Publications by authors named "Aleem A Khan"

43 Publications

Efficacy and safety of neural stem cell therapy for spinal cord injury: A systematic literature review.

Therapie 2021 May-Jun;76(3):201-210. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Real-World Insights Group, Centre for Liver Research and Diagnostics, Deccan College of Medical sciences, 500058 Hyderabad, India; Department of Biotechnology & Microbiology, School of Sciences, Noida International University, 203201 Gautam Budh Nagar, India; Department of Surgery, Oncology and Gastroenterology, University of Padova, 35124 Padova, Italy. Electronic address:

Aims: To summarize the evidence on the efficacy and safety of neural stem cell therapy (NSCT) for the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI).

Methods: A systematic literature review of Medline®, EMBASE® and Cochrane library was performed to identify studies reporting efficacy and safety of NSCT in SCI. Articles were included if they reported efficacy and safety data of SCI patients who received NSCT.

Results: Overall, four studies of the 277 records met all the study eligibility criteria. Over the 1-year follow-up period, motor scores were significantly higher among patients who received NSCT compared with those who did not (American Spinal Injury Association [ASIA] motor scores (mean±standard deviation [SD]): 7.9±1.2 versus 3.9±0.6; upper extremity motor score: 7.8±2.1 versus 3.9±0.6, both P<0.05). Sensory scores (pinprick score: 4.8±1.3 versus 2.9±0.6; P=0.5; light touch score: 6.9±3.1 versus 2.3±0.5, P=0.3), ASIA impairment scale (26% versus 7%) or pain score (baseline: 2.4±0.6; 1-year: 3.4±0.4) were comparable in both NSCT and non-NSCT cohorts. Over the 1-year follow-up period, the graded redefined assessment of strength, sensibility, and prehension and international standards for neurological classification of SCI scores showed a mean improvement of 14.8 and 17.8 points respectively. Overall, treatment with NSCT showed favorable safety and tolerability profile.

Conclusions: Due to the limited and poor-quality evidence, it is too early to make robust conclusions on the efficacy of NSCT in the treatment of SCI. However, based on the included studies, NSCT seems to be a potential option worth exploring among patients with SCI. Nonetheless, prospective, randomized trials in larger cohorts are needed to validate the efficacy and safety of NSCT in the treatment of SCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.therap.2020.06.011DOI Listing
September 2021

Osteo/odontogenic Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells with Platelet-rich Plasma and Mineral Trioxide Aggregate.

J Contemp Dent Pract 2019 Oct 1;20(10):1171-1178. Epub 2019 Oct 1.

Centre for Liver Research and Diagnostics (CLRD), Central Laboratory for Stem Cell Research and Translational Medicine, Deccan College of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.

Aim: Aim of the study was to investigate the effect of PRP and MTA individually and combined on human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells' (MSCs) proliferation and osteo/odontogenic differentiation potential.

Materials And Methods: MSCs were cultured with MTA, 5% PRP, 10% PRP, MTA with 5%PRP, and MTA with 10% PRP. Fetal calf serum (FCS) was used as control. Cell viability and proliferative efficiency were tested with cell adhesion and MTT assay. Osteo/odontogenic differentiation was assessed and quantified with alizarin red staining.

Results: MTA alone, MTA with 5% PRP, and MTA with 10% PRP showed significantly high proliferation at day 7 and 14 when compared to the control group. Enhanced differentiation and the highest calcium deposition was observed in MTA with the 10% PRP group.

Conclusion: Within limitations of the environment, results imply an increased proliferation and induction of MSCs into osteo/odontogenic differentiation by the combination rather than a mere sealing of PRP by MTA.

Clinical Significance: PRP and MTA have the potential for true regeneration of the pulp tissue. Moreover, the combination of PRP and MTA can be utilized to expand the MSCs to generate adequate numbers for clinical applications, without xenogenic contamination. How to cite this article: Vanka A, Vishwakarma SK, Bhat MK, Osteo/odontogenic Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells with Platelet-rich Plasma and Mineral Trioxide Aggregate. J Contemp Dent Pract 2019;20(10):1171-1178.
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October 2019

Gene expression patterns of COX-1, COX-2 and iNOS in H. Pylori infected histopathological conditions.

Microb Pathog 2019 Oct 17;135:103634. Epub 2019 Jul 17.

Centre for Liver Research and Diagnostics, Deccan College of Medical Sciences, Kanchanbagh, Hyderabad, Telangana, India. Electronic address:

Background: Research indicates that Helicobacter pylori can inflict severe histological damage through the modulation of host-related genes. The current study investigated the effect of H. pylori genotypes in the outcome of disease, and the expression of anti-apoptotic related genes, COX-1, COX-2, and iNOS genes in benign, pre-malignant, and malignant lesions of gastric carcinogenesis.

Materials And Methods: Tissue samples from H. pylori positive patients were graded based on the genotype of the infected H. pylori strain. Expression of COX-1, COX-2 and iNOS was assessed using a combination of real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry.

Results: Gene expression studies confirmed that COX-2 and iNOS expression was highly and selectively induced in epithelium with premalignant changes such as atrophic conditions, metaplasia and dysplasia, suggesting an important role of these genes in the sequence to gastric carcinoma of the intestinal type. Furthermore, the expression of COX-2 and iNOS was also dependent on the genotype of H. pylori and subjects with genotype-1 exhibited significantly higher expressions of COX-2 and iNOS compared to other genotypes. Comparison of the expression levels among infected and uninfected individuals demonstrated significant difference in the expression pattern of COX-2 gene whereas iNOS expression was found only in subjects infected H. pylori (p < 0.001). Immunohistochemical staining showed 1.5619 folds higher propensity of COX-2 and 3.2941 folds higher intensity of iNOS expression in subjects infected with H. pylori genotype 1.

Conclusion: The up-regulation of COX-2 and iNOS was associated with the genotype of the H. pylori strain and the presence of certain genotype may greatly affect early events during carcinogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2019.103634DOI Listing
October 2019

Immunophenotypic and Molecular Analysis of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells Potential for Neurogenic Differentiation.

Contemp Clin Dent 2017 Jan-Mar;8(1):81-89

Central Laboratory for Stem Cell Research and Translational Medicine, CLRD, Deccan College of Medical Sciences, Kanchanbagh, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.

Background: Growing evidence shows that dental pulp (DP) tissues could be a potential source of adult stem cells for the treatment of devastating neurological diseases and several other conditions.

Aims: Exploration of the expression profile of several key molecular markers to evaluate the molecular dynamics in undifferentiated and differentiated DP-derived stem cells (DPSCs) .

Settings And Design: The characteristics and multilineage differentiation ability of DPSCs were determined by cellular and molecular kinetics. DPSCs were further induced to form adherent (ADH) and non-ADH (NADH) neurospheres under serum-free condition which was further induced into neurogenic lineage cells and characterized for their molecular and cellular diversity at each stage.

Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis used one-way analysis of variance, Student's -test, Livak method for relative quantification, and R programming.

Results: Immunophenotypic analysis of DPSCs revealed >80% cells positive for mesenchymal markers CD90 and CD105, >70% positive for transferring receptor (CD71), and >30% for chemotactic factor (CXCR3). These cells showed mesodermal differentiation also and confirmed by specific staining and molecular analysis. Activation of neuronal lineage markers and neurogenic growth factors was observed during lineage differentiation of cells derived from NADH and ADH spheroids. Greater than 80% of cells were found to express β-tubulin III in both differentiation conditions.

Conclusions: The present study reported a cascade of immunophenotypic and molecular markers to characterize neurogenic differentiation of DPSCs under serum-free condition. These findings trigger the future analyses for clinical applicability of DP-derived cells in regenerative applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ccd.ccd_998_16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5426172PMC
June 2017

Protective Effects of Diallyl Sulfide Against Ethanol-Induced Injury in Rat Adipose Tissue and Primary Human Adipocytes.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2017 Jun 16;41(6):1078-1092. Epub 2017 May 16.

Department of Biological Sciences , BITS Pilani, Hyderabad, India.

Background: Alcohol consumption is the fourth leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Several cellular pathways contribute to alcohol-mediated tissue injury. Adipose tissue apart from functioning as an endocrine organ secretes several hormones and cytokines known as adipokines that are known to play a significant role in alcohol-induced tissue damage. This study was designed to test the efficacy of diallyl sulfide (DAS) in regulating the alcohol-induced outcomes on adipose tissue.

Methods: Male Wistar rats were fed with 36% Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet containing ethanol (EtOH) for 4 weeks. Control rats were pair-fed with isocaloric diet containing maltodextrin instead of EtOH. During the last week of feeding protocol, the EtOH-fed rat group was given 200 mg/kg body weight of DAS through diet. We also studied DAS effect on isolated human primary adipocytes. Viability of human primary adipocytes on DAS treatment was assessed by MTT assay. Malondialdehyde (MDA), a marker of oxidative stress, was measured by HPLC and the thiobarbituric acid method. Expression of inflammatory genes and lipogenic genes was studied by qRT-PCR and Western blotting. Serum inflammatory gene expression was studied by ELISA.

Results: Our study results showed that DAS could alleviate EtOH-induced expression levels of proinflammatory and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress genes and improve adipose tissue mass and adipocyte morphology in male Wistar rats fed Lieber-DeCarli diet containing 6% EtOH. Further, we showed that DAS reduced the expression of lipogenic genes and improved lipid accumulation and adipocyte mass in human primary adipocytes treated with EtOH. Subsequently, we also showed that oxidative stress, as measured by the changes in MDA levels, was reduced in both male Wistar rats and human primary adipocytes treated with EtOH plus DAS.

Conclusions: Our study results prove that DAS is effective in ameliorating EtOH-induced damage to adipose tissue as evidenced by the reduction brought about by DAS in oxidative stress, ER stress, and proinflammatory gene expression levels. DAS treatment also regulated lipogenic gene expression levels, thereby reducing free fatty acid release. In conclusion, this study has clinical implications with respect to alcohol-induced adipose tissue injury among alcohol users.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.13398DOI Listing
June 2017

Phylogeography of the smooth-coated otter (Lutrogale perspicillata): distinct evolutionary lineages and hybridization with the Asian small-clawed otter (Aonyx cinereus).

Sci Rep 2017 01 27;7:41611. Epub 2017 Jan 27.

Department of Biology, Zoology-Anthropology Unit, Via A. Volta 4, 56126 Pisa, Italy.

We investigated the phylogeography of the smooth-coated otter (Lutrogale perspicillata) to determine its spatial genetic structure for aiding an adaptive conservation management of the species. Fifty-eight modern and 11 archival (dated 1882-1970) otters sampled from Iraq to Malaysian Borneo were genotyped (mtDNA Cytochrome-b, 10 microsatellite DNA loci). Moreover, 16 Aonyx cinereus (Asian small-clawed otter) and seven Lutra lutra (Eurasian otter) were sequenced to increase information available for phylogenetic reconstructions. As reported in previous studies, we found that L. perspicillata, A. cinereus and A. capensis (African clawless otter) grouped in a clade sister to the genus Lutra, with L. perspicillata and A. cinereus being reciprocally monophyletic. Within L. perspicillata, we uncovered three Evolutionarily Significant Units and proved that L. p. maxwelli is not only endemic to Iraq but also the most recent subspecies. We suggest a revision of the distribution range limits of easternmost L. perspicillata subspecies. We show that smooth-coated otters in Singapore are L. perspicillata x A. cinereus hybrids with A. cinereus mtDNA, the first reported case of hybridization in the wild among otters. This result also provides evidence supporting the inclusion of L. perspicillata and A. cinereus in the genus Amblonyx, thus avoiding the paraphyly of the genus Aonyx.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep41611DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5269716PMC
January 2017

Genetic Polymorphisms of X-ray Repair Cross-Complementing Group 1 and Apurinic/Apyrimidinic Endonuclease-1 in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

Inflammation 2016 Jun;39(3):1198-204

Central Laboratory for Stem Cell Research & Translational Medicine, Centre for Liver Research and Diagnostics, Deccan College of Medical Sciences, Kanchanbagh, Hyderabad, 500 058, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a heterogeneous collection of conditions characterized by irreversible expiratory airflow limitation. The disease is interspersed with exacerbations; periods of acute symptomatic, physiological, and functional deterioration. The present study was designed to investigate the role of X-ray cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) and apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) polymorphisms and the risk of COPD. Blood samples from 354 unrelated subject (age range 18-60 years; 156 with COPD, 198 healthy controls) were collected. Genomic DNA was isolated and genotyped for XRCC1 Arg399Gln and APE1 Asp148Glu using a confronting two pair primers polymerase chain reaction. GA genotype of XRCC1 gene was found to be predominant in the COPD group compared to controls with 1.86-fold increased risk for COPD (OR 1.86, 95 % CI 1.20-2.88, p = 0.0013). TG genotype of APE1 was found to be predominant in COPD group compared to controls with the difference being statistically significant (OR 1.68, 95 % CI 1.08-2.61, p = 0.0043). The GA haplotype was found to be predominant in COPD than controls with a 2.19-fold significant increase (OR 2.19, 95 % CI 1.46-3.28, p = 0.003). Polymorphism in XRCC1 and APE1 gene is associated with an increased risk of COPD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10753-016-0355-xDOI Listing
June 2016

Impacts of biological globalization in the Mediterranean: unveiling the deep history of human-mediated gamebird dispersal.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2015 Mar 2;112(11):3296-301. Epub 2015 Mar 2.

Department of Biology, Zoology and Anthropology Unit, University of Pisa, 56126 Pisa, Italy;

Humans have a long history of moving wildlife that over time has resulted in unprecedented biotic homogenization. It is, as a result, often unclear whether certain taxa are native to a region or naturalized, and how the history of human involvement in species dispersal has shaped present-day biodiversity. Although currently an eastern Palaearctic galliform, the black francolin (Francolinus francolinus) was known to occur in the western Mediterranean from at least the time of Pliny the Elder, if not earlier. During Medieval times and the Renaissance, the black francolin was a courtly gamebird prized not only for its flavor, but also its curative, and even aphrodisiac qualities. There is uncertainty, however, whether this important gamebird was native or introduced to the region and, if the latter, what the source of introduction into the western Mediterranean was. Here we combine historical documentation with a DNA investigation of modern birds and archival (13th-20th century) specimens from across the species' current and historically documented range. Our study proves the black francolin was nonnative to the western Mediterranean, and we document its introduction from the east via several trade routes, some reaching as far as South Asia. This finding provides insight into the reach and scope of long-distance trade routes that serviced the demand of European aristocracy for exotic species as symbols of wealth and prestige, and helps to demonstrate the lasting impact of human-mediated long-distance species dispersal on current day biodiversity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1500677112DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4371972PMC
March 2015

Current concept in neural regeneration research: NSCs isolation, characterization and transplantation in various neurodegenerative diseases and stroke: A review.

J Adv Res 2014 May 7;5(3):277-94. Epub 2013 May 7.

Centre for Liver Research and Diagnostics, Deccan College of Medical Sciences, Kanchanbagh, Hyderabad, 500 058 Andhra Pradesh, India ; Paspala Advanced Neural (PAN) Research Foundation, Narayanguda, Hyderabad, 500 029 Andhra Pradesh, India.

Since last few years, an impressive amount of data has been generated regarding the basic in vitro and in vivo biology of neural stem cells (NSCs) and there is much far hope for the success in cell replacement therapies for several human neurodegenerative diseases and stroke. The discovery of adult neurogenesis (the endogenous production of new neurons) in the mammalian brain more than 40 years ago has resulted in a wealth of knowledge about stem cells biology in neuroscience research. Various studies have done in search of a suitable source for NSCs which could be used in animal models to understand the basic and transplantation biology before treating to human. The difficulties in isolating pure population of NSCs limit the study of neural stem behavior and factors that regulate them. Several studies on human fetal brain and spinal cord derived NSCs in animal models have shown some interesting results for cell replacement therapies in many neurodegenerative diseases and stroke models. Also the methods and conditions used for in vitro culture of these cells provide an important base for their applicability and specificity in a definite target of the disease. Various important developments and modifications have been made in stem cells research which is needed to be more specified and enrolment in clinical studies using advanced approaches. This review explains about the current perspectives and suitable sources for NSCs isolation, characterization, in vitro proliferation and their use in cell replacement therapies for the treatment of various neurodegenerative diseases and strokes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jare.2013.04.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4294738PMC
May 2014

In vitro quantitative and relative gene expression analysis of pancreatic transcription factors Pdx-1, Ngn-3, Isl-1, Pax-4, Pax-6 and Nkx-6.1 in trans-differentiated human hepatic progenitors.

J Diabetes Investig 2014 Sep 29;5(5):492-500. Epub 2014 Jan 29.

Department of Zoology The Adony Arts and Science College Kurnool India.

Aims/introduction: Diabetes is a major health concern throughout the world because of its increasing prevalence in epidemic proportions. β-Cell deterioration in the pancreas is a crucial factor for the progression of diabetes mellitus. Therefore, the restoration of β-cell mass and its function is of vital importance for the development of effective therapeutic strategies and most accessible cell sources for the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

Materials And Methods: Human fetuses (12-20 weeks gestation age) were used to isolate human hepatic progenitor cells (hHPCs) from fetal liver using a two-step collagenase digestion method. Epithelial cell adhesion molecule-positive (EpCAM+ve)-enriched hHPCs were cultured in vitro and induced with 5-30 mmol/L concentration of glucose for 0-32 h. Pdx-1 expression and insulin secretion was analyzed using immunophenotypic and chemifluorescence assays, respectively. Relative gene expression was quantified in induced hHPCs, and compared with uninduced and pancreatic cells to identify the activated transcription factors (Pdx-1, Ngn-3, Isl-1, Pax-4, Pax-6 and Nkx-6.1) involved in β-cell production.

Results: EpCAM+ve cells derived from human fetal liver showed high in vitro trans-differentiation potential towards the β-cell phenotype with 23 mmol/L glucose induction after 24 h. The transcription factors showed eminent expression in induced cells. The expression level of transcription factors was found significantly high in 23 mmol/L-induced hHPCs as compared with the uninduced cells.

Conclusions: The present study has shown an exciting new insight into β-cell development from hHPCs trans-differentiation. Relative quantification of gene expression in trans-differentiated cells offers vast possibility for the production of a maximum number of functionally active pancreatic β-cells for a future cure of diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jdi.12193DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4188105PMC
September 2014

Haplotype analyses of DNA repair gene polymorphisms and their role in ulcerative colitis.

PLoS One 2014 23;9(9):e108562. Epub 2014 Sep 23.

Centre for Liver Research and Diagnostics, Deccan College of Medical Sciences, Kanchanbagh, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a major clinical form of inflammatory bowel disease. UC is characterized by mucosal inflammation limited to the colon, always involving the rectum and a variable extent of the more proximal colon in a continuous manner. Genetic variations in DNA repair genes may influence the extent of repair functions, DNA damage, and thus the manifestations of UC. This study thus evaluated the role of polymorphisms of the genes involved in DNA repair mechanisms. A total of 171 patients and 213 controls were included. Genotyping was carried out by ARMS PCR and PCR-RFLP analyses for RAD51, XRCC3 and hMSH2 gene polymorphisms. Allelic and genotypic frequencies were computed in both control & patient groups and data was analyzed using appropriate statistical tests. The frequency of 'A' allele of hMSH2 in the UC group caused statistically significant increased risk for UC compared to controls (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.16-2.31, p = 0.004). Similarly, the CT genotype of XRCC3 gene was predominant in the UC group and increased the risk for UC by 1.75 fold compared to controls (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.15-2.67, p = 0.03), further confirming the risk of 'T' allele in UC. The GC genotype frequency of RAD51 gene was significantly increased (p = 0.02) in the UC group (50.3%) compared to controls (38%). The GC genotype significantly increased the risk for UC compared to GG genotype by 1.73 fold (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.14-2.62, p = 0.02) confirming the strong association of 'C' allele with UC. Among the controls, the SNP loci combination of hMSH2:XRCC3 were in perfect linkage. The GTC and ACC haplotypes were found to be predominant in UC than controls with a 2.28 and 2.93 fold significant increase risk of UC.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0108562PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4172686PMC
January 2016

Potential role of stem cells in severe spinal cord injury: current perspectives and clinical data.

Stem Cells Cloning 2012 Sep 25;5:15-27. Epub 2012 Sep 25.

PAN Research Foundation, CARE, Hyderabad, India ; The Institute of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad, India.

Stem cell transplantation for spinal cord injury (SCI) along with new pharmacotherapy research offers the potential to restore function and ease the associated social and economic burden in the years ahead. Various sources of stem cells have been used in the treatment of SCI, but the most convincing results have been obtained with neural progenitor cells in preclinical models. Although the use of cell-based transplantation strategies for the repair of chronic SCI remains the long sought after holy grail, these approaches have been to date the most successful when applied in the subacute phase of injury. Application of cell-based strategies for the repair and regeneration of the chronically injured spinal cord will require a combinational strategy that may need to include approaches to overcome the effects of the glial scar, inhibitory molecules, and use of tissue engineering strategies to bridge the lesion. Nonetheless, cell transplantation strategies are promising, and it is anticipated that the Phase I clinical trials of some form of neural stem cell-based approach in SCI will commence very soon.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/SCCAA.S28477DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3781762PMC
September 2012

Functional polymorphisms in XRCC-1 and APE-1 contribute to increased apoptosis and risk of ulcerative colitis.

Inflamm Res 2012 Apr 23;61(4):359-65. Epub 2011 Dec 23.

Centre for Liver Research and Diagnostics, Deccan College of Medical Sciences, Kanchanbagh, Hyderabad 500 058, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the role of X-ray cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) and apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) polymorphisms in apoptosis and the risk of ulcerative colitis (UC).

Materials And Methods: Blood samples from 384 unrelated subject (age range 18-65 years; 171 with UC, 213 healthy controls) were collected after colonoscopy. Genomic DNA was isolated and genotyped for XRCC1 Arg399Gln and APE1 Asp148Glu using a confronting two-pair primers polymerase chain reaction. Apoptosis and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were measured using annexin-V and H(2)DCFDA assay, respectively.

Results: The frequency of genotype Arg399Gln (heterozygous) of XRCC1 gene was significantly higher in patients with UC than the controls (odds ratio [OR] 1.73; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13-2.64; p = 0.01). Similarly the genotypic frequency of APE1 Asp148Glu showed statistically significant incidence among UC subjects (OR 1.54; 95% CI 1.02-2.33; p = 0.04). Polymorphism in XRCC1 Arg399Gln and APE1 Asp148Glu together considerably increased the risk of UC (OR 2.303; 95% CI 1.43-3.69; p = 0.0007). ROS levels were high in UC subjects compared with controls (p = 0.01).

Conclusion: Polymorphisms in XRCC1 Arg399Gln and APE1 Asp148Glu significantly increased the rate of apoptosis and risk of ulcerative colitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00011-011-0418-2DOI Listing
April 2012

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor, Toll-like receptor 4, and CD14 polymorphisms with altered expression levels in patients with ulcerative colitis.

Hum Immunol 2012 Feb 8;73(2):201-5. Epub 2011 Dec 8.

Centre for Liver Research and Diagnostics, Deccan College of Medical Sciences, Kanchanbagh, Hyderabad 500 058, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Ulcerative colitis is a multifactorial disease in which genetic factors play a major role. Functional mutations in the genes related to innate immune response exacerbate mucosal damage coupled with persistent inflammation. The cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), CD14, and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) are the central players with clearly defined roles in inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between MIF-173G > C, CD14-159C > T, and TLR4-299A > G polymorphisms and mononuclear cell expression in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). Genotyping of MIF-173G > C, CD14-159C > T, and TLR4-299A > G polymorphisms was performed by amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction and allele-specific amplification in 139 and 176 patients with UC and controls, respectively. Simultaneously, the expression levels of intracellular MIF, mCD14, and mTLR4 were determined in mononuclear cells using a flow cytometer. Polymorphisms in CD14-159C > T and TLR4-299A > G significantly affected mCD14 and mTLR4 expression levels and also increased susceptibility to UC. Although intracellular MIF expression levels differed among patient and control groups, the polymorphism in MIF 173G > C was not observed to be associated with a risk of UC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humimm.2011.12.006DOI Listing
February 2012

Phylogenetic analysis, based on EPIYA repeats in the cagA gene of Indian Helicobacter pylori, and the implications of sequence variation in tyrosine phosphorylation motifs on determining the clinical outcome.

Genet Mol Biol 2011 Apr 1;34(2):280-5. Epub 2011 Apr 1.

Centre for Liver Research and Diagnostics, Deccan College of Medical Sciences, Kanchanbagh, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India.

The population of India harbors one of the world's most highly diverse gene pools, owing to the influx of successive waves of immigrants over regular periods in time. Several phylogenetic studies involving mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosomal variation have demonstrated Europeans to have been the first settlers in India. Nevertheless, certain controversy exists, due to the support given to the thesis that colonization was by the Austro-Asiatic group, prior to the Europeans. Thus, the aim was to investigate pre-historic colonization of India by anatomically modern humans, using conserved stretches of five amino acid (EPIYA) sequences in the cagA gene of Helicobacter pylori. Simultaneously, the existence of a pathogenic relationship of tyrosine phosphorylation motifs (TPMs), in 32 H. pylori strains isolated from subjects with several forms of gastric diseases, was also explored. High resolution sequence analysis of the above described genes was performed. The nucleotide sequences obtained were translated into amino acids using MEGA (version 4.0) software for EPIYA. An MJ-Network was constructed for obtaining TPM haplotypes by using NETWORK (version 4.5) software. The findings of the study suggest that Indian H. pylori strains share a common ancestry with Europeans. No specific association of haplotypes with the outcome of disease was revealed through additional network analysis of TPMs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s1415-47572011005000003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3115323PMC
April 2011

Mitochondrial DNA diversity in Francolinus pondicerianus interpositus (grey francolin, Galliformes) from Pakistan.

Hereditas 2011 Apr 28;148(2):70-6. Epub 2011 Apr 28.

Department of Biological Sciences, Government College Dera Ghazi Khan, Pakistan.

Francolinus pondicerianus interpositus (grey francolin, Galliformes) is the only francolin present in the Suleiman Range (central Pakistan), one of the poorest and least developed areas in Pakistan. As a game bird, the francolin is an important income source for the region, but no demographic data are available. Therefore, the aim of this work was to study the polymorphism pattern of the Control Region gene (mitochondrial DNA, mtDNA), in order to obtain some initial information about genetic diversity, possible structure and demographic dynamics in this population. In 29 individuals captured in four sampling areas in the western and the eastern Suleiman Range, we detected nine polymorphic sites in a 511 bp fragment of the mtDNA Control Region gene, resulting in seven haplotypes. Haplotype (h = 0.818 ± 0.032) and nucleotide diversity (π % = 0.308 ± 0.210) values suggested a large population size and a low divergence among the haplotypes. AMOVA (Φ(ST) = 0.005; P = 0.352) did not detect any significant differences among the western and eastern populations; therefore, specimens of both sampled areas could be considered as drawn from a single population. The observed distribution of pairwise mismatches was bimodal, revealing significant departure from a growing-decreasing population model (P = 0.030); these results would point to a demographic equilibrium. Tribal control of hunting might provide an explanation for this situation, but future overhunting would threaten the survival of this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1601-5223.2010.02206.xDOI Listing
April 2011

Association of genetic variants of mannan-binding (MBL) lectin-2 gene, MBL levels and function in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease.

Innate Immun 2011 Dec 18;17(6):526-31. Epub 2010 Nov 18.

Centre for Liver Research and Diagnostics, Deccan College of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are the two major forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). A series of reports have hypothesized interplay of genetic and environmental factors in the pathogenesis of IBD. Polymorphism in the mannan-binding lectin-2 (MBL-2) gene is known to affect the structural assembly and function thereby predisposing subjects to various diseases. The present study was designed to evaluate effect of MBL-2 gene polymorphism on MBL levels and function in IBD patients. Genomic DNA was isolated from blood samples collected from 157 ulcerative colitis, 42 Crohn's disease and 204 control subjects. Genotyping for different polymorphic sites at exon1 of MBL-2 gene was performed by refractory mutation system-PCR and amplification followed by restriction digestion (PCR-RFLP). Serum MBL concentration and C4 deposition levels were estimated using ELISA. Mannan-binding lectin-2 genotypic variants were calculated in IBD and healthy controls. The frequency of single nucleotide polymorphisms at codon 54 was significantly higher in ulcerative colitis patients than controls (P < 0.0001). Ulcerative colitis patients with 'codon 54'-variation showed low serum MBL concentrations coupled with altered MBL function compared to controls. In conclusion, single nucleotide polymorphism in the MBL-2 gene is an important risk factor significantly affecting MBL levels and function in the development of ulcerative colitis among Indians.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1753425910384531DOI Listing
December 2011

Antibacterial and ulcer healing effects of organoselenium compounds in naproxen induced and Helicobacter pylori infected Wistar rat model.

J Trace Elem Med Biol 2010 Oct 3;24(4):263-70. Epub 2010 Aug 3.

Department of Physiology, Deccan College of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad, India.

Aim of the present study was to evaluate in vitro toxicity and in vivo antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antiulcer, and antioxidant activities of two organoselenium compounds, selenocystine (SeCys) and ebselen (Ebs). The study was conducted in experimentally induced ulcers in rodent model infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). In vitro toxicological studies on normal splenic lymphocytes revealed that SeCys and Ebs were non-toxic to the cells even at 100 μM concentration. Antibacterial activity was observed at 500 μg/mL concentration of either of the compounds against H. pylori. In vivo studies after treatment with SeCys and Ebs (500 μg/kg/day) resulted in significant reduction in ROS production and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in gastric tissue. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of both the compounds were also confirmed by their ability to lower GSH reduction, to induce the expression of antioxidant genes such as GPx-4, and MnSOD and to suppress inflammatory genes namely COX-2, TNF-α and TGF-β. In addition, the immunomodulatory activity of both the compounds was evident by enhance of the CD4 levels and maintenance of the IgG, IL-6 and IL-10 levels. Persistent treatment (500 μg/kg, for 28 days) with both the compounds showed considerable (p<0.05) ulcer healing property supporting its role in gastro protection. In conclusion, the results of our study suggest that both SeCys and Ebs possess broad spectrum of activities without any potential toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2010.04.003DOI Listing
October 2010

Human fetal liver-derived stem cell transplantation as supportive modality in the management of end-stage decompensated liver cirrhosis.

Cell Transplant 2010 ;19(4):409-18

Centre for Liver Research and Diagnostics, Deccan College of Medical Sciences, Kanchanbagh, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Liver transplantation is the only existing modality for treating decompensated liver cirrhosis. Several factors, such as nonavailability of donors, combined with operative risks, complications associated with rejection, usage of immunosuppressive agents, and cost intensiveness, make this strategy available to only a few people. With a tremendous upsurge in the mortality rate of patients with liver disorders worldwide, there is a need to search for an alternative therapeutic tool that can combat the above limitations and serve as a supportive therapy in the management of liver diseases. Cell therapy using human fetal liver-derived stem cells can provide great potential to conservatively manage end-stage liver diseases. Therefore, the present investigation aimed to study and prove the safety and efficacy of human fetal liver-derived stem cell transplantation in patients with end-stage liver cirrhosis. Twenty-five patients with liver cirrhosis of different etiologies were infused with human fetal liver-derived stem cells (EpCAM+ve) labeled with Tc-HMPAO through hepatic artery. Our high throughput analysis using flow cytometry, RT-PCR, and cellular characterization exemplifies fetal liver cells with their high proliferation rate could be the best source for rejuvenating the diseased liver. Further, no episodes related to hepatic encephalopathy recurred in any of the subjects following hepatic stem cell transplantation. There was marked clinical improvement observed in terms of all clinical and biochemical parameters. Further, there was decrease in mean MELD score (p < 0.01) observed in 6 months follow-up in all patients. Therapy using human fetal liver stem/progenitor cells offers a potentially supportive modality to organ transplantation in the management of liver diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/096368910X498241DOI Listing
September 2010

In vitro insulin production and analysis of pancreatic transcription factors in induced human hepatic progenitor cells.

Diabetes Technol Ther 2010 May;12(5):373-8

Centre for Liver Research and Diagnostics , Deccan College of Medical Sciences, India.

Background: beta-Cell destruction and/or insufficient insulin production are the hallmarks of diabetes mellitus (type 1 diabetes). A hepatic progenitor from developing liver is sought to be one of the surrogate sources of insulin production as the pancreas and the liver share a common precursor and signals from the cardiac mesoderm. Production of insulin is possible by transfecting pancreatic transcription factors that play important roles in development of the pancreatic beta-cell. But, there is always the fear of using genetically manipulated cells for therapeutics. Hence, the present study was designed to analyze the feasibility of using primary human fetal hepatic progenitors as a potential source for insulin production.

Methods: Human fetal hepatic progenitors were enriched using CD-326 magnetic cell sorting. The sorted cells were cultured with different concentrations of glucose (5-30 mM) in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium. The amount of insulin production was estimated in the cultured cells by the chemiluminescence method. Total RNA isolated from sorted epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM)-positive cells was reverse-transcribed, and the expression of different beta-cell-producing transcriptions factors was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Immunocytochemical analysis was performed in cultured cells using specific insulin antibodies.

Results: The viability of the total liver cells isolated was found to be 95%. The average number of EpCAM-positive cells in the total liver was found to be approximately 15%. An insulin kinetics study using glucose induction with different concentrations showed increased insulin secretion in response to glucose concentrations up to 20 mM. Furthermore, results of immunocytochemical analysis demonstrated intense insulin expression in EpCAM-positive cultured cells. Expression studies of the cultured EpCAM-positive cells using reverse transcription-PCR showed positive expression of the pancreatic transcription factors essential for insulin production.

Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that in vitro differentiation of induced human hepatic progenitors into insulin-producing cells without genetic manipulations may promote strategies for the treatment of type 1 diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/dia.2009.0083DOI Listing
May 2010

Relevance of Helicobacter pylori genotypes in gastric pathology and its association with plasma malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels.

Inflammopharmacology 2010 Apr 9;18(2):59-64. Epub 2010 Feb 9.

Centre for Liver Research and Diagnostics, Deccan College of Medical Sciences, Kanchanbagh, Hyderabad, 500 058, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Persistent infection with Helicobacter pylori confers an increased risk of peptic ulceration and gastric adenocarcinoma. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species play a crucial role in the progression from normal gastric mucosa to cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the plasma malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels in H. pylori related gastroduodenal diseases and associate their levels with gastric pathology and genotypes of H. pylori. Malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels in plasma samples of 250 subjects were spectrophotometrically determined. Subsequently, genotypic and histopathological assessment was performed in gastric biopsies obtained during endoscopy. The levels of MDA and NO exceeded in subjects infected with genotype-1 of Hp than those with other genotypes suggesting more precise interaction of highly virulent strains of Hp in eliciting severe tissue damage. In conclusion, the study demonstrates close relationship between the plasma malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels, gastric histopathology and genotypes of H. pylori.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10787-010-0031-yDOI Listing
April 2010

Anti-unlcer and antimicrobial activities of sodium selenite against Helicobacter pylori: in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

Scand J Infect Dis 2010 Apr;42(4):266-74

Department of Physiology, Deccan College of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad, India.

Abstract We examined sodium selenite, an inorganic selenium supplement, for its ulcer healing properties and antimicrobial activity against gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined using disk diffusion and flow cytometry. The studies were performed over a concentration range of 1 microg/ml to 500 microg/ml sodium selenite. Mild activity was seen at 10 microg/ml and 50 microg/ml, a moderate response at 100 microg/ml and strong response at 500 microg/ml with a MIC value of 10 microg/ml. The compound was found to be active at low pH without any resistance after 10 passages. Flow cytometry data showed a characteristic shift of the viability peak in comparison with the control, thereby confirming the bactericidal effects of sodium selenite. Sodium selenite administered in Wistar rats, pre-ulcerated with naproxen and infected with H. pylori, showed ulcer healing and anti-H. pylori activity at a concentration range of 10-50 microg/rat; however concentrations of 100 microg/rat and 500 microg/rat were found to be toxic in the in vivo studies. In conclusion, sodium selenite shows both ulcer healing and anti-H. pylori activity at a low concentration (10 microg/rat) without toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/00365540903493707DOI Listing
April 2010

Chronic Idiopathic Thrombocytopenia Purpura and Eradication: A case study.

Gastroenterology Res 2009 Feb 20;2(1):57-59. Epub 2009 Jan 20.

Center for Liver Research and Diagnostics, Deccan College of Medical Sciences, Kanchanbagh, Hyderabad 500 058, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is an immune-mediated thrombocytopenia. ITP is the result of accelerated platelet destruction by the reticuloendothelial system, primarily the spleen. The prevalence of infection and the effect of its eradication were monitored in an ITP patient over a period of 12 months. Eradication of led to the increased platelet count and provides a new insight for a non-immunosuppressive treatment in selective ITP patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4021/gr2009.02.1271DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5139889PMC
February 2009

Association of Helicobacter pylori restriction endonuclease-replacing gene, hrgA with overt gastrointestinal diseases.

Arq Gastroenterol 2008 Jul-Sep;45(3):225-9

Center for Liver Research and Diagnostics, Deccan College of Medical Sciences and Allied Hospitals, Kanchanbagh, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Background And Aim: Helicobacter pylori has been proven to be responsible for causing various gastrointestinal disorders including gastric adenocarcinoma. Several genes of pathogen (the genes of the cag-PAI, vacA, iceA, and babA) either in combination or independently have been reported to significantly increase the risk of ulceration/gastric carcinoma, with the cagA gene having the strongest predictive value. Pursuit to identify new genes which could serve as a marker of overt disease progression, lead to the discovery of hrgA gene.

Methods: Fifty-six indigenous strains of H. pylori from subjects with various gastric disorder were screened to assess the status of hrgA gene along with the cagA gene using simple polymerase chain reaction using specific oligonucleotide primers. Post-amplification, amplicons were subjected for sequencing to identify any strain specific variations in sequences from the H. pylori isolated from different disease manifestations. Histopathological analysis was done to ascertain any significant change in the histological scores of subjects infected with cagA+/hrgA+ and cagA-/hrg+ strains.

Results: All the 56 (100%) subjects amplified with the oligonucleotide primers specific to hrgA gene, whereas 81.71% subjects showed the presence of cagA gene. Sequencing of the amplimers showed 99% homology. Histology of the cagA+/hrgA+ and cagA-/hrg+ subjects did not show any significant difference.

Conclusion: hrgA gene of Helicobacter pylori is not a ideal surrogate marker for identifying individuals with higher risk of developing overt gastro-duodenal diseases such as neoplasia of the stomach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s0004-28032008000300011DOI Listing
August 2009

Characterization of hepatic progenitors from human fetal liver using CD34 as a hepatic progenitor marker.

World J Gastroenterol 2007 Apr;13(16):2319-23

Centre for Liver Research and Diagnostics, Deccan College of Medical Sciences and Allied Hospitals, Kanchanbagh 500058, Hyderabad-A.P, India.

Aim: To enrich putative hepatic progenitors from the developing human fetal liver using CD34 as a marker.

Methods: Aborted fetuses of 13-20 wk were used for the isolation of liver cells. The cells were labeled with anti CD34; a marker used for isolating progenitor population and the cells were sorted using magnetic cell sorting. The positive fractions of cells were assessed for specific hepatic markers. Further, these cells were cultured in vitro for long term investigation.

Results: Flow cytometric and immunocytochemical analysis for alphafetoprotein (AFP) showed that the majority of the enriched CD34 positive cells were positive for AFP. Furthermore, these enriched cells proliferated in the long term and maintained hepatic characteristics in in vitro culture.

Conclusion: The study shows that aborted human fetal liver is a potential source for isolation of hepatic progenitors for clinical applications. The study also demonstrates that CD34 can be a good marker for the enrichment of progenitor populations.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4147140PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v13.i16.2319DOI Listing
April 2007

Genetic insight into Mediterranean chukar (Alectoris chukar, Galliformes) populations inferred from mitochondrial DNA and RAPD markers.

Genetica 2007 Nov 8;131(3):287-98. Epub 2007 Feb 8.

Department of Biology, Protistology-Zoology Unit, University of Pisa, Via A. Volta 6, 56126 Pisa, Italy.

The chukar (Alectoris chukar, Galliformes) is one of the most important game birds as it is widely distributed and hunted over the whole of its range. The aim of this work was to assess the genetic differentiation as well as the possible presence of hybrid specimens in A. chukar populations from Italy, Greece and Cyprus. To provide phylogenetic context, conspecific, allopatric specimens from Israel, Georgia, Armenia, Kazakhstan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Mongolia, China and USA were compared. Sequencing of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) Control Region supplied information on the ancestry of A. chukar populations, whereas Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting was used to assess whether hybridization had occurred. The Italian population was found to be an inter-specific mixture of A. chukar and A. rufa (i.e., the red-legged partridge) mtDNA lineages, whereas the representatives from Greece and Cyprus showed only the A. chukar maternal line. RAPD markers revealed introgression with A. rufa genes in the Italian population, whereas no A. chukar x A. rufa hybrid specimens were detected in the eastern Mediterranean populations. The genetic data obtained from the Italian A. chukar population as well as from a few Greek specimens pointed against their Mediterranean kinship, suggesting relationships with A. chukar subspecies from the easternmost part of the Asian continent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10709-006-9138-xDOI Listing
November 2007

Antimicrobial activity of Sapindus mukorossi and Rheum emodi extracts against H pylori: In vitro and in vivo studies.

World J Gastroenterol 2006 Nov;12(44):7136-42

Centre for Liver Research and Diagnostics, Deccan college of Medical Sciences and Allied Hospitals, Kanchanbagh, Hyderabad 500064, India.

Aim: to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Sapindus mukorossi (S. mukorossi) and Rheum emodi (R. emodi).

Methods: Powders of S. mukorossi and R. emodi were extracted successively with petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform and ethanol and were concentrated in vacuum. The disk diffusion method was used for in vitro studies and in vivo studies were performed on male Wister rats. Thirty resistant clinical isolates of H pylori, as determined by their antibiotic sensitivity patterns by E-test, along with two Gram +ve (S. aureus, B. subtilis) and two Gram -ve (E. coli, P. vugaris) organisms were screened for their susceptibility patterns against these extracts.

Results: In our screening, all 30 resistant isolates and the other four organisms (two Gram +ve S. aureus, B. subtilis and two Gram -ve, E. coli, P. vugaris) were sensitive to the test compounds. It was found that ethanol and chloroform extracts of S. mukorossi and ethanol and benzene extracts of R. emodi inhibited H pylori at very low concentrations. In the in vitro study, the isolates showed a considerable zone of inhibition at very low concentrations (10 mug/mL) for both the extracts. In the in vivo study, the H pylori infection was cleared with minimal doses of extracts of S. mukorossi (2.5 mg/mL) and R. emodi (3.0 mg/mL) given orally for seven days.

Conclusion: We can conclude from this study that the extracts of S. mukorossi and R. emodi inhibited the growth of pylori in vitro and, in in vivo studies, the H pylori infection cleared within seven days at very low concentrations. We also found that H pylori did not acquire resistance against these herbal extracts even after 10 consecutive passages.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4087774PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v12.i44.7136DOI Listing
November 2006

Genomes of Helicobacter pylori from native Peruvians suggest admixture of ancestral and modern lineages and reveal a western type cag-pathogenicity island.

BMC Genomics 2006 Jul 27;7:191. Epub 2006 Jul 27.

Pathogen Evolution Group, Centre for DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnostics, Hyderabad, India.

Background: Helicobacter pylori is presumed to be co-evolved with its human host and is a highly diverse gastric pathogen at genetic levels. Ancient origins of H. pylori in the New World are still debatable. It is not clear how different waves of human migrations in South America contributed to the evolution of strain diversity of H. pylori. The objective of our 'phylogeographic' study was to gain fresh insights into these issues through mapping genetic origins of H. pylori of native Peruvians (of Amerindian ancestry) and their genomic comparison with isolates from Spain, and Japan.

Results: For this purpose, we attempted to dissect genetic identity of strains by fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (FAFLP) analysis, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of the 7 housekeeping genes (atpA, efp, ureI, ppa, mutY, trpC, yphC) and the sequence analyses of the babB adhesin and oipA genes. The whole cag pathogenicity-island (cagPAI) from these strains was analyzed using PCR and the geographic type of cagA phosphorylation motif EPIYA was determined by gene sequencing. We observed that while European genotype (hp-Europe) predominates in native Peruvian strains, approximately 20% of these strains represent a sub-population with an Amerindian ancestry (hsp-Amerind). All of these strains however, irrespective of their ancestral affiliation harbored a complete, 'western' type cagPAI and the motifs surrounding it. This indicates a possible acquisition of cagPAI by the hsp-Amerind strains from the European strains, during decades of co-colonization.

Conclusion: Our observations suggest presence of ancestral H. pylori (hsp-Amerind) in Peruvian Amerindians which possibly managed to survive and compete against the Spanish strains that arrived to the New World about 500 years ago. We suggest that this might have happened after native Peruvian H. pylori strains acquired cagPAI sequences, either by new acquisition in cag-negative strains or by recombination in cag positive Amerindian strains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-7-191DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1553449PMC
July 2006

Helicobacter pylori and other Helicobacter species DNA in human bile samples from patients with various hepato-biliary diseases.

World J Gastroenterol 2006 Apr;12(14):2181-6

Centre for Liver Research and Diagnostics, Deccan College of Medical Sciences and Allied Hospitals Kanchanbagh, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, 500 058, India.

Aim: To investigate the presence of Helicobacter species by nested PCR of 16S rRNA genes followed by the presence of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) 16S rRNA, ureA, cagA genes in bile obtained at endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP) from 60 Indian subjects.

Methods: Sixty bile samples were obtained from patients diagnosed with various hepato-biliary diseases and control subjects at ERCP. PCR analysis was carried out using primers for Helicobacter genus 16S rRNA gene and H pylori (16S rRNA, ureA and cagA) genes. Gastric H pylori status was also assessed from biopsies obtained at endoscopy from patients with various hepato-biliary diseases and controls. The control group mainly consisted of subjects with gastric disorders. Sequencing analysis was performed to confirm that PCR products with 16S rRNA and cagA primers were derived from H pylori. RESULTS No Helicobacters were grown in culture from the bile samples. Helicobacter DNA was detected in bile of 96.7% and 6.6% of groups I and II respectively. Ten from group I were positive for 16S rRNA and ureA and 9 were positive for cagA gene. In contrast of the 2 from the control, 1 amplified with 16S rRNA, ureA and cagA primers used. The sequences of the 16S rRNA genes and cagA were 99% similar to Helicobacter pylori.

Conclusion: Helicobacters are associated with the pathogenesis of various hepato-biliary disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v12.i14.2181DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4087643PMC
April 2006
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