Publications by authors named "Alejandro Martín-Malo"

90 Publications

Assessment of Inorganic Phosphate Intake by the Measurement of the Phosphate/Urea Nitrogen Ratio in Urine.

Nutrients 2021 Jan 20;13(2). Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Maimonides Institute for Biomedical Research of Cordoba (IMIBIC), University of Cordoba, Nephrology Service, Reina Sofia University Hospital, 14004 Cordoba, Spain.

In chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, it would be desirable to reduce the intake of inorganic phosphate (P) rather than limit the intake of P contained in proteins. Urinary excretion of P should reflect intestinal absorption of P(inorganic plus protein-derived). The aim of the present study is to determine whether the ratio of urinary P to urinary urea nitrogen (P/UUN ratio) helps identify patients with a high intake of inorganic P.A cross-sectional study was performed in 71 patients affected by metabolic syndrome with CKD (stages 2-3) with normal serum P concentration. A 3-day dietary survey was performed to estimate the average daily amount and the source of P ingested. The daily intake ofPwas1086.5 ± 361.3mg/day; 64% contained in animal proteins, 22% in vegetable proteins, and 14% as inorganic P. The total amount of P ingested did not correlate with daily phosphaturia, but it did correlate with the P/UUN ratio ( < 0.018). Patients with the highest tertile of the P/UUN ratio >71.1 mg/g presented more abundant inorganic P intake ( < 0.038).The P/UUN ratio is suggested to be a marker of inorganic P intake. This finding might be useful in clinical practices to identify the source of dietary P and to make personalized dietary recommendations directed to reduce inorganic P intake.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13020292DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7909516PMC
January 2021

The Role of Disturbed Mg Homeostasis in Chronic Kidney Disease Comorbidities.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2020 12;8:543099. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Maimonides Biomedical Research Institute of Cordoba (IMIBIC), Córdoba, Spain.

Some of the critical mechanisms that mediate chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression are associated with vascular calcifications, disbalance of mineral metabolism, increased oxidative and metabolic stress, inflammation, coagulation abnormalities, endothelial dysfunction, or accumulation of uremic toxins. Also, it is widely accepted that pathologies with a strong influence in CKD progression are diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease (CVD). A disbalance in magnesium (Mg) homeostasis, more specifically hypomagnesemia, is associated with the development and progression of the comorbidities mentioned above, and some mechanisms might explain why low serum Mg is associated with negative clinical outcomes such as major adverse cardiovascular and renal events. Furthermore, it is likely that hypomagnesemia causes the release of inflammatory cytokines and C-reactive protein and promotes insulin resistance. Animal models have shown that Mg supplementation reverses vascular calcifications; thus, clinicians have focused on the potential benefits that Mg supplementation may have in humans. Recent evidence suggests that Mg reduces coronary artery calcifications and facilitates peripheral vasodilation. Mg may reduce vascular calcification by direct inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Furthermore, Mg deficiency worsens kidney injury induced by an increased tubular load of phosphate. One important consequence of excessive tubular load of phosphate is the reduction of renal tubule expression of α-Klotho in moderate CKD. Low Mg levels worsen the reduction of Klotho induced by the tubular load of phosphate. Evidence to support clinical translation is yet insufficient, and more clinical studies are required to claim enough evidence for decision-making in daily practice. Meanwhile, it seems reasonable to prevent and treat Mg deficiency. This review aims to summarize the current understanding of Mg homeostasis, the potential mechanisms that may mediate the effect of Mg deficiency on CKD progression, CVD, and mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2020.543099DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7688914PMC
November 2020

Control of phosphorus and prevention of fractures in the kidney patient.

Nefrologia 2021 Jan-Feb;41(1):7-14. Epub 2020 Sep 25.

Hospital del Mar, Barcelona, España.

Patients with chronic kidney disease have a higher risk of fractures than the general population due to the added factor of uraemia. Although the mechanisms behind uraemia-associated fractures are not fully understood, it is widely accepted that the decrease in bone mineral content and alteration in bone architecture both increase bone fragility. As chronic kidney disease progresses, the risk of fracture increases, especially once the patient requires dialysis. Among the many causes of the increased risk are advanced age, amenorrhoea, steroid exposure, decreased vitamin D, increased parathyroid hormone (PTH), malnutrition and chronic inflammation. Serum phosphorus, whether high or very low, seems to correlate with the risk of fracture. Moreover, increased serum phosphate is known to directly and indirectly affect bone metabolism through the development of adaptive hormonal mechanisms aimed at preventing hyperphosphataemia, such as the increase in PTH and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) and the reduction in calcitriol. These adaptive mechanisms are less intense if the intestinal absorption of phosphorus is reduced with the use of phosphorus captors, which seem to have a positive impact in reducing the risk of fractures. We describe here the possible mechanisms associating serum phosphorus levels, the adaptive mechanisms typical in kidney disease and the use of drugs to control hyperphosphataemia with the risk of fractures. We found no studies in the literature providing evidence on the influence of different treatments on the risk of fractures in patients with chronic kidney disease. We suggest that control of phosphorus should be an objective to consider.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nefro.2020.05.015DOI Listing
September 2020

Inflammation, Senescence and MicroRNAs in Chronic Kidney Disease.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2020 6;8:739. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

Maimonides Biomedical Research Institute of Cordoba (IMIBIC), Reina Sofia University Hospital, Córdoba, Spain.

Background: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) show a chronic microinflammatory state that promotes premature aging of the vascular system. Currently, there is a growth interest in the search of novel biomarkers related to vascular aging to identify CKD patients at risk to develop cardiovascular complications.

Methods: Forty-five CKD patients were divided into three groups according to CKD-stages [predialysis (CKD4-5), hemodialysis (HD) and kidney transplantation (KT)]. In all these patients, we evaluated the quantitative changes in microRNAs (miRNAs), CD14+C16++ monocytes number, and microvesicles (MV) concentration [both total MV, and monocytes derived MV (CD14+Annexin V+CD16+)]. To understand the molecular mechanism involved in senescence and osteogenic transdifferentation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), these cells were stimulated with MV isolated from THP-1 monocytes treated with uremic toxins (txMV).

Results: A miRNA array was used to investigate serum miRNAs profile in CKD patients. Reduced expression levels of miRNAs-126-3p, -191-5p and -223-3p were observed in CKD4-5 and HD patients as compared to KT. This down-regulation disappeared after KT, even when lower glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) persisted. Moreover, HD patients had higher percentage of proinflammatory monocytes (CD14+CD16++) and MV derived of proinflammatory monocytes (CD14+Annexin V+CD16+) than the other groups. studies showed increased expression of osteogenic markers (BMP2 and miRNA-223-3p), expression of cyclin D1, β-galactosidase activity and VSMC size in those cells treated with txMV.

Conclusion: CKD patients present a specific circulating miRNAs expression profile associated with the microinflammatory state. Furthermore, microvesicles generated by monocytes treated with uremic toxins induce early senescence and osteogenic markers (BMP2 and miRNA-223-3p) in VSMC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2020.00739DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7423998PMC
August 2020

Role of endothelial microvesicles released by p-cresol on endothelial dysfunction.

Sci Rep 2020 06 30;10(1):10657. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Maimonides Biomedical Research Institute of Cordoba (IMIBIC), Reina Sofia University Hospital, University of Cordoba, Córdoba, Spain.

Protein bound uremic toxins, such as p-cresol, cannot be effectively removed by conventional dialysis techniques and are accumulated in plasma, thus contributing to progression of both chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Pathological effects of uremic toxins include activation of inflammatory response, endothelial dysfunction and release of endothelial microvesicles. To date, the role of p-cresol in endothelial microvesicles formation has not been analyzed. The aim of the present study was evaluate the effects of endothelial microvesicles released by p-cresol (PcEMV) on endothelial dysfunction. An in vitro model of endothelial damage mediated by p-cresol was proposed to evaluate the functional effect of PcEMV on the endothelial repair process carried out by endothelial cells and microRNA (miRNA) that could be involved in this process. We observed that p-cresol induced a greater release of microvesicles in endothelial cells. These microvesicles altered regenerative capacity of endothelial cells, decreasing their capacity for cell migration and their potential to form vascular structures in vitro. Moreover, we observed increased cellular senescence and a deregulation of miRNA-146b-5p and miRNA-223-3p expression in endothelial cells treated with endothelial microvesicles released by p-cresol. In summary our data show that microvesicles generated in endothelial cells treated with p-cresol (PcEMV) interfere with the endothelial repair process by decreasing the migratory capacity, the ability to form new vessels and increasing the senescence of mature endothelial cells. These alterations could be mediated by the upregulation of miRNA-146b-5p and miRNA-223-3p.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-67574-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7326964PMC
June 2020

Hemodiafiltration with ultrafiltrate regeneration reduces free light chains without albumin loss in multiple myeloma patients.

BMC Nephrol 2020 06 15;21(1):227. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Nephrology Service, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Avenida Menéndez Pidal S/N, 14004, Córdoba, Spain.

Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs in 12-20% of multiple myeloma (MM) patients. Several studies have shown a reduction of free light chains (FLC) using hemodialysis with High-Cut-Off membranes. However, this technique entails albumin loss. Hemodiafiltration with ultrafiltrate regeneration is a technique that includes a process of adsorption. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of hemodiafiltration with ultrafiltrate regeneration in reducing FLC levels without causing albumin loss.

Methods: This is an observational study (2012 to 2018) including nine patients with MM (5 kappa, 4 lambda) and AKI. All patients were treated with chemotherapy and hemodiafiltration with ultrafiltrate regeneration. Blood Samples (pre and post-dialysis) and ultrafiltrate were collected pre and post-resin at 5 min after initiation of the session and 5 min before the end of the procedure.

Results: The serum levels of kappa and lambda were reduced by a 57.6 ± 10% and 33.5 ± 25% respectively. Serum albumin concentration remained unchanged after the procedure. In the ultrafiltrate, the mean FLC reduction ratio shortly after initiation of the dialysis procedure was: 99.2 and 97.06% for kappa and lambda respectively, and only 0.7% for albumin; and at the end of the session the percent reduction was: 63.7 and 33.62% for kappa and lambda respectively, and 0.015% for albumin. Patients clinical outcome was: 33.3% recovered renal function, 22.2% died during the first year and 44.4% required maintenance dialysis.

Conclusions: Hemodiafiltration with ultrafiltrate regeneration reduces FLC levels without producing a significant loss of albumin; and, FLC removal is maintained throughout the session. Therefore, hemodiafiltration with ultrafiltrate regeneration may be considered an effective adjunctive therapy in patients with MM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12882-020-01885-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7294666PMC
June 2020

Klotho/FGF23 and Wnt Signaling as Important Players in the Comorbidities Associated with Chronic Kidney Disease.

Toxins (Basel) 2020 03 16;12(3). Epub 2020 Mar 16.

Maimonides Institute for Biomedical Research (IMIBIC), 14005 Cordoba, Spain.

Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 (FGF23) and Klotho play an essential role in the regulation of mineral metabolism, and both are altered as a consequence of renal failure. FGF23 increases to augment phosphaturia, which prevents phosphate accumulation at the early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). This effect of FGF23 requires the presence of Klotho in the renal tubules. However, Klotho expression is reduced as soon as renal function is starting to fail to generate a state of FGF23 resistance. Changes in these proteins directly affect to other mineral metabolism parameters; they may affect renal function and can produce damage in other organs such as bone, heart, or vessels. Some of the mechanisms responsible for the changes in FGF23 and Klotho levels are related to modifications in the Wnt signaling. This review examines the link between FGF23/Klotho and Wnt/β-catenin in different organs: kidney, heart, and bone. Activation of the canonical Wnt signaling produces changes in FGF23 and Klotho and vice versa; therefore, this pathway emerges as a potential therapeutic target that may help to prevent CKD-associated complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins12030185DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7150840PMC
March 2020

Reversing extraosseous calcifications. A case of breast uremic calcific arteriolopathy.

Breast J 2019 09 11;25(5):998-999. Epub 2019 Jun 11.

Maimonides Biomedical Research Institute of Cordoba (IMIBIC), Reina Sofia University Hospital, University of Cordoba, Cordoba, Spain.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbj.13389DOI Listing
September 2019

FGF23, Biomarker or Target?

Toxins (Basel) 2019 03 22;11(3). Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Nephrology Service, University Hospital Reina Sofia, 14005 Cordoba, Spain.

Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) plays a key role in the complex network between the bones and other organs. Initially, it was thought that FGF23 exclusively regulated phosphate and vitamin D metabolism; however, recent research has demonstrated that an excess of FGF23 has other effects that may be detrimental in some cases. The understanding of the signaling pathways through which FGF23 acts in different organs is crucial to develop strategies aiming to prevent the negative effects associated with high FGF23 levels. FGF23 has been described to have effects on the heart, promoting left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH); the liver, leading to production of inflammatory cytokines; the bones, inhibiting mineralization; and the bone marrow, by reducing the production of erythropoietin (EPO). The identification of FGF23 receptors will play a remarkable role in future research since its selective blockade might reduce the adverse effects of FGF23. Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have very high levels of FGF23 and may be the population suffering from the most adverse FGF23-related effects. The general population, as well as kidney transplant recipients, may also be affected by high FGF23. Whether the association between FGF23 and clinical events is causal or casual remains controversial. The hypothesis that FGF23 could be considered a therapeutic target is gaining relevance and may become a promising field of investigation in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins11030175DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6468608PMC
March 2019

Differences between intravenous iron products: focus on treatment of iron deficiency in chronic heart failure patients.

ESC Heart Fail 2019 04 29;6(2):241-253. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Centre for Heart Diseases - Clinical Military Hospital, Wroclaw, Poland.

Iron deficiency is the leading cause of anaemia and is highly prevalent in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Iron deficiency, with or without anaemia, can be corrected with intravenous (i.v.) iron therapy. In heart failure patients, iron status screening, diagnosis, and treatment of iron deficiency with ferric carboxymaltose are recommended by the 2016 European Society of Cardiology guidelines, based on results of two randomized controlled trials in CHF patients with iron deficiency. All i.v. iron complexes consist of a polynuclear Fe(III)-oxyhydroxide/oxide core that is stabilized with a compound-specific carbohydrate, which strongly influences their physico-chemical properties (e.g. molecular weight distribution, complex stability, and labile iron content). Thus, the carbohydrate determines the metabolic fate of the complex, affecting its pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profile and interactions with the innate immune system. Accordingly, i.v. iron products belong to the new class of non-biological complex drugs for which regulatory authorities recognized the need for more detailed characterization by orthogonal methods, particularly when assessing generic/follow-on products. Evaluation of published clinical and non-clinical studies with different i.v. iron products in this review suggests that study results obtained with one i.v. iron product should not be assumed to be equivalent to other i.v. iron products that lack comparable study data in CHF. Without head-to-head clinical studies proving the therapeutic equivalence of other i.v. iron products with ferric carboxymaltose, in the highly vulnerable population of heart failure patients, extrapolation of results and substitution with a different i.v. iron product is not recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ehf2.12400DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6437426PMC
April 2019

Increased Phosphaturia Accelerates The Decline in Renal Function: A Search for Mechanisms.

Sci Rep 2018 09 12;8(1):13701. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

Nephrology Service, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba, Spain.

In chronic kidney disease (CKD), high serum phosphate concentration is associated with cardiovascular disease and deterioration in renal function. In early CKD, the serum phosphate concentration is normal due to increased fractional excretion of phosphate. Our premise was that high phosphate intake even in patients with early CKD would result in an excessive load of phosphate causing tubular injury and accelerating renal function deterioration. In CKD 2-3 patients, we evaluated whether increased phosphaturia accelerates CKD progression. To have a uniform group of patients with early CKD, 95 patients with metabolic syndrome without overt proteinuria were followed for 2.7 ± 1.6 years. The median decline in eGFR was 0.50 ml/min/1.73 m/year. Patients with a more rapid decrease in eGFR had greater phosphaturia. Moreover, the rate of decrease in eGFR inversely correlated with the degree of phosphaturia. Additionally, phosphaturia independently predicted renal function deterioration. In heminephrectomized rats, a high phosphate diet increased phosphaturia resulting in renal tubular damage associated with inflammation, oxidative stress and low klotho expression. Moreover, in rats with hyperphosphatemia and metabolic syndrome antioxidant treatment resulted in attenuation of renal lesions. In HEK-293 cells, high phosphate promoted oxidative stress while melatonin administration reduced ROS generation. Our findings suggest that phosphate loading in early CKD, results in renal damage and a more rapid decrease in renal function due to renal tubular injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-32065-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6135842PMC
September 2018

Phosphate control in reducing FGF23 levels in hemodialysis patients.

PLoS One 2018 7;13(8):e0201537. Epub 2018 Aug 7.

Instituto Maimónides de Investigación Biomédica de Córdoba (IMIBIC), Reina Sofia University Hospital, University of Cordoba, Cordoba, Spain.

Background: In hemodialysis patients, high levels of Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 (FGF23) predict mortality. Our study was designed to test whether the control of serum phosphate is associated with a reduction in serum FGF23 levels. Additionally other variables with a potential effect on FGF23 levels were evaluated.

Material And Methods: The effect of sustained (40-weeks) control of serum phosphate on FGF23 levels (intact and c-terminal) was evaluated in 21 stable hemodialysis patients that were not receiving calcimimetics or active vitamin D. Patients received non-calcium phosphate binders to maintain serum phosphate below 4.5 mg/dl. In an additional analysis, values of intact-FGF23 (iFGF23) and c-terminal FGF23 (cFGF23) from 150 hemodialysis patients were correlated with parameters of mineral metabolism and inflammation. Linear mixed models and linear regression were performed to evaluate longitudinal trajectories of variables and the association between FGF23 and the other variables examined.

Results: During the 40-week treatment, 12 of 21 patients achieved the target of serum phosphate <4.5 mg/dl. In these 12 patients, iFGF23 decreased to less than half whereas cFGF23 did not reduce significantly. In patients with serum phosphate >4.5 mg, iFGF23 and cFGF23 increased two and four-fold respectively as compared with baseline. Furthermore, changes in serum phosphate correlated with changes in C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). In our 150 hemodialysis patients, those in the higher tertile of serum phosphate also showed increased hs-CRP, iPTH, iFGF23 and cFGF23. Multiple regression analysis revealed that iFGF23 levels directly correlated with both serum phosphate and calcium, whereas cFGF23 correlated with serum phosphate and hs-CRP but not with calcium.

Conclusions: The control of serum phosphate reduced iFGF23. This reduction was also associated with a decreased in inflammatory parameters. Considering the entire cohort of hemodialysis patients, iFGF23 levels correlated directly with serum phosphate levels and also correlated inversely with serum calcium concentration. The levels of cFGF23 were closely related to serum phosphate and parameters of inflammation.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0201537PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6080760PMC
January 2019

Hemodiafiltration Reduces All-Cause and Cardiovascular Mortality in Incident Hemodialysis Patients: A Propensity-Matched Cohort Study.

Am J Nephrol 2017 17;46(4):288-297. Epub 2017 Oct 17.

Dirección Médica, Fresenius Medical Care, Madrid, Spain.

Background: The majority of studies suggesting that online hemodiafiltration reduces the risk of mortality compared to hemodialysis (HD) have been performed in dialysis-prevalent populations. In this report, we conducted an epidemiologic study of mortality in incident dialysis patients, comparing post-dilution online hemodiafiltration and high-flux HD, with propensity score matching (PSM) used to correct indication bias.

Methods: Our study cohort comprised 3,075 incident dialysis patients treated in 64 Spanish Fresenius Medical Care clinics between January 2009 and December 2012. The primary outcome of this study was to investigate the impact of the type of renal replacement on all-cause mortality. An analysis of cardiovascular mortality was defined as the secondary outcome. To achieve these objectives, patients were followed until December 2016. Patients were categorized as high-flux HD patients if they underwent this treatment exclusively. If >90% of their treatment was with online hemodiafiltration, then the patient was grouped to that modality.

Results: After PSM, a total of 1,012 patients were matched. Compared with patients on high-flux HD, those on online hemodiafiltration received a median replacement volume of 23.45 (interquartile range 21.27-25.51) L/session and manifested 24 and 33% reductions in all-cause and cardiovascular mortality (all-cause mortality hazards ratio [HR] 0.76, 95% CI 0.62-0.94 [p = 0.01]; and cardiovascular mortality HR 0.67, 95% CI 0.50-0.90 [p = 0.008]).

Conclusions: This study shows that post-dilution online hemodiafiltration reduces all-cause and cardiovascular mortality compared to high-flux HD in an incident HD population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000481669DOI Listing
June 2018

Increased mortality in haemodialysis patients administered high doses of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents: a propensity score-matched analysis.

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2018 04;33(4):690-699

Medical Department, Fresenius Medical Care, Tres Cantos, Madrid, Spain.

Background: Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) are widely used to treat anaemia in patients with chronic kidney disease. The issue of ESA safety has been raised in multiple studies, with correlates derived for elevated cancer incidence and mortality. Whether these associations are related to ESA dose or the typology of the patient remains obscure.

Methods: A multicentre, observational retrospective propensity score-matched study was designed to analyse the effects of weekly ESA dose in 1679 incident haemodialysis (HD) patients. ESA administration was according to standard medical practice. Patients were grouped as quintiles, according to ESA dose, in order to compare mortality and hospitalization data. Using propensity score matching (PSM), we defined two groups of 324 patients receiving weekly threshold ESA doses of either > or ≤8000 IU.

Results: Kaplan-Meier survival curves indicated significant increases in the risk of mortality in patients administered with high doses of ESAs (>8127.4 IU/week). Multivariate Cox models identified a high ESA dose as an independent predictor for all-cause and cardiovascular (CV) mortality. Moreover, logistic regression models identified high ESA doses as an independent predictor for all-cause, CV and infectious hospitalization. PSM analyses confirmed that weekly ESA doses of >8000 IU constitute an independent predictor of all-cause mortality and hospitalization, even though the adjusted cohort displayed the same demographic features, inflammatory profile, clinical HD parameters and haemoglobin levels.

Conclusions: Our data suggest that ESA doses of >8000 IU/week are associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality and hospitalization in HD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfx269DOI Listing
April 2018

Relationships between iron dose, hospitalizations and mortality in incident haemodialysis patients: a propensity-score matched approach.

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2018 01;33(1):160-170

Nephrology Department, Hospital Universitario Reina Sofía, Universidad de Córdoba, Córdoba, Spain.

Background: Intravenous iron management is common in the haemodialysis population. However, the safest dosing strategy remains uncertain, in terms of the risk of hospitalization and mortality. We aimed to determine the effects of cumulative monthly iron doses on mortality and hospitalization.

Methods: This multicentre observational retrospective propensity-matched score study included 1679 incident haemodialysis patients. We measured baseline demographic variables, haemodialysis clinical parameters and laboratory analytical values. We compared outcomes among quartiles of cumulative iron dose (mg/kg/month). We implemented propensity-score matching (PSM) to reduce confounding due to indication. In the PSM cohort (330 patients), we compared outcomes between groups that received cumulative iron doses above and below 5.66 mg/kg/month.

Results: Kaplan-Meier analyses showed that the high iron dose group had significantly worse survival than the low iron dose group. A univariate analysis indicated that the monthly iron dose could significantly predict mortality. However, a multivariate regression did not confirm that finding. The multivariate regression analysis revealed that iron doses  >5.58 mg/kg/month were not associated with elevated mortality risk, but they were associated with elevated risks of all-cause and cardiovascular-related hospitalizations. These results were ratified in the PSM population.

Conclusions: Intravenous iron administration is advisable for maintaining haemoglobin levels in patients that receive haemodialysis. Our data suggested that large monthly iron doses, adjusted for body weight, were associated with more hospitalizations, but not with mortality or infection-related hospitalizations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfx209DOI Listing
January 2018

Correction of 25-OH-vitamin D deficiency improves control of secondary hyperparathyroidism and reduces the inflammation in stable haemodialysis patients.

Nefrologia 2018 Jan - Feb;38(1):41-47. Epub 2017 Jul 1.

Hospital Reina Sofía, Córdoba, España.

Introduction: Patients on haemodialysis (HD) have a high prevalence of 25-OH-vitamin D (25-OH-D)deficiency. Secondary hyperparathyroidismis a common condition in these patients, which is very important to control. 25-OH-D is involved in regulating calcium homeostasis. As such, appropriate levels of this vitamin could help to control bone mineral metabolism.

Objective: To evaluate the effect 25-OH-D repletion in HD patients with 25-OH-D deficiency (<20ng/ml) on the control of secondary hyperparathyroidism and microinflammation status.

Patients And Methods: Prospective observational study in which stable patients on HD with 25-OH-D deficiency (<20ng/ml) were treated with oral calcifediol 0.266mcg/every 2 weeks for three months. Dialysis characteristics, biochemical parameters and drug doses administered were analysed before and after the correction of the deficiency.

Results: Forty-five stable HD patients with a mean age of 74.08±12.49 years completed treatment. Twenty-seven patients (60%) achieved 25-OH-D levels above 20ng/ml (23 with levels>30ng/ml and 4 between 20-30ng/ml). Parathyroid hormone levels decreased in 32 of the 45 patients, 23 of which (51%) achieved a>30% decrease from baseline. In terms of concomitant treatment, we observed a significant reduction in the selective vitamin D receptor activator dose, but no changes in calcimimetic or phosphate binders administration. In terms of malnutrition-inflammation status, a decrease in C-reactive protein was noted, although other microinflammation parameters, such as activated monocytes (CD14+/CD16+ and CD 14++/CD16+) were unchanged. No changes were observed in the levels of FGF-23.

Conclusions: Correcting 25-OH-D deficiency in HD patients is associated with better secondary hyperparathyroidism control with lower doses of vitamin D analogues, as well as an improvement in inflammatory status. Our results support the recommendation to determine 25-OH-D levels and correct its deficiency in these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nefro.2017.05.008DOI Listing
October 2018

Markers of endothelial damage in patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis.

Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 04 11;312(4):F673-F681. Epub 2017 Jan 11.

Instituto Maimónides de Investigación Biomédica de Córdoba (IMIBIC), Córdoba, Spain;

Patients with Stage 5 chronic kidney disease who are on hemodialysis (HD) remain in a chronic inflammatory state, characterized by the accumulation of uremic toxins that induce endothelial damage and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Our aim was to examine microvesicles (MVs), monocyte subpopulations, and angiopoietins (Ang) to identify prognostic markers in HD patients with or without diabetes mellitus (DM). A total of 160 prevalent HD patients from 10 centers across Spain were obtained from the Biobank of the Nephrology Renal Network (Madrid, Spain): 80 patients with DM and 80 patients without DM who were matched for clinical and demographic criteria. MVs from plasma and several monocyte subpopulations (CD14/CD16, CD14/CD16) were analyzed by flow cytometry, and the plasma concentrations of Ang1 and Ang2 were quantified by ELISA. Data on CVD were gathered over the 5.5 yr after these samples were obtained. MV level, monocyte subpopulations (CD14/CD16 and CD14/CD16), and Ang2-to-Ang1 ratios increased in HD patients with DM compared with non-DM patients. Moreover, MV level above the median (264 MVs/µl) was associated independently with greater mortality. MVs, monocyte subpopulations, and Ang2-to-Ang1 ratio can be used as predictors for CVD. In addition, MV level has a potential predictive value in the prevention of CVD in HD patients. These parameters undergo more extensive changes in patients with DM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajprenal.00013.2016DOI Listing
April 2017

Hemodialysis patients receiving a greater Kt dose than recommended have reduced mortality and hospitalization risk.

Kidney Int 2016 12 22;90(6):1332-1341. Epub 2016 Oct 22.

Dirección Médica, Fresenius Medical Care, Madrid, Spain.

Achieving an adequate dialysis dose is one of the key goals for dialysis treatments. Here we assessed whether patients receiving the current cleared plasma volume (Kt), individualized for body surface area per recommendations, had improved survival and reduced hospitalizations at 2 years of follow-up. Additionally, we assessed whether patients receiving a greater dose gained more benefit. This prospective, observational, multicenter study included 6129 patients in 65 Fresenius Medical Care Spanish facilities. Patients were classified monthly into 1 of 10 risk groups based on the difference between achieved and target Kt. Patient groups with a more negative relationship were significantly older with a higher percentage of diabetes mellitus and catheter access. Treatment dialysis time, effective blood flow, and percentage of on-line hemodiafiltration were significantly higher in groups with a higher dose. The mortality risk profile showed a progressive increase when achieved minus target Kt became more negative but was significantly lower in the group with 1 to 3 L clearance above target Kt and in groups with greater increases above target Kt. Additionally, hospitalization risk appeared significantly reduced in groups receiving 9 L or more above the minimum target. Thus, prescribing an additional 3 L or more above the minimum Kt dose could potentially reduce mortality risk, and 9 L or more reduce hospitalization risk. As such, future prospective studies are required to confirm these dose effect findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.kint.2016.08.022DOI Listing
December 2016

Cost-effectiveness analysis of online hemodiafiltration versus high-flux hemodialysis.

Clinicoecon Outcomes Res 2016 22;8:531-540. Epub 2016 Sep 22.

Department of Nephrology, Manzoni Hospital, Lecco, Italy.

Background: Clinical studies suggest that hemodiafiltration (HDF) may lead to better clinical outcomes than high-flux hemodialysis (HF-HD), but concerns have been raised about the cost-effectiveness of HDF versus HF-HD. Aim of this study was to investigate whether clinical benefits, in terms of longer survival and better health-related quality of life, are worth the possibly higher costs of HDF compared to HF-HD.

Methods: The analysis comprised a simulation based on the combined results of previous published studies, with the following steps: 1) estimation of the survival function of HF-HD patients from a clinical trial and of HDF patients using the risk reduction estimated in a meta-analysis; 2) simulation of the survival of the same sample of patients as if allocated to HF-HD or HDF using three-state Markov models; and 3) application of state-specific health-related quality of life coefficients and differential costs derived from the literature. Several Monte Carlo simulations were performed, including simulations for patients with different risk profiles, for example, by age (patients aged 40, 50, and 60 years), sex, and diabetic status. Scatter plots of simulations in the cost-effectiveness plane were produced, incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were estimated, and cost-effectiveness acceptability curves were computed.

Results: An incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of €6,982/quality-adjusted life years (QALY) was estimated for the baseline cohort of 50-year-old male patients. Given the commonly accepted threshold of €40,000/QALY, HDF is cost-effective. The probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that HDF is cost-effective with a probability of ~81% at a threshold of €40,000/QALY. It is fundamental to measure the outcome also in terms of quality of life. HDF is more cost-effective for younger patients.

Conclusion: HDF can be considered cost-effective compared to HF-HD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CEOR.S109649DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5036827PMC
September 2016

Hemodiafiltration With Endogenous Reinfusion Improved Microinflammation and Endothelial Damage Compared With Online-Hemodiafiltration: A Hypothesis Generating Study.

Artif Organs 2017 Jan 16;41(1):88-98. Epub 2016 May 16.

Nephrology Unit, Reina Sofía University Hospital, Córdoba.

Hemodiafiltration with endogenous reinfusion (HFR) after ultrafiltrate passage through a resin cartridge combines adsorption, convection, and diffusion. Our prospective single-center crossover study compared HFR and online-hemodiafiltration (OLHDF) effects on two uremic toxins and 13 inflammatory, endothelial status, or oxidative stress markers. After an 8-week run-in period of high-flux hemodialysis, 17 eligible stable dialysis patients (median age 65 years, 10 male) without overt clinical inflammation were scheduled for four 8-week periods in the sequence: HFR/OLHDF/HFR/OLHDF. Relative to OLHDF, HFR was associated with greater indoxyl sulfate removal and lesser abnormalities in all other study variables, namely circulating interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, proportions of activated proinflammatory (CD14+CD16+, CD14++CD16+) monocytes, endothelial progenitor cells, apoptotic endothelial microparticles, vascular endothelial growth factor, vascular cellular adhesion molecule, angiopoietins 2 and 1, annexin V, and superoxide dismutase. Differences were significant (P < 0.05) in median values of 13/15 variables. Study period comparisons were generally consistent with dialysis technique comparisons, as were data from the subgroup completing all study periods (n = 9). Our investigation provides hypothesis-generating results suggesting that compared with OLHDF, HFR improves protein-bound toxin removal, inflammatory and endothelial status, and oxidative stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aor.12704DOI Listing
January 2017

A New Data Analysis System to Quantify Associations between Biochemical Parameters of Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral Bone Disease.

PLoS One 2016 25;11(1):e0146801. Epub 2016 Jan 25.

Nephrology Service, Hospital Reina Sofia, IMIBIC, University of Cordoba, Cordoba, Spain.

Background: In hemodialysis patients, deviations from KDIGO recommended values of individual parameters, phosphate, calcium or parathyroid hormone (PTH), are associated with increased mortality. However, it is widely accepted that these parameters are not regulated independently of each other and that therapy aimed to correct one parameter often modifies the others. The aim of the present study is to quantify the degree of association between parameters of chronic kidney disease and mineral bone disease (CKD-MBD).

Methods: Data was extracted from a cohort of 1758 adult HD patients between January 2000 and June 2013 obtaining a total of 46.141 records (10 year follow-up). We used an advanced data analysis system called Random Forest (RF) which is based on self-learning procedure with similar axioms to those utilized for the development of artificial intelligence. This new approach is particularly useful when the variables analyzed are closely dependent to each other.

Results: The analysis revealed a strong association between PTH and phosphate that was superior to that of PTH and Calcium. The classical linear regression analysis between PTH and phosphate shows a correlation coefficient is 0.27, p<0.001, the possibility to predict PTH changes from phosphate modification is marginal. Alternatively, RF assumes that changes in phosphate will cause modifications in other associated variables (calcium and others) that may also affect PTH values. Using RF the correlation coefficient between changes in serum PTH and phosphate is 0.77, p<0.001; thus, the power of prediction is markedly increased. The effect of therapy on biochemical variables was also analyzed using this RF.

Conclusion: Our results suggest that the analysis of the complex interactions between mineral metabolism parameters in CKD-MBD may demand a more advanced data analysis system such as RF.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0146801PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4726537PMC
July 2016

Efficiency of Original versus Generic Intravenous Iron Formulations in Patients on Haemodialysis.

PLoS One 2015 31;10(8):e0135967. Epub 2015 Aug 31.

Servicio de Nefrología. Hospital Universitario Reina Sofía, Córdoba, Spain; Instituto Maimónides de investigación biomédica de Córdoba (IMIBIC), Universidad de Córdoba, Córdoba, Spain; RedInRen, Instituto de salud Carlos III, Spain.

Aims: The appropriate use of intravenous (i.v.) iron is essential to minimise the requirements for erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs). The clinical efficacy of generic i.v. iron compared to the original formulation is controversial. We evaluated the changes that were induced after switching from a generic i.v. iron to an original formulation in a stable, prevalent haemodialysis (HD) population.

Methods: A total of 342 patients were included, and the follow-up period was 56 weeks for each formulation. Anaemia parameters and doses of ESA and i.v. iron were prospectively recorded before and after the switch from generic to original i.v. iron.

Results: To maintain the same haemoglobin (Hb) levels after switching from the generic to the original formulation, the requirements for i.v. iron doses were reduced by 34.3% (from 52.8±33.9 to 34.7±31.8 mg/week, p<0.001), and the ESA doses were also decreased by 12.5% (from 30.6±23.6 to 27±21 μg/week, p<0.001). The erythropoietin resistance index declined from 8.4±7.7 to 7.4±6.7 IU/kg/week/g/dl after the switch from the generic to the original drug (p = 0.001). After the switch, the transferrin saturation ratio (TSAT) and serum ferritin levels rose by 6.8% (p<0.001) and 12.4% (p = 0.001), respectively. The mortality rate was similar for both periods.

Conclusions: The iron and ESA requirements are lower with the original i.v. iron compared to the generic drug. In addition, the uses of the original formulation results in higher ferritin and TSAT levels despite the lower dose of i.v. iron. Further studies are necessary to analyse the adverse effects of higher i.v. iron dosages.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0135967PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4555833PMC
May 2016

Endothelial microparticles mediate inflammation-induced vascular calcification.

FASEB J 2015 Jan 23;29(1):173-81. Epub 2014 Oct 23.

Instituto Maimónides de Investigación Biomédica de Córdoba/Fundación de Investigaciones Biomédicas de Córdoba, Reina Sofía University Hospital, Córdoba, Spain; Redes Temáticas de Investigación Cooperativa en Salud Renal, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.

Stimulation of endothelial cells (ECs) with TNF-α causes an increase in the expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and the production of endothelial microparticles (EMPs). BMP-2 is known to produce osteogenic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). It was found that EMPs from TNF-α-stimulated endothelial cells (HUVECs) contained a significant amount of BMP-2 and were able to enhance VSMC osteogenesis and calcification. Calcium content was greater in VSMCs exposed to EMPs from TNF-α-treated HUVECs than EMPs from nontreated HUVECs (3.56 ± 0.57 vs. 1.48 ± 0.56 µg/mg protein; P < 0.05). The increase in calcification was accompanied by up-regulation of Cbfa1 (osteogenic transcription factor) and down-regulation of SM22α (VSMC lineage marker). Inhibition of BMP-2 by small interfering RNA reduced the VSMC calcification induced by EMPs from TNF-α-treated HUVECs. Similar osteogenic capability was observed in EMPs from both patients with chronic kidney disease and senescent cells, which also presented a high level of BMP-2 expression. Labeling of EMPs with CellTracker shows that EMPs are phagocytized by VSMCs under all conditions (with or without high phosphate, control, and EMPs from TNF-α-treated HUVECs). Our data suggest that EC damage results in the release of EMPs with a high content of calcium and BMP-2 that are able to induce calcification and osteogenic differentiation of VSMCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.14-249706DOI Listing
January 2015

Endothelial damage and vascular calcification in patients with chronic kidney disease.

Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2014 Dec 22;307(11):F1302-11. Epub 2014 Oct 22.

Instituto Maimónides de Investigación Biomédica de Córdoba, Reina Sofía University Hospital, University of Córdoba, Córdoba, Spain; Nephrology Unit, Reina Sofía University Hospital, Córdoba, Spain; RETICs Red Renal (Instituto de Salud Carlos III), Madrid, Spain; and

Vascular calcification (VC) is a frequent complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is a predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In the present study, we investigated the potential involvement of endothelial microparticles (MPs) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in the generation of VC in CKD patients. The number of circulating EMPs is greater in patients with VC than without VC (307 ± 167 vs. 99 ± 75 EMPs/μl, P < 0.001). The percentage of EPCs is significantly lower in patient with VC than in patients without VC (0.14 ± 0.11% vs. 0.25 ± 0.18%, P = 0.002). The number of EPCs expressing osteocalcin (OCN) was higher in VC patients (349 ± 63 cells/100,000) than in non-VC patients (139 ± 75 cells/100,000, P < 0.01). In vitro, MPs obtained from CKD patients were able to induce OCN expression in EPCs from healthy donors; the increase in OCN expression was more accentuated if MPs were obtained from CKD patients with VC. MPs from CKD patients also induced OCN expression in vascular smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts. In CKD patients, the rise in endothelial MPs associated with a decrease in the number of EPCs, suggesting an imbalance in the processes of endothelial damage and repair in CKD patients, mainly those with VC. Our results suggest that EPCs, through OCN expression, may directly participate in the process of VC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajprenal.00114.2014DOI Listing
December 2014

Klotho Prevents NFκB Translocation and Protects Endothelial Cell From Senescence Induced by Uremia.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2015 Oct 22;70(10):1198-209. Epub 2014 Sep 22.

REDinREN, Servicio de Nefrología, Fundación para la Investigación Biomédica del Hospital Universitario La Paz, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Fondos FEDER, Madrid, Spain. Physiology Department, Alcala de Henares University, Madrid, Spain.

In patients with renal disease, uremia raises oxidative stress and senescence in endothelial cells, which can lead to endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease. Klotho protein is a β-glucuronidase capable of hydrolyzing steroid β-glucuronides. This protein is recognized as an antiaging gene, that modulate both stress-induced senescence and functional response. The aim of the study was to investigate how senescence and oxidative stress induced by uremia in endothelial cells affects Klotho expression and whether intra or extracellular Klotho has effects on the response of these cells. Senescence and oxidative stress was obtained by exposure to uremic serum. Telomere length, the enzyme β-galactosidase, and oxidative stress were studied by flow cytometry. Nuclear factor kappa B activity was determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. The expression of Klotho decreased with the uremia and preceded the manifestations of cell aging. Levels of intracellular Klotho decreases associated to endothelial senescence, and exogenous Klotho prevents cellular senescence by inhibiting the increase in oxidative stress induced by uremia and diminished the nuclear factor kappa B-DNA binding ability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gerona/glu170DOI Listing
October 2015

Effectiveness of haemodiafiltration with ultrafiltrate regeneration in the reduction of light chains in multiple myeloma with renal failure.

Nefrologia 2013 Nov;33(6):788-96

Acute kidney failure in multiple myeloma (MM) occurs in 12%-20% of patients and is a poor prognostic factor for patient survival. Recent studies have shown that dialysis with a High-Cut-Off membrane (HCO) removes free light chains (FLC) effectively although with significant albumin loss. Other adsorption-based techniques, such as haemodiafiltration with ultrafiltrate regeneration by adsorption in resin (SUPRA-HFR), have not been studied. We present three cases of MM, all haemodialysis-dependent since diagnosis. Two cases were IgG kappa and one was IgA lambda. All patients were treated with chemotherapy and SUPRA-HFR. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of SUPRA-HFR in the reduction of FLC and its effect on albumin. We collected blood samples pre- and post-dialysis, and ultrafiltrate (UF) samples pre- and post-resin 5 minutes into the session and 5 minutes from the end. The mean reduction rate of FLC in blood per session in the three patients was 53% and 63% (kappa) and 38% (lambda). In the UF, the mean FLC reduction rate was close to 99%, both at the start and at the end of dialysis, without the removal of albumin. With the results obtained we can conclude that this technique achieves an effective reduction of FLC, which is maintained throughout the session, without resin saturation and without albumin loss. Therefore, SUPRA-HFR is effective as an adjunctive therapy for MM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3265/Nefrologia.pre2013.Sep.12176DOI Listing
November 2013

Impact of targeting Kt instead of Kt/V.

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2013 Oct;28(10):2595-603

Department of Nephrology and Renal Transplantation, Hospital Clínic, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Patients must receive an adequate dialysis dose in each hemodialysis (HD) session. Ionic dialysance (ID) enables the dialysis dose to be monitored in each session. The aim of this study was to compare the achievement of Kt versus eKt/V values and to analyse the main impediments to reaching the dialysis dose.

Methods: Of 5316 patients from 54 Fresenius Medical Care centers in Spain undergoing their usual HD regime, 3275 received ID and were included in the study.

Results: The minimum prescribed dose of eKt/V was reached in 91.2% of the patients, while the minimum recommended dose of Kt was reached in only 66.8%. Patients not receiving the minimum Kt dose were older, had spent 7 months less on dialysis, had a dialysis duration of 6 min less, had 5.7 kg more of body weight and Qb was 47 mL/min lower. The target Kt was not reached by 62% of patients with catheters and by 37% of women. With each quintile increase of body weight, eKt/V decreased and Kt increased. Of patients with a body weight >80 kg, 1.4%, mostly men, reached the target Kt but not prescribed eKt/V.

Conclusions: The impact of monitoring the dose with Kt instead of Kt/V is that identifies 25.8% of patients who did not reach the minimum Kt while achieving Kt/V. The main impediments to achieving an adequate dialysis dose were catheter use, female sex, advanced age, greater body weight, shorter dialysis time and lower Qb.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gft255DOI Listing
October 2013