporated into the -BN lattice, which validates the theoretical prediction. The combination of theory and experiment calls for further attention to be paid to the role of undercoordinated sites in the 2D overlayers in confined systems forming potential new catalytic environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.0c02652DOI Listing
November 2020

Using nature's blueprint to expand catalysis with Earth-abundant metals.

Science 2020 08;369(6505)

Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.

Numerous redox transformations that are essential to life are catalyzed by metalloenzymes that feature Earth-abundant metals. In contrast, platinum-group metals have been the cornerstone of many industrial catalytic reactions for decades, providing high activity, thermal stability, and tolerance to chemical poisons. We assert that nature's blueprint provides the fundamental principles for vastly expanding the use of abundant metals in catalysis. We highlight the key physical properties of abundant metals that distinguish them from precious metals, and we look to nature to understand how the inherent attributes of abundant metals can be embraced to produce highly efficient catalysts for reactions crucial to the sustainable production and transformation of fuels and chemicals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.abc3183DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7875315PMC
August 2020

Yeast extract demonstrates rapid itch relief in chronic pruritus.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2020 Aug 10;19(8):2131-2134. Epub 2020 Jan 10.

Department of Dermatology, Hairmore Hospital Beijing, Beijing, China.

Background: Pruritus is the most common complaint encountered in dermatological practice. It is estimated that up to 4% of the world population suffers from chronic itch. Chronic pruritus can be associated with both cutaneous or systemic conditions. While a plethora of treatments attempt to address itch, most carry risk of significant adverse events with chronic use; thus, there exists an unmet need to develop safe treatments for chronic pruritus. A recent study demonstrated that a novel extract from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, that is, Baker's yeast, blocks various histamine receptors as well as inhibits numerous inflammatory cytokines.

Methods: Given the long-term safety profile of Baker's yeast, we set to investigate the efficacy of the novel extract in the treatment of chronic pruritus.

Key Results: In our study, we demonstrated that within 30 minutes, the novel extract significantly reduced itch when compared to a placebo lotion (P = .0020).

Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating that a novel extract from Saccharomyces cerevisiae can provide rapid and sustained itch relief to chronic pruritus patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocd.13265DOI Listing
August 2020

Therapeutic options in vitiligo with special emphasis on immunomodulators: A comprehensive update with review of literature.

Dermatol Ther 2020 03 12;33(2):e13215. Epub 2020 Jan 12.

Department of Dermatology, University of Rome G. Marconi, Rome, Italy.

Vitiligo is a relatively common disorder characterized by areas of depigmented skin. It may be associated with social stigma and adversely affects the quality of life. Although many treatment options are available, none is curable. The search continues for an effective therapeutic option. New targeted options include biologics and other immunomodulatory agents, with varying degrees of evidence. We have discussed briefly the therapeutic options with special emphasis on the newer immunomodulatory agents. We undertook a comprehensive English literature search across multiple databases such as PubMed, SCOPUS, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and Cochrane using keywords (alone and in combination) and MeSH items such as "vitiligo," "treatment," "recent," and "immunomodulators" to obtain several relevant articles, priority being given to prospective randomized controlled trials. We scanned all the relevant articles and summarized them to obtain the latest information about the treatment of this condition to prepare the current article.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dth.13215DOI Listing
March 2020

Complications of botulinum toxin and fillers: A narrative review.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2020 Mar 30;19(3):570-573. Epub 2019 Dec 30.

Department of Dermatology, University Medical Center Mainz, Mainz, Germany.

Background: Cosmetic surgery and esthetic procedures have become a billion dollar industry owing to the ever-growing demand of the population to stay young. The injectable treatments including fillers and botulinum toxin have become highly popular because of their quick, predictable and lasting results in the management of facial wrinkles and rejuvenation. Although these treatment modalities are relatively safe, they are associated with certain side effects.

Aims: In this review, we will focus on the complications of fillers and botulinum toxin.

Patients/methods: The literature research considered published journal articles (clinical trials or scientific reviews). Studies were identified by searching electronic databases (MEDLINE and PubMed) and reference lists of respective articles. Only articles available in English were considered for this review.

Results: Brow ptosis and asymmetry are common adverse effects of botulinum toxin while the most common adverse effects associated with fillers are the local injection related effects manifesting as erythema, edema, pain, and ecchymosis.

Conclusion: It is important that the treating physician is well verse with the various fillers and botulinum toxin complications and their management as some of the complications can be severely debilitating.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocd.13266DOI Listing
March 2020

Reverdin skin grafting as adequate approach for squamous cell carcinoma of the temporal region.

Dermatol Ther 2020 01 8;33(1):e13199. Epub 2020 Jan 8.

Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Dermatologic Surgery, Medical Institute of Ministry of Interior (MVR-Sofia), University Hospital MVR, Sofia, Bulgaria.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dth.13199DOI Listing
January 2020

A Mathematical Model for the Signal of Death and Emergence of Mind Out of Brain in Izhikevich Neuron Model.

Open Access Maced J Med Sci 2019 Sep 11;7(18):3121-3126. Epub 2019 Sep 11.

Department of Dermatology, University of G. Marconi, Rome, Italy.

Aim: In this paper, using a mathematical model, we will show that for special exchanged photons, the Hamiltonian of a collection of neurons tends to a constant number and all activities is stopped. These photons could be called as the dead photons. To this aim, we use concepts of Bio-BIon in Izhikevich Neuron model.

Methods: In a neuron, there is a page of Dendrite, a page of axon's terminals and a tube of Schwann cells, axon and Myelin Sheath that connects them. These two pages and tube form a Bio-Bion. In a Bio-Bion, exchanging photons and some charged particles between terminals of dendrite and terminals of axon leads to the oscillation of neurons and transferring information. This Bion produces the Hamiltonian, wave equation and action potential of Izhikevich Neuron model. Also, this Bion determines the type of dependency of parameters of Izhikevich model on temperature and frequency and obtains the exact shape of membrane capacitance, resting membrane potential and instantaneous threshold potential.

Results: Under some conditions, waves of neurons in this BIon join to each other and potential shrinks to a delta function. Consequently, total Hamiltonian of the system tends to a constant number and system of neuron act like a dead system. Finally, this model indicates that all neurons have the ability to produce similar waves and signals like waves of the mind.

Conclusion: Generalizing this to biology, we can claim that neurons out of the brain can produce signals of minding and imaging and thus mind isn't confined to the brain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2019.774DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6910805PMC
September 2019

Psychotherapy Role in Treatment of Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria in a 32 Years Old Female Patient.

Open Access Maced J Med Sci 2019 Sep 30;7(18):3118-3120. Epub 2019 Aug 30.

Department of Dermatology, University of G. Marconi, Rome, Italy.

As indicated by the latest scientific evidence, the lines between different fields of medicine gradually blur and overlap more and more. Psychiatry and dermatology have seen this trend in the last decade as an ever-increasing number of studies suggest the strong connection of many dermatological syndromes and diseases with psychiatric conditions and vice versa. It seems that the relationship is more intertwined than previously believed and the effects of different multidisciplinary approaches to diagnostic and treatment are being considered. The aim of this case report is to highlight the effect of psychotherapy on chronic spontaneous urticaria which is tightly related to the maladaptive stress response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2019.773DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6910793PMC
September 2019

Formation of Neural Circuits in an Expanded Version of Darwin's Theory: Effects of DNAs in Extra Dimensions and within the Earth's Core on Neural Networks.

Open Access Maced J Med Sci 2019 Sep 10;7(18):3113-3117. Epub 2019 Sep 10.

Department of Dermatology, University of G. Marconi, Rome, Italy.

Aim: In this paper, inspiring Darwin's theory, we propose a model which connects evolutions of neural circuits with evolutions of cosmos. In this model, in the beginning, there are some closed strings which decay into two groups of open strings.

Methods: First group couple to our universe from one side and produce matters like some genes of DNAs and couple to an anti-universe from another side with opposite sign and create anti-matters like some anti-genes of anti-DNAs. Second group couple to the star and planet's cores like the earth's core from one side and produce anti-matters like stringy black anti-DNA and couple to outer layers of stars and planets like the earth from other side and produce matters like some genes of DNAs on the earth. Each DNA or anti-DNA contains some genetic circuits which act like the circuits of receiver or sender of radio waves. To transfer waves of these circuits, some neurons emerge which some of them are related to genetic circuits of anti-DNAs in anti-universe, and some are related to genetic circuits of stringy black anti-DNA within the earth's core. A collection of these neural circuits forms the little brain on the heart at first and main brain after some time.

Results: To examine the model, we remove effects of matters in outer layers of earth in the conditions of microgravity and consider radiated signals of neural circuits in a chick embryo. We observe that in microgravity, more signals are emitted by neural circuits respect to normal conditions. This is a signature of exchanged waves between neural circuits and structures within the earth's core.

Conclusion: These communications help some animals to predict the time and place of an earthquake.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2019.769DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6910808PMC
September 2019

Beta Blockers and Melanoma.

Open Access Maced J Med Sci 2019 Sep 30;7(18):3110-3112. Epub 2019 Aug 30.

Department of Dermatology, University of G. Marconi, Rome, Italy.

Understanding the mechanisms of cancer immune-tolerance is one of the most important challenges. Several studies have demonstrated the potential anticarcinogenic effects of beta-blockers, in patients with prostate cancer, breast cancer, and melanoma. At the other side variety of dermatoses may be caused or aggravated by β-blockers-psoriasis, lichen planus-like drug eruptions (LDE), acrocyanosis, alopecia etc. Beta-blockers have been shown to improve the prognosis of melanoma patients significantly. Propranolol inhibits melanoma by downregulating the tumour angiogenesis but also tumour cell proliferation, invasiveness and local immune suppression. Studies showed that only β3-but, not β2-adrenoceptors, were up-regulated under hypoxia in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and selectively expressed in immune cell sub-populations including Treg, MDSC, and NK. They increased NK and CD8 number and cytotoxicity. Catecholamines may retard melanoma progression and that β-blockers may have unrecognised potential as a therapeutic intervention for melanoma, in the prevention of the growth of melanoma in all stages and as adjuvant therapy with other targeted and immune therapies for melanoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2019.781DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6910815PMC
September 2019

In Ovo Sexing of Chicken Eggs by Virus Spectroscopy.

Open Access Maced J Med Sci 2019 Sep 12;7(18):3106-3109. Epub 2019 Sep 12.

Department of Dermatology, University of G. Marconi, Rome, Italy.

Recently, some new methods for sexing of chicken eggs by fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy through the shell membrane have been proposed. On the other hand, in another investigation, a new virus medical imaging has been suggested. In this research, summing over these considerations, a new technique for sexing of chicken eggs by virus spectroscopy through the shell membrane is proposed. It is shown that viruses outside the shell of egg can communicate with materials inside it and determine the gender of chick embryo and it's evolutions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2019.768DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6910803PMC
September 2019

The Effects of Magnesium - Melatonin - Vit B Complex Supplementation in Treatment of Insomnia.

Open Access Maced J Med Sci 2019 Sep 30;7(18):3101-3105. Epub 2019 Aug 30.

Department of Dermatology, G. Marconi University, Rome, Italy.

Insomnia means difficulty in falling asleep and/or stays asleep. Insomnia commonly leads to daytime sleepiness, lethargy, and a general feeling of being unwell. The most common treatment of insomnia includes GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulators or Melatonin agonists. Our study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Magnesium- melatonin-vitamin B complex supplement in the treatment of insomnia. The study included 60 patients diagnosed with insomnia. The patients were randomly divided into study group (N = 30), and control group (N = 30), and study group was treated with Magnesium-melatonin-vitamin B complex (one dose contains 175 mg liposomal magnesium oxide, 10 mg Vit B6, 16 μg vit B12, melatonin 1 mg, Extrafolate-S 600 μg) once a day 1 hour before sleep, during the 3 months. The severity of insomnia symptoms was measured by self-reported Athens insomnia scale (AIS), with a cut-off score by Soldatos (AIS score ≥ 6). Mean AIS score at zero points was 14.93 ± 3.778 in the study group and 14.37 ± 4.081 in the control group (p = 0.476), indicating the compatibility of the groups, and both scores correspond to mild to moderate insomnia. Mean AIS score after 3 months of the Magnesium- melatonin- vitamin B complex supplementation was 10.50 ± 4.21 corresponding to mild insomnia, while median AIS score in the control group was 15.13 ± 3.76 which is referred to moderate insomnia, and difference among groups was significant (p = 0.000). Our founding's indicating that 3 months of the Magnesium- melatonin-vitamin B complex supplementation has a beneficial effect in the treatment of insomnia regardless of cause.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2019.771DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6910806PMC
September 2019

DNA Waves and Their Applications in Biology.

Open Access Maced J Med Sci 2019 Sep 11;7(18):3096-3100. Epub 2019 Sep 11.

Department of Dermatology, University of G. Marconi, Rome, Italy.

Aim: In this research, we show that DNA waves have many applications in biology. DNA is formed by the joining of quantum particles like electrons and charged atoms. DNA has different motions during transcription, translation, and replication, in which the charged particles move, accelerate, and emit waves. Thus, DNA could emit quantum waves.

Methods: Two methods are proposed to observe the effect of DNA waves. The first proposed method measures DNA waves emitted by bacteria suspended in the milk. The vessel of milk is placed in the interior of an inductor. One side of the vessel is connected to a generator and another side to a scope. By sending a current to the inductor, an input electromagnetic field is produced. Bacteria interact with the input field, change it and produce new output signals. Using the scope, the output signals are observed and compared with the input signals. The number of DNA waves produced also depends on temperature.

Results: At lower temperatures, bacterial replication is less, and fewer DNA waves are produced. Conversely, more bacteria are generated at higher temperatures, and more DNA waves are produced. The second proposed method acquires and images of DNA signals of chick embryos. In this method, a circuit is constructed that consists of a graphene or metal tube, generator, inductor, scope, DNA in the interior of eggs and DNA exterior to the eggs. Magnetic waves pass the interior and exterior DNA as well as the graphene. The DNA is excited and the exciting interior/exterior DNA exchanges waves. Some of these waves interact with electrons in the graphene tube, and a current is generated. Properties of the chick embryo DNA can be explored by analysing changes in the waves that emerge from the eggs.

Conclusion: It is concluded that DNA waves could be used extensively in imaging and provide for us the exact information about evolutions of DNAs interior of biological systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2019.767DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6910796PMC
September 2019

Anetoderma Schweninger-Buzzi: Two Case Reports.

Open Access Maced J Med Sci 2019 Sep 19;7(18):3093-3095. Epub 2019 Aug 19.

Military Medical Academy of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia.

Background: Anetodermas are rare disorders of connective tissue with a focal loss of elastic fibres in the upper and mid dermis. Two types are separated, inflammatory and non-inflammatory.

Case Reports: We report two cases of acquired anetoderma Schweniger-Buzzi type. This non-inflammatory subtype is characterised by skin-coloured or whitish atrophic sac-like protrusions of trunk skin in adult males. Chronic infections and autoimmune disorders have been excluded. The diagnosis had been confirmed by characteristic histopathology.

Conclusions: Anetodermas are symptomless disorders. They can be easily overlooked. The knowledge of such conditions is of importance to identify patients with a risk of thromboembolic events and underlying infections or autoimmune connective tissue diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2019.560DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6910789PMC
September 2019

New Trends in Cutaneous Melanoma Surgery.

Open Access Maced J Med Sci 2019 Sep 14;7(18):3090-3092. Epub 2019 Sep 14.

Department of Dermatology, University of G. Marconi, Rome, Italy.

The main surgical treatment for melanoma consists in wide surgical excision of the primary lesion and the sentinel node but in recent times management of melanoma is rapidly evolving with the introduction of new systemic therapies, like BRAF inhibitors, MEK inhibitors and antibodies anti-PD-1 that show good results in controlling even advanced stages of the disease. This review aims to present data for the optimal surgical management of patients with malignant melanoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2019.828DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6910799PMC
September 2019

Recovery of Brain in Chick Embryos by Growing Second Heart and Brain.

Open Access Maced J Med Sci 2019 Sep 30;7(18):3085-3089. Epub 2019 Aug 30.

Department of Dermatology, University of G. Marconi, Rome, Italy.

To recover chick embryos damaged the brain, two methods are presented. In both of them, somatic cells of an embryo introduced into an egg cell and an embryo have emerged. In one method, injured a part of the brain in the head of an embryo is replaced with a healthy part of the brain. In the second method, the heart of brain embryo dead is transplanted with the embryo heart. In this mechanism, new blood cells are emerged in the bone marrow and transmit information of transplantation to subventricular zone (SVZ) of the brain through the circulatory system. Then, SVZ produces new neural stem cells by a subsequent dividing into neurons. These neurons produce new neural circuits within the brain and recover the injured brain. To examine the model, two hearts of two embryos are connected, and their effects on neural circuits are observed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2019.777DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6910787PMC
September 2019

Acanthosis Nigricans - A Two-Sided Coin: Consider Metabolic Syndrome and Malignancies!

Open Access Maced J Med Sci 2019 Sep 13;7(18):3081-3084. Epub 2019 May 13.

Onkoderma - Clinic for Dermatology, Venereology and Dermatologic Surgery, General Skobelev 26, 1606, Sofia, Bulgaria.

Background: Acanthosis nigricans (AN) is acquired hyperpigmentation of the intertriginous body regions. Histologically, AN is characterised by a thickened stratum corneum and a variable amount of acanthosis. Although benign and rarely symptomatic, AN may be a red flag for underlying pathologies.

Case Presentation: We analysed our patients with AN and could differentiate three different patterns, that are illustrated by one case report each. The is the benign AN associated with metabolic syndrome including obesity. The second type is the paraneoplastic AN malignancy which is associated with a wider range of malignancies. This type may occur before, after or with the clinical appearance of the malignancy. The third type is relapsing AN after complete remission. We present a patient who had a malignant AN and was treated successfully for his cancer. Years later, however, AN relapsed. In that case in association with the appearance of skin tags. Cancer restaging excluded a tumour relapse. His BMI was 31.2 kg/m, and the diagnosis of benign AN was confirmed.

Conclusions: The diagnosis of AN remains incomplete without screening for metabolic syndrome and/ or cancer. The combination of AN and skin tags is more often associated with metabolic syndrome. AN may be considered as a red flag for malignancies and the metabolic syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2019.258DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6910804PMC
September 2019

A Black Hole at the Center of Earth Plays the Role of the Biggest System of Telecommunication for Connecting DNAs, Dark DNAs and Molecules of Water on 4+N- Dimensional Manifold.

Open Access Maced J Med Sci 2019 Sep 30;7(18):3073-3080. Epub 2019 Aug 30.

Department of Dermatology, University of G. Marconi, Rome, Italy.

Recently, some scientists from NASA have claimed that there may be a black hole like structure at the centre of the earth. We show that the existence of life on the earth may be a reason that this black hole like object is a black brane that has been formed from biological materials like DNA. Size of this DNA black brane is 109 times longer than the size of the earth's core and compacted interior it. By compacting this long object, a curved space-time emerges, and some properties of black holes emerge. This structure is the main cause of the emergence of the large temperature of the core, magnetic field around the earth and gravitational field for moving around the sun. Also, this structure produces some waves which act like topoisomerase in biology and read the information on DNAs. However, on the four-dimensional manifold, DNAs are contracted at least four times around various axis's and waves of earth couldn't read their information. While, by adding extra dimensions on 4 +n-dimensional manifold, the separation distance between particles increases and all of the information could be recovered by waves. For this reason, each DNA has two parts which one can be seen on the four-dimensional universe, and another one has existed in extra dimensions, and only it's e_ects is observed. This dark part of DNA called as a dark DNA in an extra dimension. These dark DNAs not only exchange information with DNAs but also are connected with some of the molecules of water and helps them to store information and have memory. Thus, the earth is the biggest system of telecommunication which connects DNAs, dark DNAs and molecules of water.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2019.776DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6910781PMC
September 2019

Successful Treatment of a Widespread Pemphigus Chronicus Familiaris (Hailey-Hailey) By Erbium-YAG-Laser.

Open Access Maced J Med Sci 2019 Sep 30;7(18):3070-3072. Epub 2019 Aug 30.

Military Medical Academy of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia.

Background: Familial chronic pemphigus or Hailey-Hailey disease (OMIM 169600) is a rare, autosomal dominant blistering skin disorder the genetic background are mutations of the ATP2 C1 gene. The treatment is challenging.

Case Report: A 48-year-old Caucasian female patient presented to the department with a relapse of her Pemphigus chronicus familiaris (Hailey-Hailey). No other medical diseases were known. On examination, we observed an otherwise healthy woman with widespread erosive lesions on the neck, axillae, groins, submammary fold and anal fold. She reported burning sensations and an unpleasant odour. The diagnosis had been confirmed earlier by histopathology of a skin biopsy with acantholysis, and the relapsing and remitting course. Family history was positive for father and brother. Since she had not responded well in the past to systemic retinoids and did not tolerate the adverse effects of these drugs, we suggested an ablative erbium-YAG laser treatment in general anaesthesia. Laser treatment was performed with the MCL 29 Dermablate (Asclepion Laser Technologies, Jena, Germany) on two occasions. We used a 5 mm focus, pulse energy of 1200 mJ at 8 Hz. The resulting superficial wounds were treated with an ointment containing fusidic acid 0.2% and betamethasone 0.1%. Wound healing was completed after 12 days. No adverse events were observed.

Conclusions: Ablative erbium-YAG therapy is an option for pemphigus chronicus familiaris, in particular in young women and patients who do not tolerate the adverse effects of retinoid therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2019.764DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6910780PMC
September 2019

The Impact of Immunological Factors on Depression Treatment - Relation Between Antidepressants and Immunomodulation Agents.

Open Access Maced J Med Sci 2019 Sep 12;7(18):3064-3069. Epub 2019 Sep 12.

Department of Dermatology, University of G. Marconi, Rome, Italy.

It is determined that 30% of patients with depression are resistant to antidepressant medication. The increased concentration of inflammation factors, such as C-reactive protein, and pro-inflammatory cytokines, have been detected in serum in these patients. It is necessary to establish new therapeutic possibilities and protocols that are created to overcome the difficulties caused by increased concentration of inflammatory biomarkers in depressive patients. The Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) are considered to be the most powerful antidepressants, increasing the level of serotonin in endogenous depression, as well as in that caused by immunological mechanisms. It is believed that agents that influence cytokines, immunological signal pathways and cytokine syntheses, like the inhibitors of cyclooxygenase enzyme and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), are very important in the potential treatment of residual symptoms of depression. Treatment with cytokine antagonists is one of the potential adjuvant therapies, along with antidepressants. Signal pathways blockers, such as the inhibitors of cyclooxygenase and other NSAIDs, are in the phase of research, in terms of their antidepressant effects. Also, it has been shown that the inhibition of indolamin-2,3 deoxygenase (IDO) and kynurenine (KYN) signal pathways in the synthesis of neurotransmitters, by application of IDO antagonists, are leading to suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokine effects. Antidepressants may have anti-inflammatory effects, depending on dose and type, and they achieve this effect through the decrease of pro-inflammatory cytokine production and increase of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Also, antidepressants modulate the humoral and cellular immune system. This work aims to summarise certain neurobiological and neuroimmunological specificities that have been observed in patients with depression, antidepressants and immunomodulation agents. The understanding of complex and heterogenic pathophysiology of depression through the prism of the altered immune system, is of major importance, in terms of better optimisation of pharmacotherapy, and options for a personalised approach in depressive disorder treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2019.779DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6910782PMC
September 2019

Giant Squamous Cell Carcinoma on Chronic Lichen Planus on the Ankle - A Case Report and Short Literature Review.

Open Access Maced J Med Sci 2019 Sep 19;7(18):3061-3063. Epub 2019 Aug 19.

Department of Dermatology, University of Rome "G. Marconi", Rome, Italy.

Background: Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the second most common malignancy of skin. Although a major risk factor is a chronic exposure to ultraviolet radiation, preexistent chronic inflammatory disorders may also possess an increased risk for SCC. That is not the case for cutaneous lichen planus in contrast to oral lichen planus and oral SCC.

Case Report: We report the case of an 87-year-old Caucasian woman presenting with a giant verrucous tumour on the left ankle. She suffered from long-standing disseminated lichen planus. Histology confirmed the diagnosis of SCC on partly verrucous lichen planus. The course was complicated due to sepsis. An emergency transfemoral amputation became necessary. The patients survived and could be released into her nursery. A literature review underlined the rarity of SCC on lichen planus of the skin. Most of these rare cases were in patients in their second half of life on the lower legs. Hypertrophic lichen planus was overrepresented.

Conclusions: Although very rare by number, SCC can complicate lichen planus and lead to the life-threatening situation. Atypical verrucous lesions on lichen planus warrant a histologic analysis. Surgery is the treatment of choice for cutaneous SCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2019.553DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6910792PMC
September 2019

Clinical Applications of System Regulation Medicine.

Open Access Maced J Med Sci 2019 Sep 14;7(18):3053-3060. Epub 2019 Sep 14.

Department of Dermatology, University of G. Marconi, Rome, Italy.

Increasing incidence and poor outcome of chronic non-communicable diseases in western population would require a paradigm shift in the treatments. Guidelines-based medical approaches continue to be the standard rule in clinical practice, although only less than 15% of them are based on high-quality research. For each person who benefits from the 10 best-selling drugs in the USA, a number between 4 and 25 has no one beneficial effect. The reductionist linear medicine method does not offer solutions in the non-manifest preclinical stage of the disease when it would still be possible to reverse the pathological progression and the axiom "a drug, a target, a symptom" are still inconclusive. Needs additional tools to address these challenges. System Medicine considers the disease as a dysregulation of the biological networks that changes throughout the evolution of the pathological process and with the comorbidities development. The strength of the networks indicates their ability to withstand dysregulations during the perturbation phases, returning to the state of stability. The treatment of dysregulated networks before the symptomatological manifestation emerges offers the possibility of treating and preventing pathologies in the preclinical phase and potentially reversing the pathological process, stopping it or preventing comorbidities. Furthermore, treating shared networks instead of individual phenotypic symptoms can reduce drug use, offering a solution to the problem of ineffective drug use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2019.775DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6910802PMC
September 2019

Melanoma and Mastocytosis.

Open Access Maced J Med Sci 2019 Sep 30;7(18):3050-3052. Epub 2019 Aug 30.

Department of Dermatology, Guglielmo Marconi University, Rome, Italy.

There are numerous cases reports and studies confirming the enhanced incidence of melanoma among patients with mastocytosis, especially with systemic mastocytosis. These two diseases are arising from two different types of cells; melanoma arises from neural crest cells and mastocytosis from hematopoietic stem cells. But there are a lot of similarities between the two diseases. The most important and significant is the dependence of the growth factor receptor c-KIT and c-KIT ligand (stem cell factor) for their growth and development. Also, expression of the STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) and transcription factors MITF (microphthalmia-associated transcription factor) make the connection between melanoma and mastocytosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2019.772DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6910818PMC
September 2019

Psychological Impact of Melanoma, How to Detect, Support and Help.

Open Access Maced J Med Sci 2019 Sep 30;7(18):3043-3045. Epub 2019 Aug 30.

Department of Nuclear Physics, Sub-nuclear and Radiation, G. Marconi University, Rome, Italy.

Incidence of melanoma is increasing every year. A few years ago, we could not speak about long term survivors with melanoma. Chemotherapy did not give a good effect in the past. Metastasis occurred very rapidly, and the progression of melanoma was very fast. But now, with new forms of therapy, especially immunotherapy and target therapy, for the first time, we have long-time survivors. For the prognosis of melanoma, the most important is the stage in which melanoma is detected. For all dermatologists, it is very important to be aware of the psychological impact of melanoma on patients. Dermatologists should recognise psychological disorders. Several different scales can be used for the detection of depression and anxiety - some of them are completed by researchers, some of them are completed by patients, and also, we have combined scales. The need for adequate social and family support as well as psychological help to achieve better coping with illness is necessary. Learning techniques to overcome fear and stress would help in better functioning of all affected, regardless of the stage of the disease. The most severe cases of anxiety and depression, in addition to psychotherapeutic interventions, should also be considered medication therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2019.770DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6910785PMC
September 2019

Erythema Elevatum Diutinum - Two Case Reports, Two Different Clinical Presentations, and a Short Literature Review.

Open Access Maced J Med Sci 2019 Sep 30;7(18):3039-3042. Epub 2019 Aug 30.

Department of Dermatology, University of Rome "G. Marconi", Rome, Italy.

Background: Erythema elevatum diutinum (EED) belongs to the spectrum of cutaneous leukocytoclastic vasculitides. EED is a very rare dermatosis presenting with reddish to browning papules and plaques. EED may be associated with infections, hematologic and autoimmune disorders.

Case Reports: We present two patients with EED, a 50-year-old woman and a 42-year-old man. While the woman shows an association with colitis ulcerosa, the man had an anti-thrombin deficiency. Treatment was started with oral corticosteroid and dapsone, respectively. In both cases, there was a partial and temporary response.

Conclusions: EED is a rare vasculitis with an unusual clinical presentation and a chronic course. Response to treatment is unsatisfactory and in the long-term run sometimes frustrating.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2019.765DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6910801PMC
September 2019

Gut Microbiota and the Alteration of Immune Balance in Skin Diseases: From Nutraceuticals to Fecal Transplantation.

Open Access Maced J Med Sci 2019 Sep 12;7(18):3034-3038. Epub 2019 Sep 12.

Department of Dermatology, G. Marconi University, Rome, Italy.

The P.N.E.I. (Psycho-Neuro-Endocrine-Immunology) approach is represented by the interdisciplinary concept of bidirectional cross-talk between the psycho-neuro-endocrine and immune systems, which can influence the immune response. The well-known Gut-Brain Axis and the Gut-Skin Axis can be merged in a bigger network- the Gut-Brain-Skin Axis, with complex regulation by cytokines, neuro-peptides, neuro-hormones and another messenger (signalling) molecules and maybe the most important modulator of the Gut-Brain-Skin Axis/ the gut microbiota. The role of gut bacterial homeostasis is very important, and the homeostatic imbalance of the immune response may be a relevant etiologic/pathophysiologic factor for extra-intestinal and intestinal inflammatory, allergic and autoimmune diseases. The Low Dose Cytokines Medicine (LDM) is an innovative therapeutic approach. It is based on the most advanced knowledge in molecular biology and low dose pharmacology with the primary outcome. The SKA (Sequential Kinetic Activation) technology, codified and standardised by GUNA S.p.a. -Italy- makes the low doses of signalling molecules able to be active even below the minimum dose classically considered as effective and the significative efficacy of orally administered low-dose signalling molecules is the most representative aspect of LDM. The Physiologic Nutraceuticals and the Low Dose Medicine are two of the most promising approaches for the treatment of skin diseases based on the rebalance of the immune response and the recovery of gut dysbiosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2019.827DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6910798PMC
September 2019

Multiple Cutaneous Leiomyomas with Uterus Myomatosus (MCUL) - Two Case Reports and One New Mutation of FH Gene.

Open Access Maced J Med Sci 2019 Sep 30;7(18):3026-3029. Epub 2019 Jul 30.

Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Städtisches Klinikum Dresden, Academic Teaching Hospital, Dresden, Germany.

Background: Reed syndrome or multiple cutaneous leiomyomas with uterine leiomyomas are part of the spectrum of heterozygous hereditary disorders with cutaneous, genital and renal manifestations.

Case Reports: We report two female cases of multiple cutaneous leiomyomas with uterine leiomyomas (MCUL) without renal disease, in particular without cysts or papillary renal carcinoma, aged 52 and 55 years, respectively. The diagnosis of pilar leiomyomas was confirmed by histology and immunostaining for smooth muscle actin and desmin. Both females had a hysterectomy in the past because of uterus myomatosus. In one patient, a new mutation of the FH gene was detected, i.e. a heterozygote c1300_1301del (p.Cys434Argfs17) mutation in the exon 9 of the FH gene.

Conclusion: Since MCUL shares features with the genetic cancer syndrome hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC), these patients need a regular follow-up to prevent the late diagnosis of renal cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2019.625DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6910784PMC
September 2019

Treatment of Psoriasis: Novel Approaches to Topical Delivery.

Open Access Maced J Med Sci 2019 Sep 30;7(18):3018-3025. Epub 2019 Aug 30.

Department of Dermatology, University of Rome "G. Marconi", Rome, Italy.

Topical treatment is the cornerstone for the management of mild to moderate psoriasis. Despite efforts in drug development, patient's satisfaction with the available topical treatments is limited. A strategy to improve safety, efficacy and comfort of topical treatment provides the development of new drug delivery and drug carrier systems. This review provides an overview of recent advances in this field with a focus on psoriasis. Laser-assisted drug delivery, foam formulations, nanoparticles, ethosomes, and niomes are considered. Hopefully, these new developments will improve topical drug therapy and patient satisfaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2019.414DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6910788PMC
September 2019