Publications by authors named "Aldo Airoldi"

21 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Performance of the model for end-stage liver disease score for mortality prediction and the potential role of etiology.

J Hepatol 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Gastroenterology Unit, ASL Latina, Department of Translational and Precision Medicine, "Sapienza" University of Rome, Italy.

Background & Aims: Although the discriminative ability of the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score is generally considered acceptable, its calibration is still unclear. In a validation study, we assessed the discriminative performance and calibration of 3 versions of the model: original MELD-TIPS, used to predict survival after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS); classic MELD-Mayo; and MELD-UNOS, used by the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS). We also explored recalibrating and updating the model.

Methods: In total, 776 patients who underwent elective TIPS (TIPS cohort) and 445 unselected patients (non-TIPS cohort) were included. Three, 6 and 12-month mortality predictions were calculated by the 3 MELD versions: discrimination was assessed by c-statistics and calibration by comparing deciles of predicted and observed risks. Cox and Fine and Grey models were used for recalibration and prognostic analyses.

Results: In the TIPS/non-TIPS cohorts, the etiology of liver disease was viral in 402/188, alcoholic in 185/130, and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in 65/33; mean follow-up±SD was 25±9/19±21 months; and the number of deaths at 3-6-12 months was 57-102-142/31-47-99, respectively. C-statistics ranged from 0.66 to 0.72 in TIPS and 0.66 to 0.76 in non-TIPS cohorts across prediction times and scores. A post hoc analysis revealed worse c-statistics in non-viral cirrhosis with more pronounced and significant worsening in the non-TIPS cohort. Calibration was acceptable with MELD-TIPS but largely unsatisfactory with MELD-Mayo and -UNOS whose performance improved much after recalibration. A prognostic analysis showed that age, albumin, and TIPS indication might be used to update the MELD.

Conclusions: In this validation study, the performance of the MELD score was largely unsatisfactory, particularly in non-viral cirrhosis. MELD recalibration and candidate variables for an update to the MELD score are proposed.

Lay Summary: While the discriminative performance of the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score is credited to be fair to good, its calibration, the correspondence of observed to predicted mortality, is still unsettled. We found that application of 3 different versions of the MELD in 2 independent cirrhosis cohorts yielded largely imprecise mortality predictions particularly in non-viral cirrhosis. Thus, we propose a recalibration and suggest candidate variables for an update to the model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2021.07.018DOI Listing
July 2021

COVID-19 and Diarrhoea: the Therapeutic Role OF LMWH.

SN Compr Clin Med 2021 Feb 20:1-2. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

COVID DEA, Department of Emergency Medicine, ASST Niguarda, Piazza dell'Ospedale Maggiore 3, 20162 Milan, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s42399-021-00825-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7896826PMC
February 2021

On-treatment serum albumin level can guide long-term treatment in patients with cirrhosis and uncomplicated ascites.

J Hepatol 2021 02 24;74(2):340-349. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Bologna, Italy. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: The ANSWER study reported that long-term albumin administration in patients with cirrhosis and uncomplicated ascites improves survival. During treatment, serum albumin increased within a month and remained stable thereafter. In this post hoc analysis, we aimed to determine whether on-treatment serum albumin levels could guide therapy.

Methods: Logistic regression was used to assess the association between baseline serum albumin and mortality, as well as to determine on-treatment factors associated with mortality and to predict the achievement of a given on-treatment serum albumin level. Survival was assessed by Kaplan-Meier estimates and second-order polynomial regression. Patients whose on-treatment serum albumin remained below normal were compared with a subset of patients from the control arm matched by principal score.

Results: Baseline serum albumin was closely associated with 18-month mortality in untreated patients; albumin treatment almost effaced this relationship. On-treatment serum albumin and MELD-Na at month 1 were the sole independent variables associated with mortality. Second-order polynomial regression revealed that survival improved in parallel with increased 1-month on-treatment serum albumin. Kaplan-Meier estimations showed that any value of 1-month on-treatment serum albumin (0.1 g/dl intervals) in the range 2.5-4.5 g/dl discriminated patient survival. In the normal range of serum albumin, the best discriminant value was 4.0 g/dl. Compared to untreated patients, survival even improved in patients whose on-treatment serum albumin remained below normal.

Conclusion: Baseline serum albumin per se should not guide the decision to start albumin therapy. Conversely, 1-month on-treatment serum albumin levels are strongly associated with outcomes and could guide the use of albumin - 4.0 g/dl being the target threshold. However, even patients whose serum albumin remains below normal benefit from long-term albumin administration.

Lay Summary: The ANSWER study has shown that long-term albumin administration improves survival and prevents the occurrence of major complications in patients with cirrhosis and ascites. This study shows that the achievement of these beneficial effects is related to a significant increase in serum albumin concentration. Even though the best results follow the achievement of a serum albumin concentration of 4 g/dl, a survival benefit is also achieved in patients who fail to normalise serum albumin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2020.08.021DOI Listing
February 2021

The use of intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in HIV positive patients: A retrospective multicentric study.

Dig Liver Dis 2020 03 28;52(3):355-357. Epub 2019 Dec 28.

Infectious Diseases I Unit, IRCCS "San Matteo", Pavia, Italy; Department of Medical, Surgical, Diagnostic and Paediatric Science, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dld.2019.11.002DOI Listing
March 2020

Experience With Early Sorafenib Treatment With mTOR Inhibitors in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Recurring After Liver Transplantation.

Transplantation 2020 03;104(3):568-574

CRC "A. M. and A. Migliavacca" Center for Liver Disease, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Fondazione IRCCS Cà Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan.

Background: Sorafenib (SOR) is currently used for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurring after liver transplantation (LT) when HCC is unsuitable for surgical/locoregional treatments. We evaluated safety and effectiveness of early introduction of SOR after HCC-recurrence.

Methods: All patients with HCC-recurrence after LT treated with SOR in 2 centers were included (January 2008 to June 2018). Baseline and on-treatment data were collected.

Results: Fifty patients early treated with SOR for HCC-recurrence after LT (74% mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor [mTORi], 54% HCC-treated at baseline) were enrolled. During 7.3 (0.3-88) months of SOR, all patients had at least one adverse event (AE), 56% graded 3-4. SOR was reduced in 68%, being AEs the main cause of reduction, and discontinued in 84% (60% symptomatic progression, 33% AE). Objective response was obtained in 16% and stable disease in 50%. Median time to radiological progression was 6 months (95% confidence Interval [CI], 4-8). Thirty-three patients (69%) died, 94% for HCC progression. Median overall survival (OS) was 18 months (95% CI, 8-27); 5-year OS was 18% (95% CI, 4%-32%). Baseline predictors of OS were SOR+mTORi (hazard ratio [HR], 0.4; 95% CI, 0.2-0.9; P = 0.04), previous curative treatments (HR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.2-0.7; P = 0.003) and alpha-fetoprotein > 100 ng/mL (HR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.1-5.0, P = 0.02). At multivariate analysis, HCC curative treatment was the only independent predictor (HR, 0.4; 95% CI 0.2-1.0; P = 0.04).

Conclusions: Early and combined treatment with SOR and mTORi resulted in a favorable safety profile, while its effectiveness should be confirmed by meta-analysis of previous studies or by larger studies. Curative treatment for HCC resulted the only independent predictor of OS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TP.0000000000002955DOI Listing
March 2020

Plasma miRNA-based signatures in CRC screening programs.

Int J Cancer 2020 02 5;146(4):1164-1173. Epub 2019 Aug 5.

Tumor Genomics Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan, Italy.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programs help diagnose cancer precursors and early cancers and help reduce CRC mortality. However, currently recommended tests, the fecal immunochemical test (FIT) and colonoscopy, have low uptake. There is therefore a pressing need for screening strategies that are minimally invasive and consequently more acceptable to patients, most likely blood based, to increase early CRC identification. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) released from cancer cells are detectable in plasma in a remarkably stable form, making them ideal cancer biomarkers. Using plasma samples from FIT-positive (FIT+) subjects in an Italian CRC screening program, we aimed to identify plasma circulating miRNAs that detect early CRC. miRNAs were initially investigated by quantitative real-time PCR in plasma from 60 FIT+ subjects undergoing colonoscopy at Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, then tested on an internal validation cohort (IVC, 201 cases) and finally in a large multicenter prospective series (external validation cohort [EVC], 1121 cases). For each endoscopic lesion (low-grade adenoma [LgA], high-grade adenoma [HgA], cancer lesion [CL]), specific signatures were identified in the IVC and confirmed on the EVC. A two-miRNA-based signature for CL and six-miRNA signatures for LgA and HgA were selected. In a multivariate analysis including sex and age at blood collection, the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (95% confidence interval) of the signatures were 0.644 (0.607-0.682), 0.670 (0.626-0.714) and 0.682 (0.580-0.785) for LgA, HgA and CL, respectively. A miRNA-based test could be introduced into the FIT+ workflow of CRC screening programs so as to schedule colonoscopies only for subjects likely to benefit most.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.32573DOI Listing
February 2020

Harmful and Beneficial Effects of Anticoagulants in Patients With Cirrhosis and Portal Vein Thrombosis.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019 03 9;17(4):797-798. Epub 2018 Aug 9.

Hepatology Unit and Gastroenterology, Azienda Socio-Sanitaria Territoriale "ASST" Ospedale Metropolitano Niguarda, Milan, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2018.08.004DOI Listing
March 2019

Long-term albumin administration in decompensated cirrhosis (ANSWER): an open-label randomised trial.

Lancet 2018 06 1;391(10138):2417-2429. Epub 2018 Jun 1.

Unit of Internal Medicine and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, University of Padua, Padua, Italy.

Background: Evidence is scarce on the efficacy of long-term human albumin (HA) administration in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. The human Albumin for the treatmeNt of aScites in patients With hEpatic ciRrhosis (ANSWER) study was designed to clarify this issue.

Methods: We did an investigator-initiated multicentre randomised, parallel, open-label, pragmatic trial in 33 academic and non-academic Italian hospitals. We randomly assigned patients with cirrhosis and uncomplicated ascites who were treated with anti-aldosteronic drugs (≥200 mg/day) and furosemide (≥25 mg/day) to receive either standard medical treatment (SMT) or SMT plus HA (40 g twice weekly for 2 weeks, and then 40 g weekly) for up to 18 months. The primary endpoint was 18-month mortality, evaluated as difference of events and analysis of survival time in patients included in the modified intention-to-treat and per-protocol populations. This study is registered with EudraCT, number 2008-000625-19, and ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01288794.

Findings: From April 2, 2011, to May 27, 2015, 440 patients were randomly assigned and 431 were included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis. 38 of 218 patients died in the SMT plus HA group and 46 of 213 in the SMT group. Overall 18-month survival was significantly higher in the SMT plus HA than in the SMT group (Kaplan-Meier estimates 77% vs 66%; p=0·028), resulting in a 38% reduction in the mortality hazard ratio (0·62 [95% CI 0·40-0·95]). 46 (22%) patients in the SMT group and 49 (22%) in the SMT plus HA group had grade 3-4 non-liver related adverse events.

Interpretation: In this trial, long-term HA administration prolongs overall survival and might act as a disease modifying treatment in patients with decompensated cirrhosis.

Funding: Italian Medicine Agency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(18)30840-7DOI Listing
June 2018

Pleural Disease.

N Engl J Med 2018 05;378(18):1753-4

Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale Grande Ospedale Metropolitano Niguarda, Milan, Italy

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMc1803858DOI Listing
May 2018

Under-dilated TIPS Associate With Efficacy and Reduced Encephalopathy in a Prospective, Non-randomized Study of Patients With Cirrhosis.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018 07 3;16(7):1153-1162.e7. Epub 2018 Mar 3.

HPB Surgery and Liver Transplantation Unit, Modena Hospital, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy.

Background & Aims: Portosystemic encephalopathy (PSE) is a major complication of trans-jugular intrahepatic porto-systemic shunt (TIPS) placement. Most devices are self-expandable polytetrafluoroethylene-covered stent grafts (PTFE-SGs) that are dilated to their nominal diameter (8 or 10 mm). We investigated whether PTFE-SGs dilated to a smaller caliber (under-dilated TIPS) reduce PSE yet maintain clinical and hemodynamic efficacy. We also studied whether under-dilated TIPS self-expand to nominal diameter over time.

Methods: We performed a prospective, non-randomized study of 42 unselected patients with cirrhosis who received under-dilated TIPS (7 and 6 mm) and 53 patients who received PTFE-SGs of 8 mm or more (controls) at referral centers in Italy. After completion of this study, dilation to 6 mm became the standard and 47 patients were included in a validation study. All patients were followed for 6 months; Doppler ultrasonography was performed 2 weeks and 3 months after TIPS placement and every 6 months thereafter. Stability of PTFE-SG diameter was evaluated by computed tomography analysis of 226 patients with cirrhosis whose stent grafts increased to 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10 mm. The primary outcomes were incidence of at least 1 episode of PSE grade 2 or higher during follow up, incidence of recurrent variceal hemorrhage or ascites, incidence of shunt dysfunction requiring TIPS recanalization, and reduction in porto-caval pressure gradient.

Results: PSE developed in a significantly lower proportion of patients with under-dilated TIPS (27%) than controls (54%) during the first year after the procedure (P = .015), but the proportions of patients with recurrent variceal hemorrhage or ascites did not differ significantly between groups. No TIPS occlusions were observed. These results were confirmed in the validation cohort. In an analysis of self-expansion of stent grafts, during a mean follow-up period of 252 days after placement, none of the PTFE-SGs self-expanded to the nominal diameter in hemodynamically relevant sites (such as portal and hepatic vein vascular walls).

Conclusions: In prospective, non-randomized study of patients with cirrhosis, we found under-dilation of PTFE-SGs during TIPS placement to be feasible, associated with lower rates of PSE, and effective.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2018.01.029DOI Listing
July 2018

Adding embolization to TIPS implantation: A better therapy to control bleeding from ectopic varices?

J Hepatol 2017 07 24;67(1):200-201. Epub 2017 Mar 24.

Hepatology and Gastroenterology Unit, ASST Grande Ospedale Metropolitano Niguarda, Milan, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2017.03.016DOI Listing
July 2017

Hepatitis C virus recurrence after liver transplantation: a 10-year evaluation.

World J Gastroenterol 2015 Apr;21(13):3912-20

Stefano Gitto, Ranka Vukotic, Stefania Lorenzini, Arrigo Francesco Giuseppe Cicero, Lucia Brodosi, Arianna Martello Panno, Roberto Di Donato, Matteo Cescon, Gian Luca Grazi, Antonio Daniele Pinna, Mauro Bernardi, Pietro Andreone, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Bologna and Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, Policlinico Sant'Orsola Malpighi, 40138 Bologna, Italy.

Aim: To evaluate the predictors of 10-year survival of patients with hepatitis C recurrence.

Methods: Data from 358 patients transplanted between 1989 and 2010 in two Italian transplant centers and with evidence of hepatitis C recurrence were analyzed. A χ(2), Fisher's exact test and Kruskal Wallis' test were used for categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Survival analysis was performed at 10 years after transplant using the Kaplan-Meier method, and a log-rank test was used to compare groups. A P level less than 0.05 was considered significant for all tests. Multivariate analysis of the predictive role of different variables on 10-year survival was performed by a stepwise Cox logistic regression.

Results: The ten-year survival of the entire population was 61.2%. Five groups of patients were identified according to the virological response or lack of a response to antiviral treatment and, among those who were not treated, according to the clinical status (mild hepatitis C recurrence, "too sick to be treated" and patients with comorbidities contraindicating the treatment). While the 10-year survival of treated and untreated patients was not different (59.1% vs 64.7%, P = 0.192), patients with a sustained virological response had a higher 10-year survival rate than both the "non-responders" (84.7% vs 39.8%, P < 0.0001) and too sick to be treated (84.7% vs 0%, P < 0.0001). Sustained virological responders had a survival rate comparable to patients untreated with mild recurrence (84.7% vs 89.3%). A sustained virological response and young donor age were independent predictors of 10-year survival.

Conclusion: Sustained virological response significantly increased long-term survival. Awaiting the interferon-free regimen global availability, antiviral treatment might be questionable in selected subjects with mild hepatitis C recurrence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v21.i13.3912DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4385538PMC
April 2015

Prognostic factors of hepatic decompensation and hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with transfusion-acquired HCV infection.

Liver Int 2014 Aug 12;34(7):e308-16. Epub 2014 Mar 12.

Struttura Complessa di Gastroenterologia ed Epatologia 'Crespi', Ospedale Niguarda, piazza Ospedale Maggiore 3, 20162, Milano, Italy.

Aims: Aim of this study was to assess if host (immunogenetic traits, age, sex), exogenous (alcohol) or viral factors (viral type, past HBV infection) might affect the progression of chronic hepatitis C to liver decompensation or the development of HCC in a cohort of patients exposed to a single blood transfusion prior to the introduction of anti-HCV screening.

Methods: Two hundred and forty-eight patients with a history of a single exposure to blood or blood products prior to 1990 were retrospectively considered. Patients were devoid of other risk factors of liver disease or immunosuppression and naïve to antiviral therapies. Eight baseline variables were assessed: age at transfusion, sex, HBV core antibody, immunogenetic profile (DRB1*11, DRB1*1104, DRB1*07), HCV genotype and alcohol consumption.

Results: The follow-up was 22 (SD: 11) years. Sixty-eight patients (27%) progressed to hepatic decompensation over a median period of 22.5 years (IQR: 14-30) and 41 patients (16%) developed HCC over a median period of 31 years (IQR: 24-38). The cumulative incidence of liver failure was 0.4% (95% CI: 0.1-3.1), 4.9% (95% CI: 2.6-9.3) and 16.2% (95% CI: 10.4-24.7) at 10, 20 and 30 years after blood transfusion respectively. By univariate analysis, only age at transfusion was correlated with the risk of decompensation. Stratifying the age of transfusion by tertiles, the incidence of hepatic decompensation was 0.7% per year in patients transfused at ≤24 years of age as compared to 1.2% and 1.9% per year in those transfused at 25-35 and >36 years of age respectively (HR: 5.5, 95% CI: 2.78-10.7, P<0.001). The risk of HCC development was correlated by univariate analysis with age at transfusion (as continuous variable, HR: 1.12, 95% CI: 1.08-1.16 per year of age, P<0.001, >36 compared to ≤24 years, HR: 10.3, 95% CI: 3.9-26.9, P<0.001) and male sex (HR: 4.2, 95% CI: 1.7-10, P=0.001). Multivariate analysis confirmed age at transfusion and male sex as independent predictors of HCC development [HR: 1.12 per year (95% CI: 1.08-1.16), P<0.001 and HR: 5.4 (95% CI: 2.2-13.2), P<0.001 respectively].

Conclusions: In patients with transfusion-acquired HCV infection, age at transfusion affects the risk for hepatic decompensation. Age at transfusion and male sex are independent risk factors for HCC development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/liv.12502DOI Listing
August 2014

Interaction between calcineurin inhibitors and IL-28B rs12979860 C>T polymorphism and response to treatment for post-transplant recurrent hepatitis C.

Dig Liver Dis 2013 Nov 27;45(11):927-32. Epub 2013 May 27.

Medical Liver Transplant Unit, Department of Medical Sciences Experimental and Clinical, University of Udine, Italy.

Background: The impact of calcineurin inhibitors on achievement of sustained virological response to antiviral therapy for post-transplant recurrent hepatitis C is controversial. This study aimed at investigating the interactions between calcineurin inhibitors and interleukin-28B (IL-28B) gene polymorphisms and sustained virological response.

Methods: Retrospective study of 147 liver transplant recipients with recurrent hepatitis C, who received 48 weeks of peg-interferon-α (N=113) or standard interferon (N=34), in association with ribavirin. Cyclosporine and tacrolimus were administered in 68 and 79 patients, respectively. IL-28B rs12979860 allele frequency was assessed in both donors and recipients.

Results: Overall, 57 patients (38.8%) obtained sustained virological response; no difference was found between cyclosporine and tacrolimus-treated patients (42.6% vs. 35.4%, p=0.371). Recipient and donor IL-28B genotypic frequencies were C/C=30.6%, C/T=51.7%, T/T=17.7% and C/C=44.9%, C/T=50.3%, T/T=4.8%, respectively. Combining donor and recipient alleles, response rates decreased from cyclosporine-treated patients carrying ≤ 1 T allele (56.1%) to tacrolimus-treated patients carrying ≤ 1 T allele (44.7%) to patients carrying ≥ 2 T alleles (25.0%, p=0.0009).

Conclusions: Donor and recipient rs12979860 alleles synergistically influence sustained virological response rate to antiviral treatment for recurrent hepatitis C. In patients carrying <2 T alleles cyclosporine favours a better response than tacrolimus, while no difference was found in the presence of ≥ 2 T alleles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dld.2013.04.006DOI Listing
November 2013

Adverse events affect sorafenib efficacy in patients with recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma after liver transplantation: experience at a single center and review of the literature.

Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2013 Feb;25(2):180-6

Hepatology & Gastroenterology Department Crespi, Niguarda Hospital, Milan, Italy.

Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of sorafenib, with or without everolimus, in the treatment of recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after an orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT).

Methods: We reviewed the outcome of our consecutive cohort series of patients. Eleven patients (nine men) with recurrent HCC after OLT were treated. Four patients received cyclosporine plus sorafenib at a starting dose of 400 mg twice daily; seven received the combination of sorafenib (same dosage) and everolimus. Sorafenib was reduced or stopped according to the drug label.

Results: The median time to recurrence was 12 months (range 2-66). The mean age at the start of treatment was 57 ± 9 years. Sorafenib was withdrawn because of intolerance or side-effects in four (36%) patients. Dose reduction because of adverse events or intolerance was required in 91% of patients after 26 ± 11 days from the start of treatment. The average length of treatment was 68 days (range 15-444). One patient died because of a massive gastrointestinal bleeding while receiving sorafenib and everolimus. The most frequent adverse events were fatigue (54%), skin toxicity (45%), and hypophosphatemia (36%). Two patients (18%) showed a radiological partial response, one (9%) had a stable disease, and six (54%) showed a progressive disease. None of the patients achieved a complete response. Treatment response could not be assessed in two (18%) patients. The overall median survival since the start of treatment was 5 months. One-year survival was 18%.

Conclusion: Sorafenib, with or without mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors, is poorly tolerated and rarely effective in the treatment of recurrent HCC after OLT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MEG.0b013e328359e550DOI Listing
February 2013

Ascites due to pericardial cyst.

Intern Emerg Med 2009 Oct 24;4(5):449-50. Epub 2009 Jun 24.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11739-009-0274-zDOI Listing
October 2009

Liver transplantation for HCV cirrhosis: improved survival in recent years and increased severity of recurrent disease in female recipients: results of a long term retrospective study.

Liver Transpl 2007 May;13(5):733-40

Hepatology and Abdominal Organ Transplantation Unit, Niguarda Hospital, Milan, Italy.

In recent years, a worsening outcome of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-positive recipients and a faster progression of recurrent disease to overt cirrhosis has been reported. Our aims were to 1) assess patient survival and development of severe recurrent disease (Ishak fibrosis score > 3) in different transplant years; and 2) model the effects of pre- and post-liver transplantation (LT) variables on the severity of recurrent disease. A multicenter retrospective analysis was conducted on 502 consecutive HCV-positive transplant recipients between January 1990 and December 2002. Protocol liver biopsies were obtained at 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 yr post-LT in almost 90% of the patients. All 502 patients were included in the overall survival analysis, while only the 354 patients with a follow-up longer than 1 yr were considered for the analysis of predictors of disease progression. The overall Kaplan-Meier survival rates were 78.7%, 66.3%, and 58.6%, at 12, 60, and 120 months, respectively, and a trend for a better patient survival over the years emerged from all 3 centers. The cumulative probability of developing HCV-related recurrent severe fibrosis (Ishak score 4-6) in the cohort of 354 patients who survived at least 1 yr remained unchanged over the years. Multivariate analysis indicated that older donors (P = 0.0001) and female gender of recipient (P = 0.02) were the 2 major risk factors for the development of severe recurrent disease, while the adoption of antilymphocytic preparations was associated with a less aggressive course (P = 0.03). Two of these prognostic factors, donor age and recipient gender, are easily available before LT and their combination showed an important synergy, such that a female recipient not only had a much higher probability of severe recurrent disease than a male recipient but her risk increased with the increasing age of the donor, reaching almost 100% when the age of the donor was 60 or older. In conclusion, a trend for a better patient survival was observed in more recent years but the cumulative probability of developing severe recurrent disease remained unchanged. The combination of a female recipient receiving an older graft emerged as a strong risk factor for a severe recurrence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lt.21093DOI Listing
May 2007

Predictors of long-term survival after liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma.

Am J Gastroenterol 2005 Dec;100(12):2708-16

Struttura Complessa di Gastroenterologia ed Epatologia "Crespi,", Ospedale Niguarda, Milano.

Aims: The aim of this study was to identify predictors of both survival and tumor-free survival of a cohort of 155 patients, with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and cirrhosis, who were treated by orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT).

Methods: From January 1989 to December 2002, 603 OLTs were performed in 549 patients. HCC was diagnosed in 116 patients before OLT and in 39 at histological examination of the explanted livers. Eighty-four percent of the patients met "Milan" criteria at histology. Ninety-four patients received anticancer therapies preoperatively.

Results: The median follow-up was 49 months (range, 0-178). Overall, 1-, 3-, 5-, and 10-yr survival were 84%, 75%, 72%, and 62%, respectively. Survival was not affected by the patient's age or sex, etiology of liver disease, Child score at transplantation, rejection episodes, tumor number, total tumor burden, bilobar tumor, and pathologic Tumor, Nodes, Metastasis (pTNM) stages. There was no statistically significant difference in survival when patients were grouped according to the recently proposed simplified pTNM staging (5-yr survival, 80% in stage I, 69% in stage II, 50% in stage III, p= 0.3) or the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) staging system for HCC. Encapsulation of the tumor and alpha-fetoprotein levels significantly affect patient survival. Five-year survival of patients with poorly differentiated (G3) HCC was significantly worse than that of patients with moderately (G2) or well-differentiated (G1) HCC (respectively, G3 44%, G2 67%, and G1 97%, p= 0.0015). Patients with micro- or macro-vascular invasion had a worse 5-yr survival than patients without vascular invasion (49%vs 77%, p= 0.04). Multivariate analysis showed that histological grade of differentiation and macroscopic vascular invasion are independent predictors of survival (HR 2.4, 95% CI 1.4-4.1, p= 0.0009 and HR 2.8, 95% CI 1.2-6.8, p= 0.022).

Conclusion: Histological grade of differentiation and macroscopic vascular invasion, as assessed on the explanted livers, are strong predictors of both survival and tumor recurrence in patients with cirrhosis who received transplants for HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1572-0241.2005.00289.xDOI Listing
December 2005
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