Publications by authors named "Alejandra M Wiedeman"

9 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Dietary Riboflavin Intake and Riboflavin Status in Young Adult Women Living in Metro Vancouver, Canada.

Curr Dev Nutr 2021 Apr 13;5(4):nzab021. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Women and Kids Theme, South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute, and Discipline of Paediatrics, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.

Background: Nutrition surveys suggest that <10% of Canadian adults have inadequate riboflavin intakes. However, biochemical riboflavin deficiency [erythrocyte glutathione reductase activity coefficient (EGRac) ≥1.40] has been reported in 41% of young adult women living in Metro Vancouver. Canadian Chinese ethnicity comprise >25% of Vancouver's population and are postulated to have poorer riboflavin status than those of European ethnicity because they could be less likely to consume dairy products and fortified wheat.

Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine dietary riboflavin intake and food sources, and to assess the association between riboflavin intake and status in young women of European (= 107) and Chinese (= 91) ethnicities living in Metro Vancouver, Canada.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in women (aged 19-45 y). Women were healthy, not pregnant or breastfeeding, of European or Chinese ethnicities, and not taking riboflavin-containing supplements for the past 4 mo. Dietary riboflavin intake was assessed using the past-year Diet History Questionnaire II, and riboflavin status (EGRac) was measured in fasting venous blood samples.

Results: Only 7% of participants had dietary riboflavin intakes below the Estimated Average Requirement (0.9 mg/d), but 40% of women had biochemical riboflavin deficiency (EGRac ≥1.40). Although more Canadian women of European ethnicity than Chinese ethnicity had biochemical riboflavin deficiency (46% and 34%;  < 0.001), median dietary riboflavin intake did not differ (1.73 and 1.82 mg/d; = 0.587). Dairy products and vegetables contributed the most to riboflavin intake. Energy-adjusted dietary riboflavin intake was inversely associated with EGRac (B = -0.04, 95% CI: -0.07, -0.01). However, after further adjustment the relation was not significant.

Conclusions: Overall, women of reproductive age living in Metro Vancouver, Canada, had a low prevalence of inadequate dietary riboflavin intake despite the high prevalence of apparent biochemical riboflavin deficiency.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cdn/nzab021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8035065PMC
April 2021

Treatment-related weight gain and metabolic complications in children with mental health disorders: potential role for lifestyle interventions.

Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2021 Mar 23;46(3):193-204. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Department of Pediatrics, The University of British Columbia and BC Children's Hospital Research Institute, Vancouver, BC V5Z 4H4, Canada.

Over 1 million Canadian children are estimated to have a mental health disorder, which are commonly treated with medications, such as second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs). Estimates suggest that SGA prescriptions to children are increasing in Canada. Although these medications are important and lifesaving components of psychiatric treatment, they are not without side effects. For some children, SGA treatment is associated with adverse metabolic complications including rapid weight gain, dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure, and risk for type 2 diabetes. It is not clear why these complications develop, but it is assumed that SGAs stimulate appetite and food intake, and reduce resting energy expenditure leading to weight gain and that the metabolic complications occur secondary to the weight gain. Understanding the mechanisms underlying these complications is key to being able to identify children at risk and prevent and optimize treatment. In this narrative review, we provide an overview of the literature pertaining to the weight gain and metabolic complications in children treated with SGAs, highlighting the scope of the problem and the current limited research on how diet and physical activity can be used to prevent or lessen the severity of the metabolic complications and improve the long-term health trajectories of SGA-treated children. Children are increasingly being treated with second-generation antipsychotics for mental health disorders. Dietary and physical activity assessments are not commonly considered in clinical settings. Randomized controlled trials of lifestyle interventions are needed to determine the effectiveness of mitigating the cardiometabolic complications in second-generation antipsychotic-treated children.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2020-0259DOI Listing
March 2021

Variability of Water-Soluble Forms of Choline Concentrations in Human Milk during Storage, after Pasteurization, and among Women.

Nutrients 2019 Dec 11;11(12). Epub 2019 Dec 11.

British Columbia Children's Hospital Research Institute, Vancouver, BC V5Z 4H4, Canada.

Choline is critical for infant development and mother's milk is the sole source of choline for fully breastfed infants until six months of age. Human milk choline consists to 85% of water-soluble forms of choline including free choline (FC), phosphocholine (PhosC), and glycerophosphocholine (GPC). Donor milk requires safe handling procedures such as cold storage and pasteurization. However, the stability of water-soluble forms of choline during these processes is not known. The objectives of this research were to determine the effect of storage and pasteurization on milk choline concentration, and the diurnal intra- and inter-individual variability of water-soluble choline forms. Milk samples were collected from healthy women who were fully breastfeeding a full-term, singleton infant <6 months. Milk total water-soluble forms of choline, PhosC, and GPC concentrations did not change during storage at room temperature for up to 4 h. Individual and total water-soluble forms of choline concentrations did not change after storage for 24 h in the refrigerator or for up to one week in the household freezer. Holder pasteurization decreased PhosC and GPC, and thereby total water-soluble choline form concentrations by <5%. We did not observe diurnal variations in PhosC and total water-soluble forms of choline concentrations, but significant differences in FC and GPC concentrations across five sampling time points throughout one day. In conclusion, these outcomes contribute new knowledge for the derivation of evidence-informed guidelines for the handling and storage of expressed human milk as well as the development of optimized milk collection and storage protocols for research studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11123024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6949891PMC
December 2019

Biomarkers of Docosahexaenoic Acid but Not Arachidonic Acid Reflect Dietary Intakes in Toddlers at Ages 1 and 2 Years Who Are Not Meeting Dietary Recommendations.

J Nutr 2020 03;150(3):518-525

Department of Pediatrics, The University of British Columbia and BC Children's Hospital Research Institute, Vancouver, Canada.

Background: Long-chain n-6 and n-3 PUFAs are important for growth and development. However, little is known about requirements and current dietary intakes of these fatty acids in toddlers.

Objectives: This study assessed dietary intakes of n-6 and n-3 PUFAs and determined the relation to circulating PUFAs in toddlers at ages 1 and 2 y.

Methods: This is a secondary analysis of data from toddlers enrolled in a double-blind randomized controlled trial of arachidonic acid (ARA) and DHA supplementation between ages 1 and 2 y. Dietary intakes of fatty acids were estimated by 3-d food records, and fatty acid composition in plasma total phospholipids, red blood cell phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), and phosphatidylcholine (PC) were assessed by GC at baseline in all subjects (n = 110; mean age 1.12 y; 64% male) and in the control subjects at 2 y (n = 43).

Results: The dietary intakes of ARA, EPA, and DHA at age 1 y (baseline) were [mean (median)] 36.8 (30.0), 16.0 (0.00), and 31.1 (10.0) mg/d, respectively. Dietary intakes increased to 52.7 (45.0), 35.8 (0.00), and 64.8 (20.0) mg/d, respectively, at age 2 y (P < 0.05). The predominant dietary source of EPA and DHA was fish/seafood; eggs were an important source of ARA and DHA. Dietary DHA intakes were positively associated with plasma PE and PC DHA (P < 0.05). No relations between dietary ARA intakes and plasma PE and PC ARA (P > 0.05) were observed.

Conclusions: These findings suggest that most toddlers are not meeting the recommendation for dietary PUFA intakes and that higher dietary DHA intakes are reflected in plasma PE and PC DHA composition. Further work is required to investigate a biomarker for dietary ARA intake. This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01263912.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxz280DOI Listing
March 2020

Dietary Choline Intake: Current State of Knowledge Across the Life Cycle.

Nutrients 2018 Oct 16;10(10). Epub 2018 Oct 16.

Food, Nutrition, and Health Program, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada.

Choline, an essential dietary nutrient for humans, is required for the synthesis of the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine, the methyl group donor, betaine, and phospholipids; and therefore, choline is involved in a broad range of critical physiological functions across all stages of the life cycle. The current dietary recommendations for choline have been established as Adequate Intakes (AIs) for total choline; however, dietary choline is present in multiple different forms that are both water-soluble (e.g., free choline, phosphocholine, and glycerophosphocholine) and lipid-soluble (e.g., phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin). Interestingly, the different dietary choline forms consumed during infancy differ from those in adulthood. This can be explained by the primary food source, where the majority of choline present in human milk is in the water-soluble form, versus lipid-soluble forms for foods consumed later on. This review summarizes the current knowledge on dietary recommendations and assessment methods, and dietary choline intake from food sources across the life cycle.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu10101513DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6213596PMC
October 2018

Milk Fat Globule Membrane Supplementation in Formula-fed Rat Pups Improves Reflex Development and May Alter Brain Lipid Composition.

Sci Rep 2018 10 15;8(1):15277. Epub 2018 Oct 15.

Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V5Z 3V4, Canada.

Human milk contains nutritional, immunoprotective and developmental components that support optimal infant growth and development. The milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) is one unique component, comprised of a tri-layer of polar lipids, glycolipids, and proteins, that may be important for brain development. MFGM is not present in most infant formulas. We tested the effects of bovine MFGM supplementation on reflex development and on brain lipid and metabolite composition in rats using the "pup in a cup" model. From postnatal d5 to d18, rats received either formula supplemented with MFGM or a standard formula without MFGM; a group of mother-reared animals was used as reference/control condition. Body and brain weights did not differ between groups. MFGM supplementation reduced the gap in maturation age between mother-reared and standard formula-fed groups for the ear and eyelid twitch, negative geotaxis and cliff avoidance reflexes. Statistically significant differences in brain phospholipid and metabolite composition were found at d13 and/or d18 between mother-reared and standard formula-fed groups, including a higher phosphatidylcholine:phosphatidylethanolamine ratio, and higher phosphatidylserine, glycerol-3 phosphate, and glutamine in mother-reared compared to formula-fed pups. Adding MFGM to formula narrowed these differences. Our study demonstrates that addition of bovine MFGM to formula promotes reflex development and alters brain phospholipid and metabolite composition. Changes in brain lipid metabolism and their potential functional implications for neurodevelopment need to be further investigated in future studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-33603-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6189118PMC
October 2018

Variations in plasma choline and metabolite concentrations in healthy adults.

Clin Biochem 2018 Sep 17;60:77-83. Epub 2018 Aug 17.

Food, Nutrition, and Health Program, University of British Columbia, 2205 East Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Plasma concentrations of choline and its metabolites might serve as biomarkers for the health outcomes of several pathological states such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. However, information about the reliability of biomarkers of choline status is limited. We investigated biological variations in repeated measures of choline and metabolites in healthy adults to assess them as biomarkers.

Methods: Blood samples were collected after an overnight fast at three-time points 12 days apart from 40 adults (mean age, 33 y; male, n = 21). A subset (n = 19; [male, n = 8]) provided one additional sample after a breakfast meal. Plasma free choline, betaine and dimethylglycine were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and plasma phosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin and lysophosphatidylcholine were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography.

Results: The biological variations observed for choline and metabolites were ≤ 13% for adult fasting samples. This corresponded to intra-class correlations (ICC) that ranged from 0.593 to 0.770 for fasting values for choline and metabolites. A similar ICC range was also obtained between fasting and post-prandial states. Although most post-prandial concentrations of choline and metabolites were significantly higher (P < .05) than fasting, all fell within a calculated reference interval. The participants were correctly classified in tertiles for fasting and post-prandial states for choline (68%) and metabolites (range = 32% phosphatidylcholine and 79% for sphingomyelin).

Conclusions: These findings indicate that biological variations of choline and metabolites are low in healthy adults and values from a single blood sample can be used as a biomarker. However, choosing phosphatidylcholine as a biomarker is less reliable.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2018.08.002DOI Listing
September 2018

Plasma Betaine Is Positively Associated with Developmental Outcomes in Healthy Toddlers at Age 2 Years Who Are Not Meeting the Recommended Adequate Intake for Dietary Choline.

J Nutr 2018 08;148(8):1309-1314

Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia and BC Children's Hospital Research Institute, Vancouver, Canada.

Background: Choline is an important nutrient during development. However, there are limited data on dietary choline intake and status in toddlers and the relation to neurodevelopmental outcomes.

Objective: This study assessed dietary choline intake and status in healthy toddlers at ages 1 and 2 y and determined the relation to neurodevelopmental outcomes.

Methods: This is a secondary analysis of data from healthy toddlers enrolled in a double-blind, randomized controlled trial of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation between ages 1 and 2 y. Dietary intakes of betaine and choline were estimated by 3-d food records; plasma free choline, betaine, and dimethylglycine were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Developmental outcomes were assessed at age 2 y with the use of the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, 3rd edition (Bayley-III), Cognitive and Language composites, and the Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (Beery-VMI).

Results: The mean ± SD daily intake for total choline at age 1 y was 174 ± 56.2 mg/d and increased (P < 0.001) to 205 ± 67.5 mg/d at age 2 y. At ages 1 and 2 y, 71.8% and 55.8%, respectively, of toddlers did not meet the recommended 200-mg/d Adequate Intake (AI) for dietary choline. At age 1 y, mean ± SD plasma free choline, betaine, and dimethylglycine concentrations were 10.4 ± 3.3, 41.1 ± 15.4, and 4.1 ± 1.9 µmol/L, respectively. Plasma free choline (8.5 ± 2.3 µmol/L) and dimethylglycine (3.2 ± 1.3 µmol/L) concentrations were lower (P < 0.001) at age 2 y. Plasma betaine concentrations were positively associated with the Beery-VMI (β = 0.270; 95% CI: 0.026, 0.513; P = 0.03) at age 2 y.

Conclusions: These findings suggest that most toddlers are not meeting the recommended AI for dietary choline and that higher plasma betaine concentrations are associated with better visual-motor development at age 2 y. Further work is required to investigate choline metabolism and its role in neurodevelopment in toddlers. The trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01263912.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxy108DOI Listing
August 2018

Concentrations of Water-Soluble Forms of Choline in Human Milk from Lactating Women in Canada and Cambodia.

Nutrients 2018 Mar 20;10(3). Epub 2018 Mar 20.

Food, Nutrition, and Health Program, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada.

Choline has critical roles during periods of rapid growth and development, such as infancy. In human milk, choline is mostly present in water-soluble forms (free choline, phosphocholine, and glycerophosphocholine). It is thought that milk choline concentration is influenced by maternal choline intake, and the richest food sources for choline are of animal origin. Scarce information exists on milk choline from countries differing in animal-source food availability. In this secondary analysis of samples from previous trials, the concentrations of the water-soluble forms of choline were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in mature milk samples collected from lactating women in Canada ( = 301) and in Cambodia ( = 67). None of the water-soluble forms of choline concentrations in milk differed between Canada and Cambodia. For all milk samples ( = 368), free choline, phosphocholine, glycerophosphocholine, and the sum of water-soluble forms of choline concentrations in milk were (mean (95%CI)) 151 (141, 160, 540 (519, 562), 411 (396, 427), and 1102 (1072, 1133) µmol/L, respectively. Theoretically, only 19% of infants would meet the current Adequate Intake (AI) for choline. Our findings suggest that the concentrations in milk of water-soluble forms of choline are similar in Canada and Cambodia, and that the concentration used to set the infant AI might be inaccurate.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu10030381DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5872799PMC
March 2018
-->