Publications by authors named "Albino Eccher"

90 Publications

Discovered cancers at postmortem donor examination: A starting point for quality improvement of donor assessment.

Transplant Rev (Orlando) 2021 Feb 20;35(2):100608. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Department of Pathology and Diagnostics, University and Hospital Trust of Verona, Verona, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: clinical and imaging investigations allow a detailed assessment of an organ donor, but a quota of cancer still elude detection. Complete autopsy of donors is even less frequently performed, due to economic issues and increasing availability of high-quality imaging. The aim of this study is to gather evidence from the literature on donor malignancy discovered at autopsy following organ donation and to discuss the utility and limitations of autopsy practice in the field of transplantation.

Methods: A systematic search according to PRISMA guidelines was carried out in Pubmed and Embase databases until September 2020 to select articles with reporting of cancer discovered in a donor at postmortem examination. Cancer discover in not-transplant setting were excluded. A descriptive synthesis was provided.

Results: Of 7388 articles after duplicates removal, 56 were included. Fifty-one studies reported on complete autopsy, while 5 dealt only with limited autopsy (prostate and central nervous system). The number of autopsies ranged between 1 and 246 with a total of 823 autopsies performed. The most frequent cancer discovered at autopsy was lymphoma (n = 13, 15%), followed by renal cell carcinoma (RCC) (n = 11, 13%), non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (n = 10, 11%), melanoma (n = 10, 11%), choriocarcinoma (n = 6, 7%) and glioblastoma (GBM) (n = 6, 7%).

Conclusions: Lymphoma and melanoma are still difficult-to-detect cancers both during donor investigation and at procurement, whilst prostate cancer and choriocarcinoma are almost always easily detected nowadays thank to blood markers and clinical examination. There have been improvements with time in pre-donation detection procedures which are now working well, particularly when complete imaging investigations are performed, given that detection rate of CT/MRI is high and accurate. Autopsy can play a role to help to establish the correct donor management pathways in case of cancer discover. Furthermore, it helps to better understand which cancers are still eluding detection and consequently to refine guidelines' assessment procedures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trre.2021.100608DOI Listing
February 2021

Next Generation Sequencing in Cytopathology: Focus on Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 11;8:633923. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Department of Public Health, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy.

Molecular cytopathology is a rapidly evolving field embracing both conventional microscopy and molecular pathology. Its growing popularity stems from the fact that in many types of advanced cancers, including non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), cytological samples often constitute the only available specimens for morphomolecular analysis. Indeed, non formalin fixed and paraffin embedded (FFPE) cytological samples feature a higher quality of extracted nucleic acids than histological specimens. However, because of the growing complexity of molecular testing, several efforts should be made to validate the analytical performance of the wide array of currently available molecular technologies, including next generation sequencing (NGS). This technology has the terrific advantage of allowing simultaneous detection of scores of predictive biomarkers even in low-input DNA/RNA specimens. Here, we briefly review the role of the modern cytopathologist in the morphomolecular diagnosing of advanced stage NSCLC and the adoption of NGS in conventional cytopreparations (cell blocks, direct smears, and liquid-based cytology) and supernatants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2021.633923DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7904874PMC
February 2021

Consultation between forensic and clinical pathologists for histopathology examination after forensic autopsy.

Med Sci Law 2021 Jan;61(1_suppl):25-35

Department of Diagnostics and Public Health, Pathology Unit, University and Hospital Trust of Verona, Italy.

The magnitude of the diagnostic benefit conferred by performing histopathological examinations after medico-legal/forensic autopsies remains debatable. We have tried to address this issue by reviewing a series of histopathology referrals concerning medico-legal autopsies in real-world routine practice. We present an audit of the consultations provided to forensics by clinical pathologists at our institute between 2015 and 2018. Over this period, 493 post-mortem examinations were performed by forensic pathologists. Of these cases, 52 (11%) were referred for histopathology. Gross assessment was requested in 22/52 (42%) cases. Histopathology examination was performed on single organs in 15/52 (29%) cases, primarily on the lung and heart, whereas parenchymatous multi-organ analysis was carried out in 14/52 (27%) cases. Bone-marrow sampling was studied in 4/52 (8%) cases. Immunohistochemistry was needed in 16/52 (31%) cases, special stains in 9/52 (21%) cases and molecular analysis in 4/52 (8%) cases. Focusing on technical processes, standard methodology on pre-analytical procedures was changed in 10/52 (19%) cases in order to answer specific diagnostic questions. We showed that although most of the time the diagnosis is clear by the end of dissection on the basis of the macroscopic findings, histopathology can provide, modify or confirm the cause of death in many medico-legal/forensic cases. Therefore, it is desirable that forensic pathologists and clinical pathologists establish robust working relationships in a cooperative environment. We conclude that it is important to implement guidelines based on real-world routine practice in order to identify cases where histopathology can provide useful contributions, which in our experience applied to 11% of forensic cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0025802420965763DOI Listing
January 2021

Diffuse Micro-Nodules on Peritoneal Surfaces at Donor Organ Procurement: Highlights on the Diagnostic Challenge and Transplant Management.

Am J Case Rep 2021 Feb 13;22:e929348. Epub 2021 Feb 13.

Department of Pathology, ASST Hospital Trust of Cremona, Cremona, Italy.

BACKGROUND Guidelines have been designed to stratify the risk of cancer transmission in donors with a history of or ongoing malignancy, although this evaluation is not always straightforward when unexpected and rare lesions are found. CASE REPORT Here, we present a case of a 41-year-old African female donor who died from a cerebral hemorrhage. Her medical history was unavailable. At procurement, multiple diffuse grayish small nodules were noticed along the peritoneal cavity, some of which were sent to the on-call pathologist for urgent frozen section evaluation. Histology showed a multinodular proliferation of uniform bland-appearing spindle cells, with no evidence of necrosis, nor nuclear atypia or mitoses. The overall picture was consistent with the diagnosis of disseminated peritoneal leiomyomatosis, with overlapping morphology with uterine leiomyoma. Given the rarity of the lesion and the potential for recurrence or malignant degeneration, only the liver and heart were allocated to recipients with life-threatening conditions. The decision was taken in a forcedly limited time and took into account the benefit of transplantation and the risk of disease transmission. CONCLUSIONS This case highlights challenges that transplant teams often have to deal with, as lesions that are difficult to diagnose during donor assessment are usually not covered in guidelines. The acceptance and usage of organs in such cases has to be decided in a team-based fashion, with the collaboration of all the transplant professionals involved to optimally assess the transmission risk, carefully balancing the benefits of transplantation for the recipients and the need to guarantee a reasonable degree of safety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/AJCR.929348DOI Listing
February 2021

Postmortem Findings Associated With SARS-CoV-2: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Am J Surg Pathol 2021 01 20. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA Department of Pathology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY Department of Pathology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI Department of Pathology and Diagnostics, University and Hospital Trust of Verona, Verona Department of Pathology, Cannizzaro Hospital, Catania, Italy Department of Pathology, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, WA.

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the novel Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-associated Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become a global threat to public health. COVID-19 is more pathogenic and infectious than the prior 2002 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-1. The pathogenesis of certain disease manifestations in COVID-19 such as diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) are thought to be similar to SARS-CoV-1. However, the exact pathogenesis of COVID-19 related deaths remains poorly understood. The aim of this article was to systematically summarize the rapidly emerging literature regarding COVID-19 autopsies. A meta-analysis was also conducted based on data accrued from preprint and published articles on COVID-19 (n=241 patients) and the results compared with postmortem findings associated with SARS-CoV-1 deaths (n=91 patients). Both autopsy groups included mostly adults of median age 70 years with COVID-19 and 50 years with SARS-CoV-1. Overall, prevalence of DAD was more common in SARS-CoV-1 (100.0%) than COVID-19 (80.9%) autopsies (P=0.001). Extrapulmonary findings among both groups were not statistically significant except for hepatic necrosis (P <0.001), splenic necrosis (P<0.006) and white pulp depletion (P <0.001) that were more common with SARS-CoV-1. Remarkable postmortem findings in association with COVID-19 apart from DAD include pulmonary hemorrhage, viral cytopathic effect within pneumocytes, thromboembolism, brain infarction, endotheliitis, acute renal tubular damage, white pulp depletion of the spleen, cardiac myocyte necrosis, megakaryocyte recruitment, and hemophagocytosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAS.0000000000001650DOI Listing
January 2021

Diagnostic mesothelioma biomarkers in effusion cytology.

Cancer Cytopathol 2021 Jan 19. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Department of Pathology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Malignant mesothelioma is a rare malignancy with a poor prognosis whose development is related to asbestos fiber exposure. An increasing role of genetic predisposition has been recognized recently. Pleural biopsy is the gold standard for diagnosis, in which the identification of pleural invasion by atypical mesothelial cell is a major criterion. Pleural effusion is usually the first sign of disease; therefore, a cytological specimen is often the initial or the only specimen available for diagnosis. Given that reactive mesothelial cells may show marked atypia, the diagnosis of mesothelioma on cytomorphology alone is challenging. Accordingly, cell block preparation is encouraged, as it permits immunohistochemical staining. Traditional markers of mesothelioma such as glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) and insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 3 (IMP3) are informative, but difficult to interpret when reactive proliferations aberrantly stain positive. BRCA1-associated protein 1 (BAP1) nuclear staining loss is highly specific for mesothelioma, but sensitivity is low in sarcomatoid tumors. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A)/p16 homozygous deletion, assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization, is more specific for mesothelioma with better sensitivity, even in the sarcomatoid variant. The surrogate marker methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP) has been found to demonstrate excellent diagnostic correlation with p16. The purpose of this review is to provide an essential appraisal of the literature regarding the diagnostic value of many of these emerging biomarkers for malignant mesothelioma in effusion cytology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncy.22398DOI Listing
January 2021

HLA-G expression in melanomas.

Int Rev Immunol 2021 Jan 11:1-21. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Department of Pathology and Diagnostics, University and Hospital Trust of Verona, Verona, Italy.

Objective: Human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G) is a non-classical HLA class I molecule involved in inducing tolerance at the feto-maternal interface and in escape of immune response by tumor cells. The aim of the study is to review the published literature on the expression of HLA-G in malignant melanomas and its clinicopathological and prognostic correlates.

Methods: A systematic search was carried out in electronic databases. Studies dealing with HLA-G expression in surgically-removed human samples were retrieved and analyzed.

Results: Of 1737 retrieved articles, 16 were included. The main themes regarded HLA-G expression in malignant melanocytic lesions, assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC), soluble or molecular techniques, and its relationship with clinicopathological features, such as tumor thickness and malignant behavior. Overall significant HLA-G expression was found in 460/843 tumors (55%), and specifically in 251/556 melanomas (45%) evaluated with IHC, in 208/250 cases (83%) examined with soluble methods and in 13/23 melanoma lesions (57%) tested with polymerase chain reaction. Despite the correlation with parameters indicating an aggressive behavior, no studies demonstrated any prognostic value of HLA-G expression. Furthermore, uveal melanomas were constantly negative for this biomarker.

Conclusion: Overall, published data indicate that while HLA-G is involved in the interactions between melanomas and the immune system, it is unlikely to be the only factor to play such a role, therefore making it difficult to designate it as a prognostically relevant molecule. Evidence further suggests that HLA-G is not implicated in the immunobiology of uveal melanomas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08830185.2020.1869732DOI Listing
January 2021

Tumor mutational burden on cytological samples: A pilot study.

Cancer Cytopathol 2020 Dec 30. Epub 2020 Dec 30.

Department of Public Health, University Federico II of Naples, Naples, Italy.

Background: Immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) represent an important treatment option for patients who have advanced stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Currently, evaluation of the expression level of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) has proven highly successful as a positive predictive biomarker for ICIs. In addition to PD-L1, other promising predictive biomarkers are emerging, including high tumor mutational burden (TMB-H). However, measuring TMB-H remains challenging for several reasons, among which is the difficulty in obtaining adequate tissue material from NSCLC patients. There are no data in the current literature regarding the possibility of adopting cell blocks (CBs) for TMB evaluation; therefore, our goal was to evaluate the feasibility of analyzing TMB on CBs.

Methods: For evaluation of differences in run metric parameters, 8 pairs of histological and CB samples from patients with NSCLC were analyzed using the Oncomine Tumor Mutational Load Assay on Ion Torrent S5 GS next-generation sequencing (NGS) platform.

Results: Most CBs (6/8, 75.0%) were successfully analyzed by adopting the broad NGS panel approach. CBs provided results similar to those obtained on histological matched specimens in terms of median total reads (7207048.80 vs 7558817.80), median mapped reads (7075753.83 vs 7513822.00), median read lengths (115.50 vs. 113.00), median percentage of reads on-target (97.49% vs. 98.45%), median average reads per amplicon (454.67 vs 476.14), and median uniformity of amplicon coverage (83.52% vs 84.13%).

Conclusion: In this pilot study, we demonstrated the technical feasibility of assessing TMB on CBs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncy.22400DOI Listing
December 2020

The histopathological diagnosis of atypical meningioma: glass slide versus whole slide imaging for grading assessment.

Virchows Arch 2020 Dec 10. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Department of Diagnostics and Public Health, Section of Pathology, University of Verona, Verona, Italy.

Limited studies on whole slide imaging (WSI) in surgical neuropathology reported a perceived limitation in the recognition of mitoses. This study analyzed and compared the inter- and intra-observer concordance for atypical meningioma, using glass slides and WSI. Two neuropathologists and two residents assessed the histopathological features of 35 meningiomas-originally diagnosed as atypical-in a representative glass slide and corresponding WSI. For each histological parameter and final diagnosis, we calculated the inter- and intra-observer concordance in the two viewing modes and the predictive accuracy on recurrence. The concordance rates for atypical meningioma on glass slides and on WSI were 54% and 60% among four observers and 63% and 74% between two neuropathologists. The inter-observer agreement was higher using WSI than with glass slides for all parameters, with the exception of high mitotic index. For all histological features, we found median intra-observer concordance of ≥ 79% and similar predictive accuracy for recurrence between the two viewing modes. The higher concordance for atypical meningioma using WSI than with glass slides and the similar predictive accuracy for recurrence in the two modalities suggest that atypical meningioma may be safely diagnosed using WSI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00428-020-02988-1DOI Listing
December 2020

Clinical-Pathological, Immunohistochemical, and Genetic Characterization of a Series of Posterior Pituitary Tumors.

J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2021 Jan;80(1):45-51

ARC-Net Research Centre, University and Hospital Trust of Verona, Verona (AS), Italy.

Posterior pituitary tumors are supposed to represent the morphological spectrum of a single entity. Herein, we report the clinical-pathological, immunohistochemical, and genetic features of 5 spindle cell oncocytomas (SCOs), 3 pituicytomas, and 1 granular cell tumor (GCT). SCOs had the highest local invasiveness and affected older subjects. The 3 histotypes differed in the content of spindle cells (predominant in pituicytoma and absent in GCT), presence of lymphocytic infiltrate (in SCO and GCT, but not in the pituicytoma) and EMA/GFAP staining (negative in GCT; EMA-positive/GFAP-negative in 4/5 SCO and GFAP-positive in 3/3 pituicytomas). Three SCOs and 1 pituicytoma analyzed with next-generation sequencing had no mutations in 409 genes. However, 1 SCO had previously unreported homozygous deletion of CDKN2A/B and another of SMARCA4, SMARCB1, and NF2. All 3 SCOs had loss of heterozygosity of chromosome 1p, while the pituicytoma had chromosome 19 homozygous loss and chromosomes 10, 13q, and 18q loss of heterozygosity. Since 1p and 13q losses were previously reported in 1 pituicytoma and 1 SCO, respectively, our data demonstrate that posterior pituitary tumors share common genetic alterations. The possibility that posterior pituitary tumors are SMARCA4/SMARCB1-deficient should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis toward other entities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnen/nlaa139DOI Listing
January 2021

MDM2 gene amplification as selection tool for innovative targeted approaches in PD-L1 positive or negative muscle-invasive urothelial bladder carcinoma.

J Clin Pathol 2020 Nov 3. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Division of Urology, University and Hospital Trust of Verona, Verona, Italy.

Aims: According to The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), around 9% of bladder carcinomas usually show abnormalities of the murine double minute 2 (MDM2) gene, but a few studies have been investigated them. We profiled MDM2 gene amplification in a series of urothelial carcinomas (UC) considering the molecular subtypes and expression of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1).

Methods: 117 patients with muscle-invasive UC (pT2-3) without (N0) or with (N+) lymph-node metastases were revised. Only cases with availability of in toto specimens and follow-up were studied. Tissue microarray was built. p53, ER, RB1, GATA-3, CK20, CK5/6, CD44 and PD-L1 (clone sp263) immunoexpression was evaluated. Fluorescent in situ hybridisation was assessed by using the HER-2/neu, FGFR-3, CDKN2A and MDM2 probes. True (ratio 12q/CEP12 >2) MDM2 gene amplification was distinguished from polyploidy/gains (ratio <2, absolute copy number of MDM-2 >2). MDM2 and PD-L1 values were correlated to the TCGA molecular phenotypes. Statistical analysis was performed.

Results: 6/50 (12%) cases (5 N0 and 1 N+) were amplified for MDM2 without matching to molecular phenotypes. Of 50, 14 (37%) cases expressed PD-L1 at 1% cut-off; 3/50 (9%) at >50% cut-off; of these, 2 cases on side of neoplasia among inflammatory cells. Only one out of six (17%) cases amplified for MDM2 showed expression (>50% cut-off) of PD-L1. MDM2 amplification was independent to all documented profiles (k test=0.3) and was prevalent in recurrent UC.

Conclusion: MDM2 amplification has been seen in both PD-L1 positive and negative muscle-invasive bladder UC independently from the TCGA molecular phenotypes. MDM2 and PD-L1 might be assessed in order to predict a better response to combo/single targeted therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jclinpath-2020-207089DOI Listing
November 2020

Kidney transplantation from living donor with monolateral renal artery fibromuscular dysplasia using a cryopreserved iliac graft for arterial reconstruction: a case report and review of the literature.

BMC Nephrol 2020 10 28;21(1):451. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Unità Dipartimentale Trapianti di Rene, Dipartimento di Chirurgia ed Odontoiatria, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Integrata di Verona, Verona, Italy.

Background: Aging and mortality of patients on waiting lists for kidney transplantation have increased, as a result of the shortage of organs available all over the world. Living donor grafts represent a significant source to maintain the donor pool, and resorting successfully to allografts with arterial disease has become a necessity. The incidence of renal artery fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) in potential living renal donors is reported to be 2-6%, and up to 4% of them present concurrent extra-renal involvement.

Case Presentation: We present a case of renal transplantation using a kidney from a living donor with monolateral FMD. Resection of the affected arterial segment and its subsequent replacement with a cryopreserved iliac artery graft from a deceased donor were performed. No intraoperative nor post-operative complications were reported. The allograft function promptly resumed, with satisfying creatinine clearance, and adequate patency of the vascular anastomoses was detected by Doppler ultrasounds.

Conclusion: Literature lacks clear guidelines on the eligibility of potential living renal donors with asymptomatic FMD. Preliminary assessment of the FMD living donor should always rule out any extra-renal involvement. Whenever possible, resection and reconstruction of the affected arterial segment should be taken into consideration as this condition may progress after implantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12882-020-02097-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7594424PMC
October 2020

Commentary: Impact of Digital Pathology in the Field of Intraoperative Neuropathology: Master the Tool.

J Pathol Inform 2020 16;11:18. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Division of Pathology, Central Hospital Bolzano, Bolzano, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jpi.jpi_39_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7513779PMC
July 2020

Impact of bariatric surgery-induced weight loss on circulating PCSK9 levels in obese patients.

Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2020 11 22;30(12):2372-2378. Epub 2020 Jul 22.

Dipartimento di Scienze del Farmaco, Università degli Studi di Padova, Padua, Italy. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: To investigate the effect of obesity and bariatric-induced weight loss on circulating levels of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin 9 (PCSK9) in severely obese patients.

Methods And Results: In this non-randomized interventional study, we enrolled 36 severely obese patients (BMI 43.7 ± 5.6 kg/m), of which 20 underwent bariatric surgery, and 12 nonobese healthy controls. An oral glucose tolerance test (75-g OGTT) was performed in 31 of these obese patients at baseline (T0) and in 14 patients at 6 months after bariatric surgery (T6) to assess plasma glucose, insulin and PCSK9 levels. Plasma PCSK9 levels were also measured in 18 of these obese patients at T0 during a 2-h hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (HEC). At T0, PCSK9 levels were higher in obese patients than in controls (274.6 ± 76.7 ng/mL vs. 201.4 ± 53.3 ng/mL) and dropped after bariatric surgery (T6; 205.5 ± 51.7 ng/mL) along with BMI (from 44.1 ± 5.9 kg/m to 33.1 ± 5.6 kg/m). At T6, there was also a decrease in plasma glucose (T0 vs. T6: 6.0 ± 1.8 vs. 5.0 ± 0.5 mmol/L) and insulin (15.7 ± 8.3 vs. 5.4 ± 2.1 mU/L) levels. At T0, plasma PCSK9 levels decreased during OGTT in obese patients, reaching a nadir of 262.0 ± 61.4 ng/mL at 120 min with a hyperinsulinemic peak of 75.1 ± 40.0 mU/L, at 60 min. Similarly, at T0 insulin infusion during 2-h HEC acutely reduced plasma PCSK9 levels in obese patients. The aforementioned OGTT-induced changes in plasma PCSK9 levels were not observed neither in nonobese healthy controls nor in obese patients after bariatric-surgery weight loss.

Conclusions: These results suggest a pivotal role of adipose tissue and insulin resistance on PCSK9 homeostasis in severely obese patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2020.07.013DOI Listing
November 2020

Donor-Transmitted Cancers in Transplanted Livers: Analysis of Clinical Outcomes.

Liver Transpl 2021 01 15;27(1):55-66. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

Pathology Unit, Sant'Orsola-Malpighi University Hospital of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

The risk of transmission of malignancy from donor to recipient is low. However, this occurrence has dramatic consequences. Many reports of donor-derived cancers in liver transplant recipients have been published, but they have not been systematically summarized into a lucid and unified analysis. The present study is an attempt to provide clarity to this unusual but clinically important problem. We systematically reviewed all patient reports, patient series, and registries published on cancer transmission events through the end of December 2019. We identified a total of 67 publications with 92 transmission events. The most frequently transmitted cancers were lymphomas (30; 32.6%), melanomas (8; 8.7%), and neuroendocrine tumors (8; 8.7%). Most of the melanomas were metastasizing, whereas most of the lymphomas were localized to the graft. The median time to cancer diagnosis after transplantation was 7 months, with 78.1% of diagnoses established in the first year. Melanoma carried the worst prognosis, with no recipients alive at 1 year after cancer diagnosis. Lymphoma recipients had a better outcome, with more than 75% surviving at 2 years. A metastatic cancer carries a worse prognosis for recipients, and recipients with localized cancer can benefit from the chance to undergo transplantation again. The findings confirm the need to pay attention to donors with a history of melanoma but also suggest the need for a more careful evaluation of groups of donors, such as those dying from cerebral hemorrhage. Finally, recipients of organs from donors with cancer should be carefully followed to detect potential transmission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lt.25858DOI Listing
January 2021

Digital pathology for second opinion consultation and donor assessment during organ procurement: Review of the literature and guidance for deployment in transplant practice.

Transplant Rev (Orlando) 2020 10 13;34(4):100562. Epub 2020 Jun 13.

Department of Pathology, UPMC Shadyside Hospital, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Telepathology has been an important application for second opinion consultation ever since the introduction of digital pathology. However, little is known regarding teleconsultation for second opinion in transplantation. There is also limited literature on telepathology during organ donor procurement, typically utilized when general pathologists on-call request back-up to help assess donor biopsies for organ suitability or to diagnose newly discovered tumors with urgent time constraints. In this review, we searched Pubmed/Embase and websites of transplant organizations to collect and analyze published evidence on teleconsultation for donor evaluation and organ procurement. Of 2725 records retrieved using the key terms 'telepathology', 'second opinion' and 'transplantation', 26 suitable studies were included. Most records were from North America and included validation studies of telepathology being used for remote frozen section interpretation of donor biopsies with whole slide imaging. The data from these published studies supports the transition towards digital teleconsultation in transplant settings where consultations among pathologists are still handled by pathologists being called on site, via telephone and/or email.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trre.2020.100562DOI Listing
October 2020

Prevalence of PD-L1 expression in head and neck squamous precancerous lesions: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Head Neck 2020 Oct 22;42(10):3018-3030. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Department of Pathology and Diagnostics, University and Hospital Trust of Verona, Verona, Italy.

Background: Studies concerning programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression in precancerous lesions of head and neck (HN) region have shown variable results.

Methods: We systematically reviewed the published evidence on PD-L1 expression in HN precancerous lesions.

Results: Of 1058 original articles, 14 were included in systematic review and 9 in meta-analysis. The pooled estimate of PD-L1 expression was 48.25% (confidence interval [CI] 21.07-75.98, I 98%, tau2 0.18). PD-L1 expression appeared to be more frequent in precancerous lesions than in normal mucosa (risk ratio [RR] 1.65, CI 0.65-4.03, I 91%, tau2 0.82) and less frequent than in invasive squamous cell carcinoma (RR 0.68, CI 0.43-1.08, I 91%, tau2 0.22).

Conclusions: PD-L1 expression could reflect a point of balance between host immune response and cancer escape ability. High heterogeneity and moderate quality suggest that further studies with larger sample size and more rigorous case selection will allow more precise assessment of PD-L1 expression in HN precancerous lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hed.26339DOI Listing
October 2020

Donor-transmitted cancer in kidney transplant recipients: a systematic review.

J Nephrol 2020 Dec 13;33(6):1321-1332. Epub 2020 Jun 13.

Renal Unit, University and Hospital Trust of Verona, Verona, Italy.

The transmission of cancer from a donor organ is a rare event but has important consequences. Aim of this systematic review was to summarize all the published evidence on cancer transmission in kidney recipients. We reviewed published case reports and series describing the outcome of recipients with donor-transmitted cancer until August 2019. A total of 128 papers were included, representing 234 recipients. The most common transmitted cancers were lymphoma (n = 48, 20.5%), renal cancer (42, 17.9%), melanoma (40, 17.1%), non-small cell lung cancer (n = 13, 5.6%), neuroendocrine cancers comprising small cell lung cancer (n = 11, 4.7%) and choriocarcinoma (n = 10, 4.3%). There was a relative lack of glioblastoma and gastrointestinal cancers with only 6 and 5 cases, respectively. Melanoma and lung cancer had the worst prognosis, with 5-years overall survival of 43% and 19%, respectively; while renal cell cancer and lymphomas had a favorable prognosis with 5-years overall survival of 93 and 63%, respectively. Metastasis of cancer outside the graft was the most important adverse prognostic factor. Overall reporting was good, but information on donors' cause of death and investigations at procurement was often lacking. Epidemiology of transmitted cancer has evolved, thanks to screening with imaging and blood tests, as choriocarcinoma transmission have almost abolished, while melanoma and lymphoma are still difficult to detect and prevent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40620-020-00775-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7701067PMC
December 2020

A sticky, palpable area of the perinephric adipose tissue at organ donor procurement: highlights on the diagnostic challenge and transplant management.

J Nephrol 2020 Dec 11;33(6):1377-1379. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

Department of Pathology and Diagnostics, University and Hospital Trust of Verona, P.le Stefani n. 1; 37126, Verona, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40620-020-00778-1DOI Listing
December 2020

Programmed Death-Ligand 1 (PD-L1) Is a Potential Biomarker of Disease-Free Survival in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of PD-L1 Immunoexpression in Follicular Epithelial Derived Thyroid Carcinoma.

Endocr Pathol 2020 Sep;31(3):291-300

Department of Pathology and Diagnostics, University and Hospital Trust of Verona, P.le Stefani n. 1, 37126, Verona, Italy.

The expression of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) is an established prerequisite for the administration of checkpoint inhibitor therapy and is of prognostic value in several cancer types. Data concerning the potential effect of PD-L1 on the prognosis of thyroid carcinoma are limited. Therefore, this study aimed to provide a systematic review of the published data on this topic. The literature was reviewed to gather and quantify evidence on the prognostic role of PD-L1 in follicular epithelial derived thyroid carcinomas and determine its association with clinicopathological parameters. A meta-analysis was performed using the DerSimonian-Laird random-effects model. The quality of studies was evaluated with the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and a modified GRADE approach used to rate the quality of evidence. Out of 445 papers, 18 were included and 15 provided adequate data for meta-analysis. The quality of evidence ranged from low to high. PD-L1 expression was significantly associated with a reduced disease-free survival (DFS) (RR 1.63, CI 1.04-2.56, p = 0.03, I 68%, τ 0.19 and HR 1.90, CI 1.33-2.70, p< 0.001, I 0%, τ 0.00); however, no association was found with the overall survival (OS). Furthermore, a significant association was found with respect to underlying chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis and BRAFV600E mutation status in papillary thyroid carcinomas. In the subgroup analysis, the association of PD-L1 and DFS remained strong in papillary thyroid carcinoma when compared with dedifferentiated thyroid carcinomas (anaplastic and poorly differentiated thyroid carcinomas) that failed to demonstrate a significant association with respect to PD-L1. These findings underscore the role of PD-L1 immunohistochemistry as a potential prognostic biomarker of disease recurrence in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12022-020-09630-5DOI Listing
September 2020

Thyroid Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology: Focusing on Adherence to Guidelines and Hospital Organization.

Am J Case Rep 2020 Apr 10;21:e920933. Epub 2020 Apr 10.

Pathology Unit, Department of Pathology and Diagnostics, University and Hospital Trust of Verona, Verona, Italy.

BACKGROUND The complications of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) are rare but can be challenging for performing physicians to diagnose and manage. This type of procedure is perceived as routine and devoid of substantial risks, but uncommon complications can occur and need to be addressed with careful workup. CASE REPORT A FNAC procedure for a young female patient with multiple thyroid nodules was requested by her general practitioner. After the FNAC thyroid procedure, a carotid wall hematoma was suspected and could not be excluded with ultrasound (US) alone. Thus, the patient underwent a computed tomography angiogram (CTA) that excluded blood extravasation from the carotid, confirming the suspicion of perivascular blood accumulation. As a precaution, the patient was hospitalized, with US follow-up; she was dismissed the day after her hospital admission with a diagnosis of a benign thyroid nodule in multinodular goiter according to SIAPEC-IAP classification. CONCLUSIONS This case highlights how a routine-perceived procedure such as FNAC could present a challenge to the performing physicians, pathologist, and radiologist, raising the suspicion of a severe complication that needs to be addressed with a readily available emergency service that may be accessible only within a central hospital-level organization. This case reinforces the point that more careful adherence to clinic-radiological guidelines is needed to avoid potentially inappropriate and harmful procedures. A review of the literature concerning guidelines for FNAC procedure, diagnostic classifications, and reported complications is provided as part of this case report.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/AJCR.920933DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7171366PMC
April 2020

Impact of image analysis and artificial intelligence in thyroid pathology, with particular reference to cytological aspects.

Cytopathology 2020 09 7;31(5):432-444. Epub 2020 May 7.

Department of Pathology and Diagnostics, University and Hospital Trust of Verona, Verona, Italy.

Objective: Thyroid pathology has great potential for automated/artificial intelligence algorithm application as the incidence of thyroid nodules is increasing and the indeterminate interpretation rate of fine-needle aspiration remains relatively high. The aim of the study is to review the published literature on automated image analysis and artificial intelligence applications to thyroid pathology with whole-slide imaging.

Methods: Systematic search was carried out in electronic databases. Studies dealing with thyroid pathology and use of automated algorithms applied to whole-slide imaging were included. Quality of studies was assessed with a modified QUADAS-2 tool.

Results: Of 919 retrieved articles, 19 were included. The main themes addressed were the comparison of automated assessment of immunohistochemical staining with manual pathologist's assessment, quantification of differences in cellular and nuclear parameters among tumour entities, and discrimination between benign and malignant nodules. Correlation coefficients with manual assessment were higher than 0.76 and diagnostic performance of automated models was comparable with an expert pathologist diagnosis. Computational difficulties were related to the large size of whole-slide images.

Conclusions: Overall, the results are promising and it is likely that, with the resolution of technical issues, the application of automated algorithms in thyroid pathology will increase and be adopted following suitable validation studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cyt.12828DOI Listing
September 2020

Current state of whole slide imaging use in cytopathology: Pros and pitfalls.

Cytopathology 2020 09 13;31(5):372-378. Epub 2020 Mar 13.

Department of Pathology and Diagnostics, University and Hospital Trust of Verona, Verona, Italy.

Whole slide imaging (WSI) allows generation of large whole slide images and their navigation with zoom in and out like a true virtual microscope. It has become widely used in surgical pathology for many purposes, such as education and training, research activity, teleconsultation, and primary diagnosis. However, in cytopathology, the use of WSI has been lagging behind histology, mainly due to the cytological specimen's characteristics, as groups of cells of different thickness are distributed throughout the slide. To allow the same focusing capability of light microscope, slides have to be scanned at multiple focal planes, at the cost of longer scan times and larger file size. These are the main technical pitfalls of WSI for cytopathology, partly overcome by solutions like liquid-based preparations. Validation studies for the use in primary diagnosis are less numerous and more heterogeneous than in surgical pathology. WSI has been proved effective for training students and successfully used in proficiency testing, allowing the creation of digital cytology atlases. Longer scan times are also a barrier for use in rapid on-site evaluation, but WSI retains its advantages of easy sharing of images for consultation, multiple simultaneous viewing in different locations, the possibility of unlimited annotations and easy integration with medical records. Moreover, digital slides set the laboratory free from reliance on a physical glass slide, with no more concern of fading of stain or slide breakage. Costs are still a problem for small institutions, but WSI can also represent the beginning of a more efficient way of working.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cyt.12806DOI Listing
September 2020

Mesothelial/monocytic incidental cardiac excrescence in autoimmune disease.

J Card Surg 2020 Mar 30;35(3):679-682. Epub 2019 Dec 30.

Department of Cardiac Surgery, University of Verona, Verona, Italy.

Mesothelial/monocytic incidental cardiac excrescence (MICE) is a rare benign finding made of mesothelial cells, histiocytes, and fibrin, usually found during heart valve surgery. The clinical relevance resides in the potential misdiagnosis as metastatic carcinoma or arterial embolism. The pathogenesis remains uncertain, with artifactual and reactive hypotheses. Here we present a case of MICE with paradigmatic clinical, imaging, and histological features in a 28-year-old woman with undifferentiated connective tissue disease without previous cardiac catheterization with possible pathogenesis, highlighting the importance of awareness of the existence of this lesion in patients with autoimmune disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocs.14416DOI Listing
March 2020

Diffuse gliomas in patients aged 55 years or over: A suggestion for IDH mutation testing.

Neuropathology 2020 Feb 22;40(1):68-74. Epub 2019 Nov 22.

Department of Diagnostics and Public Health, Section of Pathology, University of Verona, Verona, Italy.

Diffuse gliomas are defined on the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) gene (IDH) mutational mutational status. The most frequent IDH mutation is IDH1 R132H, which is detectable by immunohistochemistry; other IDH mutations are rare (10%). IDH mutant gliomas have better prognosis. Further, IDH wild-type low-grade (II/III) gliomas have clinical behaviors similar to those of glioblastoma (GBM) and it was suggested that they are submitted to similar post-surgical treatment. The incidence of IDH mutant gliomas (2%) and that of GBMs with non-canonical IDH mutations (< 1%) are very low in patients ≥ 55 years. For this reason, it was suggested that immunohistochemistry against IDH1 R132H is sufficient to classify GBM as IDH wild-type in this age group. However, no indication was provided for IDH mutational testing in low-grade diffuse gliomas. To address this issue, 273 diffuse gliomas were tested for IDH1 R132H immunohistochemistry. 2/4 diffuse astrocytomas (DAs), 4/9 anaplastic astrocytomas (AAs), 2/256 GBMs, and 4/4 oligodendrogliomas had positive staining. No other IDH mutations were found in immuno-negative low-grade cases by DNA sequencing. To validate our findings, we considered 311 diffuse gliomas in patients ≥ 55 years in The Cancer Genome Atlas database. Fifty-five out of 311 gliomas had IDH R132H mutations (9/16 DAs; 8/48 AAs; 3/211 GBMs; 35/36 oligodendrogliomas), one DA, and one oligodendroglioma had other IDH mutations. IDH mutant gliomas had significantly higher frequency of O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase promoter methylation (P = 0.0008) and longer overall survival (P < 0.0001). In conclusion, low-grade gliomas are a minor part of gliomas (117/584) in patients ≥ 55 years, albeit they represent most IDH mutant gliomas in this age group (64/69 cases). IDH non-canonical mutations can be found in immunonegative low-grade gliomas (2/54). In view of its significance for prognosis and therapeutic management, our results suggest that IDH mutational status is assessed in all diffuse gliomas in patients ≥ 55 years by immunohistochemistry, followed by IDH sequencing in low-grade immunonegative cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/neup.12608DOI Listing
February 2020

Management of Thyroid Nodules in Deceased Donors With Comparison Between Fine Needle Aspiration and Intraoperative Frozen Section in the Setting of Transplantation.

Prog Transplant 2019 12;29(4):316-320

Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, PA, USA.

Introduction: Newly discovered thyroid nodules in deceased donors are investigated to rule out cancer that can be transmitted, but there are no established protocols. The aim of the study was to compare fine needle aspiration versus intraoperative frozen section in the donor management with limited time.

Methods: Data were extracted only from the records of Italian second opinion consultation service in the years 2016 to 2017 and included donor details, pathology diagnoses, complications, transmission risk profile, and impact on transplantation.

Results: Among 31 deceased donors with thyroid nodules, we documented 4 with a clinical history of cancer and 27 with a newly discovered nodule. The latter was evaluated by thyroidectomy with frozen section in 22 and fine needle aspiration in 5. Among all donors, 7 had papillary thyroid carcinoma with negligible transmission risk, whereas 8 with unacceptable risk. Two donors presented major bleeding after thyroidectomy, with organ discard in 1 case. Transplantation was delayed in 4 cases that were evaluated with frozen section.

Discussion: There was no uniform approach for the investigation of thyroid nodules. Our results showed that fine needle aspiration was more accurate and useful than frozen section. Fine needle aspiration had minor economic impact and a far less rate of bleeding/hemodynamic complications, potentially delaying and compromising organ recovery. Our results suggested considering fine needle aspiration as a first step in the evaluation of thyroid nodules in donors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1526924819873898DOI Listing
December 2019

Diagnostic concordance between whole slide imaging and conventional light microscopy in cytopathology: A systematic review.

Cancer Cytopathol 2020 01 10;128(1):17-28. Epub 2019 Oct 10.

Department of Pathology and Diagnostics, University and Hospital Trust of Verona, Verona, Italy.

Many studies have examined the diagnostic concordance of whole slide imaging (WSI) and light microscopy (LM) for surgical pathology. In cytopathology, WSI use has been more limited, mainly because of technical issues. The aim of this study was to review the literature and determine the overall diagnostic concordance of WSI and LM in cytopathology. A systematic search of PubMed, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library was performed, with data extracted from the included articles. A quality assessment of studies was performed with a modified Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2 tool. The primary outcome was concordance for the diagnoses rendered by WSI and LM as shown by the concordance rate with the original diagnosis, intra-observer and interobserver concordance with the κ coefficient, or a percentage. Secondary outcomes included the time taken to reach a diagnosis and the quality and perception of WSI. A descriptive survey was provided. Among 1867 publications, a total of 19 studies (1%) were included. Overall, the concordance between WSI and the original diagnosis was 84.1%, the intra-observer concordance between WSI and LM was 92.5% with a κ coefficient of 0.66, and the interobserver κ coefficient was 0.69. The time to reach a diagnosis was longer with WSI in all studies. The quality of WSI was good, but diagnostic confidence and cytologist preference were higher for LM. In conclusion, the concordance of WSI with LM is acceptable and in line with systematic reviews in surgical pathology. However, the time required for scanning and technical issues represent barriers to complete adoption. It is foreseeable that technical advances and rigorous validation study design will help to improve the diagnostic concordance of WSI with LM in cytopathology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncy.22195DOI Listing
January 2020

Pre-implantation kidney biopsy: value of the expertise in determining histological score and comparison with the whole organ on a series of discarded kidneys.

J Nephrol 2020 Feb 30;33(1):167-176. Epub 2019 Aug 30.

Department of Pathology and Diagnostics, University and Hospital Trust of Verona, P.le Stefani n. 1, 37126, Verona, Italy.

Background: Evidence about the reliability of pre-implantation biopsy is still conflicting, depending on both biopsy type and pathologist's expertise. Aim of the study is to evaluate the agreement of general v specialist pathologists and to compare scores on biopsy and whole organs in a set of discarded kidneys.

Methods: 46 discarded kidneys were identified with their corresponding biopsies. The biopsies were reviewed by three general and two specialist pathologists, blinded to the original report, according to Remuzzi score. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated for both groups. Discarded kidneys were scored according to Remuzzi score by a single specialist pathologist. Biopsies and organs were compared by Wilcoxon signed rank test. Weighted κ coefficients between biopsy and organ scores were also calculated.

Results: Specialist pathologists achieved higher values of ICC, reaching excellent or good agreement in most of the parameters, while general pathologists values were mainly fair or good. On whole organs, scores were consistently lower than biopsies, with a significant difference in most of the parameters. Weighted κ coefficient was slight or fair for most of the parameters.

Conclusions: Our data suggests that the creation of a pool of specialist pathologists would improve organ utilization. Moreover, biopsies are not representative of the whole organ. As the Remuzzi score on biopsy is a major reasons for discard, a quota of transplantable kidneys may be erroneously discarded. Refinement in Remuzzi cut-offs based on expert reporting and recognition of sampling error of biopsies in correlation with clinical outcome data should be undertaken.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40620-019-00638-7DOI Listing
February 2020

The Landscape of Digital Pathology in Transplantation: From the Beginning to the Virtual E-Slide.

J Pathol Inform 2019 1;10:21. Epub 2019 Jul 1.

Department of Diagnostics and Public Health, University and Hospital Trust of Verona, Verona, Italy.

Background: Digital pathology has progressed over the last two decades, with many clinical and nonclinical applications. Transplantation pathology is a highly specialized field in which the majority of practicing pathologists do not have sufficient expertise to handle critical needs. In this context, digital pathology has proven to be useful as it allows for timely access to expert second-opinion teleconsultation. The aim of this study was to review the experience of the application of digital pathology to the field of transplantation.

Methods: Papers on this topic were retrieved using PubMed as a search engine. Inclusion criteria were the presence of transplantation setting and the use of any type of digital image with or without the use of image analysis tools; the search was restricted to English language papers published in the 25 years until December 31, 2018.

Results: Literature regarding digital transplant pathology is mostly about the digital interpretation of posttransplant biopsies (75 vs. 19), with 15/75 (20%) articles focusing on agreement/reproducibility. Several papers concentrated on the correlation between biopsy features assessed by digital image analysis (DIA) and clinical outcome (45/75, 60%). Whole-slide imaging (WSI) only appeared in recent publications, starting from 2011 (13/75, 17.3%). Papers dealing with preimplantation biopsy are less numerous, the majority (13/19, 68.4%) of which focus on diagnostic agreement between digital microscopy and light microscopy (LM), with WSI technology being used in only a small quota of papers (4/19, 21.1%).

Conclusions: Overall, published studies show good concordance between digital microscopy and LM modalities for diagnosis. DIA has the potential to increase diagnostic reproducibility and facilitate the identification and quantification of histological parameters. Thus, with advancing technology such as faster scanning times, better image resolution, and novel image algorithms, it is likely that WSI will eventually replace LM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jpi.jpi_27_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6639852PMC
July 2019

A Meta-Analysis Evaluating Clinical Outcomes of Patients with Renal Cell Carcinoma Harboring Chromosome 9P Loss.

Mol Diagn Ther 2019 10;23(5):569-577

Division of Oncology, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Via Albertoni n 15, 40138, Bologna, Italy.

Context: 9p loss appears a reliable and promising marker able to differentiate specific categories of patients with renal cell carcinoma associated with a worse prognosis.

Objective: The aim was to systematically evaluate relative risk of death, cancer-specific survival (CSS) and disease-free survival (DFS) among patients harboring 9p loss.

Evidence Synthesis: We found a total of 92 potentially relevant articles focused on the detection of 9p loss in patients with renal cell carcinoma and clinical outcomes of this population. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines were employed to carry out this work. Fourteen studies resulted to be eligible for this analysis; 11 of these reported data on 5-year overall survival, six on CSS and four on DFS. An increased risk of death has been observed in patients harboring 9p loss (pooled relative risk of 3.965; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.647-5.940, p < 0.001). Similarly, worse CSS (hazard ratio [HR] 6.776; 95% CI 3.824-12.009; p < 0.001) and DFS (HR 2.914; 95% CI 1.245-6.819; p = 0.014) have been observed in this population. Heterogeneity was significant in survival analysis, while no significant heterogeneity was observed in the CSS and DFS analyses.

Conclusions: Patients harboring chromosome 9p loss have worse clinical outcomes in terms of overall survival, CSS and DFS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40291-019-00414-0DOI Listing
October 2019