Publications by authors named "Albertus Beishuizen"

131 Publications

Targeted Temperature Management in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest With Shockable Rhythm: A Post Hoc Analysis of the Coronary Angiography After Cardiac Arrest Trial.

Crit Care Med 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Cardiology, Amsterdam University Medical Center, location VUmc, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Amphia Hospital, Breda, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Amphia Hospital, Breda, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, HAGA Hospital, Den Haag, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, HAGA Hospital, Den Haag, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Maasstad Hospital, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Maasstad Hospital, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Amsterdam University Medical Center, location VUmc, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Maastricht University Medical Center, University Maastricht, Maastricht, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Amsterdam University Medical Center, location AMC, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Amsterdam University Medical Center, location AMC, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, OLVG, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, OLVG, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Noord West Ziekenhuisgroep, Alkmaar, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Noord West Ziekenhuisgroep, Alkmaar, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Scheper Hospital, Emmen, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Haaglanden Medical Center, Den Haag, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Isala Hospital, Zwolle, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Tergooi Hospital, Blaricum, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Elisabeth-Tweesteden Hospital, Tilburg, The Netherlands. Department of Epidemiology and Data Science, Amsterdam University Medical Center, location VUmc, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Objectives: The optimal targeted temperature in patients with shockable rhythm is unclear, and current guidelines recommend targeted temperature management with a correspondingly wide range between 32°C and 36°C. Our aim was to study survival and neurologic outcome associated with targeted temperature management strategy in postarrest patients with initial shockable rhythm.

Design: Observational substudy of the Coronary Angiography after Cardiac Arrest without ST-segment Elevation trial.

Setting: Nineteen hospitals in The Netherlands.

Patients: The Coronary Angiography after Cardiac Arrest trial randomized successfully resuscitated patients with shockable rhythm and absence of ST-segment elevation to a strategy of immediate or delayed coronary angiography. In this substudy, 459 patients treated with mild therapeutic hypothermia (32.0-34.0°C) or targeted normothermia (36.0-37.0°C) were included. Allocation to targeted temperature management strategy was at the discretion of the physician.

Interventions: None.

Measurements And Main Results: After 90 days, 171 patients (63.6%) in the mild therapeutic hypothermia group and 129 (67.9%) in the targeted normothermia group were alive (hazard ratio, 0.86 [95% CI, 0.62-1.18]; log-rank p = 0.35; adjusted odds ratio, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.45-1.72). Patients in the mild therapeutic hypothermia group had longer ICU stay (4 d [3-7 d] vs 3 d [2-5 d]; ratio of geometric means, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.15-1.51), lower blood pressures, higher lactate levels, and increased need for inotropic support. Cerebral Performance Category scores at ICU discharge and 90-day follow-up and patient-reported Mental and Physical Health Scores at 1 year were similar in the two groups.

Conclusions: In the context of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with shockable rhythm and no ST-elevation, treatment with mild therapeutic hypothermia was not associated with improved 90-day survival compared with targeted normothermia. Neurologic outcomes at 90 days as well as patient-reported Mental and Physical Health Scores at 1 year did not differ between the groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CCM.0000000000005271DOI Listing
September 2021

Safety and tolerability of non-neutralizing adrenomedullin antibody adrecizumab (HAM8101) in septic shock patients: the AdrenOSS-2 phase 2a biomarker-guided trial.

Intensive Care Med 2021 Oct 4. Epub 2021 Oct 4.

Université de Paris, U942 Inserm, MASCOT, APHP, Fédération Hospitalo-Universitaire PROMICE, Hôpitaux Universitaires Saint-Louis-Lariboisière, Fernand-Widal, 2, Rue Ambroise-Paré, 75475, Paris Cedex 10, France.

Purpose: Investigate safety and tolerability of adrecizumab, a humanized monoclonal adrenomedullin antibody, in septic shock patients with high adrenomedullin.

Methods: Phase-2a, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled biomarker-guided trial with a single infusion of adrecizumab (2 or 4 mg/kg b.w.) compared to placebo. Patients with adrenomedullin above 70 pg/mL, < 12 h of vasopressor start for septic shock were eligible. Randomization was 1:1:2. Primary safety (90-day mortality, treatment emergent adverse events (TEAE)) and tolerability (drug interruption, hemodynamics) endpoints were recorded. Efficacy endpoints included the Sepsis Support Index (SSI, reflecting ventilator- and shock-free days alive), change in Sequential-related Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) and 28-day mortality.

Results: 301 patients were enrolled (median time of 8.5 h after vasopressor start). Adrecizumab was well tolerated (one interruption, no hemodynamic alteration) with no differences in frequency and severity in TEAEs between treatment arms (TEAE of grade 3 or higher: 70.5% in the adrecizumab group and 71.1% in the placebo group) nor in 90-day mortality. Difference in change in SSI between adrecizumab and placebo was 0.72 (CI -1.93-0.49, p = 0.24). Among various secondary endpoints, delta SOFA score (defined as maximum versus minimum SOFA) was more pronounced in the adrecizumab combined group compared to placebo [difference at 0.76 (95% CI 0.18-1.35); p = 0.007]. 28-day mortality in the adrecizumab group was 23.9% and 27.7% in placebo with a hazard ratio of 0.84 (95% confidence interval 0.53-1.31, log-rank p = 0.44).

Conclusions: Overall, we successfully completed a randomized trial evaluating selecting patients for enrolment who had a disease-related biomarker. There were no overt signals of harm with using two doses of the adrenomedullin antibody adrecizumab; however, further randomized controlled trials are required to confirm efficacy and safety of this agent in septic shock patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00134-021-06537-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8487806PMC
October 2021

Suboptimal plasma concentrations with posaconazole suspension as prophylaxis in critically ill COVID-19 patients at risk of Covid-associated pulmonary aspergillosis.

J Clin Pharm Ther 2021 Aug 25. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede, the Netherlands.

What Is Known And Objective: The safety and efficacy of different antifungal agents in the prophylaxis of invasive fungal infection in patients with haematological disorders are known. We comment on the poor bioavailability of posaconazole suspension to suggest that it is not useful in critically ill COVID patients.

Comment: The increased mortality and high incidence of COVID-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) might justify administration of off-label posaconazole for preventing CAPA, being the only drug officially registered for prophylaxis of fungal infections. We decided to initiate off-label posaconazole prophylaxis in COVID-19 patients, who were mechanically ventilated and exposed to high-dose steroids for progressive pulmonary disease or ARDS. We found that posaconazole suspension was inadequate. Very low trough levels were observed after administration, and the dose adjustments necessary for the therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of the drug in our critically ill ICU patients were not useful.

What Is New And Conclusion: Posaconazole suspension should not be used to prevent CAPA in COVID-19 patients on high-dose steroid therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcpt.13518DOI Listing
August 2021

Mid-Regional Proadrenomedullin and Mid-Regional Proatrial Natriuretic Peptide Clearance Predicts Poor Outcomes Better Than Single Baseline Measurements in Critically Ill Patients With Pneumonia: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

Cureus 2021 May 28;13(5):e15285. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede, NLD.

Background We assessed the ability of baseline and serial measurements of mid-regional proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM) and mid-regional proatrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP) to predict 28-day mortality in critically ill patients with pneumonia compared with Acute Physiological and Chronic Health Evaluation IV (APACHE IV) model and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score. Methodology Biomarkers were collected for the first five days in this retrospective observational cohort study. Biomarker clearance (as a percentage) was presented as biomarker decline in five days. We investigated the relationship between biomarkers and mortality in a multivariable Cox regression model. APACHE IV and SOFA were calculated after 24 hours from intensive care unit admission. Results In 153 critically ill patients with pneumonia, 28-day mortality was 26.8%. Values of baseline MR-proADM, MR-proANP, and APACHE IV were significantly higher in 28-day nonsurvivors, but not significantly different for SOFA score. Baseline MR-proADM and MR-proANP, APACHE IV, and SOFA had a low area under the curve in receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves. No optimal cut-off points could be calculated. Biomarkers and severity scores were divided into tertiles. The highest tertiles baseline MR-proADM and MR-proANP were not significant predictors for 28-day mortality in a multivariable model with age and APACHE IV. SOFA was not a significant predictor in univariable analysis. Clearances of MR-proADM and MR-proANP were significantly higher in 28-day survivors. MR-proADM and MR-proANP clearances had similar low accuracy to identify nonsurvivors in ROC curves and were divided into tertiles. Low clearances of MR-proADM and MR-proANP (first tertiles) were significant predictors for 28-day mortality (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.38; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.21-4.70; p = 0.013 and HR: 2.27; 95% CI: 1.16-4.46; p = 0.017) in a model with age and APACHE IV. Conclusions MR-proADM and MR-proANP clearance performed better in predicting 28-day mortality in a model with age and APACHE IV compared with single baseline measurements in a mixed population of critically ill with pneumonia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.15285DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8237920PMC
May 2021

Duration of antibiotic treatment using procalcitonin-guided treatment algorithms in older patients: a patient-level meta-analysis from randomized controlled trials.

Age Ageing 2021 09;50(5):1546-1556

Critical Care and Peri-operative Medicine, Monash Health, Melbourne, Australia.

Background: Older patients have a less pronounced immune response to infection, which may also influence infection biomarkers. There is currently insufficient data regarding clinical effects of procalcitonin (PCT) to guide antibiotic treatment in older patients.

Objective And Design: We performed an individual patient data meta-analysis to investigate the association of age on effects of PCT-guided antibiotic stewardship regarding antibiotic use and outcome.

Subjects And Methods: We had access to 9,421 individual infection patients from 28 randomized controlled trials comparing PCT-guided antibiotic therapy (intervention group) or standard care. We stratified patients according to age in four groups (<75 years [n = 7,079], 75-80 years [n = 1,034], 81-85 years [n = 803] and >85 years [n = 505]). The primary endpoint was the duration of antibiotic treatment and the secondary endpoints were 30-day mortality and length of stay.

Results: Compared to control patients, mean duration of antibiotic therapy in PCT-guided patients was significantly reduced by 24, 22, 26 and 24% in the four age groups corresponding to adjusted differences in antibiotic days of -1.99 (95% confidence interval [CI] -2.36 to -1.62), -1.98 (95% CI -2.94 to -1.02), -2.20 (95% CI -3.15 to -1.25) and - 2.10 (95% CI -3.29 to -0.91) with no differences among age groups. There was no increase in the risk for mortality in any of the age groups. Effects were similar in subgroups by infection type, blood culture result and clinical setting (P interaction >0.05).

Conclusions: This large individual patient data meta-analysis confirms that, similar to younger patients, PCT-guided antibiotic treatment in older patients is associated with significantly reduced antibiotic exposures and no increase in mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afab078DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8437072PMC
September 2021

The effect of immediate coronary angiography after cardiac arrest without ST-segment elevation on left ventricular function. A sub-study of the COACT randomised trial.

Resuscitation 2021 07 28;164:93-100. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Intensive care medicine, Noord West Ziekenhuisgroep, Alkmaar, The Netherlands.

Background: The effect of immediate coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients who are successfully resuscitated after cardiac arrest in the absence of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) on left ventricular function is currently unknown.

Methods: This prespecified sub-study of a multicentre trial evaluated 552 patients, successfully resuscitated from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest without signs of STEMI. Patients were randomized to either undergo immediate coronary angiography or delayed coronary angiography, after neurologic recovery. All patients underwent PCI if indicated. The main outcomes of this analysis were left ventricular ejection fraction and end-diastolic and systolic volumes assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging or echocardiography.

Results: Data on left ventricular function was available for 397 patients. The mean (± standard deviation) left ventricular ejection fraction was 45.2% (±12.8) in the immediate angiography group and 48.4% (±13.2) in the delayed angiography group (mean difference: -3.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], -6.75 to 0.37). Median left ventricular end-diastolic volume was 177 ml in the immediate angiography group compared to 169 ml in the delayed angiography group (ratio of geometric means: 1.06; 95% CI, 0.95-1.19). In addition, mean left ventricular end-systolic volume was 90 ml in the immediate angiography group compared to 78 ml in the delayed angiography group (ratio of geometric means: 1.13; 95% CI 0.97-1.32).

Conclusion: In patients successfully resuscitated after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and without signs of STEMI, immediate coronary angiography was not found to improve left ventricular dimensions or function compared with a delayed angiography strategy.

Clinical Trial Registration: Netherlands Trial Register number, NTR4973.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resuscitation.2021.04.020DOI Listing
July 2021

Elevated methaemoglobin in a critically ill patient as a result of hydrogen peroxide exposure: A case study.

J Clin Pharm Ther 2021 Oct 24;46(5):1473-1475. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Intensive Care Center, Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede, the Netherlands.

What Is Known And Objective: Formation of methaemoglobinaemia (MetHb) decreases oxygen capacity in the blood, leading to tissue hypoxia. This condition may be acquired following exposure to certain drugs.

Case Summary: A critically ill patient with necrotizing fasciitis unexpectedly developed marked and unexplained MetHb (6.7%). Her digital medication list did not reveal the causative factor. However, deeper exploration showed the use of other compounds (acetone, hydrogen peroxide) not routinely visible on the medication list.

What Is New And Conclusion: Elevated MetHb likely resulted from high-volume hydrogen peroxide 3% exposure. Clinicians should be cautious rinsing large open wounds with hydrogen peroxide. When MetHb is diagnosed, less familiar compounds, usually not on the medication list, should be considered in the differential diagnosis and extensive hetero-anamnesis is mandatory.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcpt.13396DOI Listing
October 2021

Monitoring circulating dipeptidyl peptidase 3 (DPP3) predicts improvement of organ failure and survival in sepsis: a prospective observational multinational study.

Crit Care 2021 02 15;25(1):61. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Burn Center, Lariboisière - Saint-Louis Hospitals, DMU Parabol, AP-HP Nord, University of Paris, Paris, France.

Background: Dipeptidyl peptidase 3 (DPP3) is a cytosolic enzyme involved in the degradation of various cardiovascular and endorphin mediators. High levels of circulating DPP3 (cDPP3) indicate a high risk of organ dysfunction and mortality in cardiogenic shock patients.

Methods: The aim was to assess relationships between cDPP3 during the initial intensive care unit (ICU) stay and short-term outcome in the AdrenOSS-1, a prospective observational multinational study in twenty-four ICU centers in five countries. AdrenOSS-1 included 585 patients admitted to the ICU with severe sepsis or septic shock. The primary outcome was 28-day mortality. Secondary outcomes included organ failure as defined by the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, organ support with focus on vasopressor/inotropic use and need for renal replacement therapy. cDPP3 levels were measured upon admission and 24 h later.

Results: Median [IQR] cDPP3 concentration upon admission was 26.5 [16.2-40.4] ng/mL. Initial SOFA score was 7 [5-10], and 28-day mortality was 22%. We found marked associations between cDPP3 upon ICU admission and 28-day mortality (unadjusted standardized HR 1.8 [CI 1.6-2.1]; adjusted HR 1.5 [CI 1.3-1.8]) and between cDPP3 levels and change in renal and liver SOFA score (p = 0.0077 and 0.0009, respectively). The higher the initial cDPP3 was, the greater the need for organ support and vasopressors upon admission; the longer the need for vasopressor(s), mechanical ventilation or RRT and the higher the need for fluid load (all p < 0.005). In patients with cDPP3 > 40.4 ng/mL upon admission, a decrease in cDPP3 below 40.4 ng/mL after 24 h was associated with an improvement of organ function at 48 h and better 28-day outcome. By contrast, persistently elevated cDPP3 at 24 h was associated with worsening organ function and high 28-day mortality.

Conclusions: Admission levels and rapid changes in cDPP3 predict outcome during sepsis. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02393781. Registered on March 19, 2015.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13054-021-03471-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7885215PMC
February 2021

Significant interference on specific point-of-care glucose measurements due to high dose of intravenous vitamin C therapy in critically ill patients.

Clin Chem Lab Med 2021 04 19;59(5):e197-e199. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Department of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, Medlon BV, Enschede, The Netherlands.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/cclm-2020-1445DOI Listing
April 2021

Data on sex differences in one-year outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients without ST-segment elevation.

Data Brief 2020 Dec 12;33:106521. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Department of Intensive care medicine, Maastricht University Medical Center, University Maastricht, Maastricht, the Netherlands.

Sex differences in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients are increasingly recognized. Although it has been found that post-resuscitated women are less likely to have significant coronary artery disease (CAD) than men, data on follow-up in these patients are limited. Data for this data in brief article was obtained as a part of the randomized controlled Coronary Angiography after Cardiac Arrest without ST-segment elevation (COACT) trial. The data supplements the manuscript "Sex differences in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients without ST-segment elevation: A COACT trial substudy" were it was found that women were less likely to have significant CAD including chronic total occlusions, and had worse survival when CAD was present. The dataset presented in this paper describes sex differences on interventions, implantable-cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) shocks and hospitalizations due to heart failure during one-year follow-up in patients successfully resuscitated after OHCA. Data was derived through a telephone interview at one year with the patient or general practitioner. Patients in this randomized dataset reflects a homogenous study population, which can be valuable to further build on research regarding long-term sex differences and to further improve cardiac care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2020.106521DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7691722PMC
December 2020

Sex differences in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest without ST-segment elevation: A COACT trial substudy.

Resuscitation 2021 01 12;158:14-22. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Department of Intensive care medicine, Maastricht University Medical Centre, University Maastricht, Maastricht, the Netherlands.

Background: Whether sex is associated with outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is unclear.

Objectives: This study examined sex differences in survival in patients with OHCA without ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).

Methods: Using data from the randomized controlled Coronary Angiography after Cardiac Arrest (COACT) trial, the primary point of interest was sex differences in OHCA-related one-year survival. Secondary points of interest included the benefit of immediate coronary angiography compared to delayed angiography until after neurologic recovery, angiographic and clinical outcomes.

Results: In total, 522 patients (79.1% men) were included. Overall one-year survival was 59.6% in women and 63.4% in men (HR 1.18; 95% CI: 0.76-1.81;p = 0.47). No cardiovascular risk factors were found that modified survival. Women less often had significant coronary artery disease (CAD) (37.0% vs. 71.3%;p < 0.001), but when present, they had a worse prognosis than women without CAD (HR 3.06; 95% CI 1.31-7.19;p = 0.01). This was not the case for men (HR 1.05; 95% CI 0.67-1.65;p = 0.83). In both sexes, immediate coronary angiography did not improve one-year survival compared to delayed angiography (women, odds ratio (OR) 0.87; 95% CI 0.58-1.30;p = 0.49; vs. men, OR 0.97; 95% CI 0.45-2.09;p = 0.93).

Conclusion: In OHCA patients without STEMI, we found no sex differences in overall one-year survival. Women less often had significant CAD, but when CAD was present they had worse survival than women without CAD. This was not the case for men. Both sexes did not benefit from a strategy of immediate coronary angiography as compared to delayed strategy with respect to one-year survival.

Clinical Trial Registration Number: Netherlands trial register (NTR) 4973.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resuscitation.2020.10.026DOI Listing
January 2021

Association of kidney function with effectiveness of procalcitonin-guided antibiotic treatment: a patient-level meta-analysis from randomized controlled trials.

Clin Chem Lab Med 2020 09 28;59(2):441-453. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

Medical University Department, Kantonsspital Aarau, Aarau, Switzerland.

Objectives: Patients with impaired kidney function have a significantly slower decrease of procalcitonin (PCT) levels during infection. Our aim was to study PCT-guided antibiotic stewardship and clinical outcomes in patients with impairments of kidney function as assessed by creatinine levels measured upon hospital admission.

Methods: We pooled and analyzed individual data from 15 randomized controlled trials who were randomly assigned to receive antibiotic therapy based on a PCT-algorithms or based on standard of care. We stratified patients on the initial glomerular filtration rate (GFR, ml/min/1.73 m2) in three groups (GFR >90 [chronic kidney disease; CKD 1], GFR 15-89 [CKD 2-4] and GFR<15 [CKD 5]). The main efficacy and safety endpoints were duration of antibiotic treatment and 30-day mortality.

Results: Mean duration of antibiotic treatment was significantly shorter in PCT-guided (n=2,492) compared to control patients (n=2,510) (9.5-7.6 days; adjusted difference in days -2.01 [95% CI, -2.45 to -1.58]). CKD 5 patients had overall longer treatment durations, but a 2.5-day reduction in treatment duration was still found in patients receiving in PCT-guided care (11.3 vs. 8.6 days [95% CI -3.59 to -1.40]). There were 397 deaths in 2,492 PCT-group patients (15.9%) compared to 460 deaths in 2,510 control patients (18.3%) (adjusted odds ratio, 0.88 [95% CI 0.78 to 0.98)]. Effects of PCT-guidance on antibiotic treatment duration and mortality were similar in subgroups stratified by infection type and clinical setting (p interaction >0.05).

Conclusions: This individual patient data meta-analysis confirms that the use of PCT in patients with impaired kidney function, as assessed by admission creatinine levels, is associated with shorter antibiotic courses and lower mortality rates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/cclm-2020-0931DOI Listing
September 2020

How are rapid diagnostic tests for infectious diseases used in clinical practice: a global survey by the International Society of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (ISAC).

Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2021 Feb 9;40(2):429-434. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

School of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.

Novel rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) offer huge potential to optimise clinical care and improve patient outcomes. In this study, we aim to assess the current patterns of use around the world, identify issues for successful implementation and suggest best practice advice on how to introduce new tests. An electronic survey was devised by the International Society of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (ISAC) Rapid Diagnostics and Biomarkers working group focussing on the availability, structure and impact of RDTs around the world. It was circulated to ISAC members in December 2019. Results were collated according to the UN human development index (HDI). 81 responses were gathered from 31 different countries. 84% of institutions reported the availability of any test 24/7. In more developed countries, this was more for respiratory viruses, whereas in high and medium/low developed countries, it was for HIV and viral hepatitis. Only 37% of those carrying out rapid tests measured the impact. There is no 'one-size fits all' solution to RDTs: the requirements must be tailored to the healthcare setting in which they are deployed and there are many factors that should be considered prior to this.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10096-020-04031-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7478941PMC
February 2021

Coronary Angiography After Cardiac Arrest Without ST Segment Elevation: One-Year Outcomes of the COACT Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Cardiol 2020 Dec;5(12):1358-1365

Department of Cardiology, Scheper Hospital, Emmen, the Netherlands.

Importance: Ischemic heart disease is a common cause of cardiac arrest. However, randomized data on long-term clinical outcomes of immediate coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients successfully resuscitated from cardiac arrest in the absence of ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are lacking.

Objective: To determine whether immediate coronary angiography improves clinical outcomes at 1 year in patients after cardiac arrest without signs of STEMI, compared with a delayed coronary angiography strategy.

Design, Setting, And Participants: A prespecified analysis of a multicenter, open-label, randomized clinical trial evaluated 552 patients who were enrolled in 19 Dutch centers between January 8, 2015, and July 17, 2018. The study included patients who experienced out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with a shockable rhythm who were successfully resuscitated without signs of STEMI. Follow-up was performed at 1 year. Data were analyzed, using the intention-to-treat principle, between August 29 and October 10, 2019.

Interventions: Immediate coronary angiography and PCI if indicated or coronary angiography and PCI if indicated, delayed until after neurologic recovery.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Survival, myocardial infarction, revascularization, implantable cardiac defibrillator shock, quality of life, hospitalization for heart failure, and the composite of death or myocardial infarction or revascularization after 1 year.

Results: At 1 year, data on 522 of 552 patients (94.6%) were available for analysis. Of these patients, 413 were men (79.1%); mean (SD) age was 65.4 (12.3) years. A total of 162 of 264 patients (61.4%) in the immediate angiography group and 165 of 258 patients (64.0%) in the delayed angiography group were alive (odds ratio, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.63-1.28). The composite end point of death, myocardial infarction, or repeated revascularization since the index hospitalization was met in 112 patients (42.9%) in the immediate group and 104 patients (40.6%) in the delayed group (odds ratio, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.77-1.56). No significant differences between the groups were observed for the other outcomes at 1-year follow-up. For example, the rate of ICD shocks was 20.4% in the immediate group and 16.2% in the delayed group (odds ratio, 1.32; 95% CI, 0.66-2.64).

Conclusions And Relevance: In this trial of patients successfully resuscitated after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and without signs of STEMI, a strategy of immediate angiography was not found to be superior to a strategy of delayed angiography with respect to clinical outcomes at 1 year. Coronary angiography in this patient group can therefore be delayed until after neurologic recovery without affecting outcomes.

Trial Registration: trialregister.nl Identifier: NTR4973.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamacardio.2020.3670DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7489423PMC
December 2020

Caspofungin Weight-Based Dosing Supported by a Population Pharmacokinetic Model in Critically Ill Patients.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2020 08 20;64(9). Epub 2020 Aug 20.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

The objective of this study was to develop a population pharmacokinetic model and to determine a dosing regimen for caspofungin in critically ill patients. Nine blood samples were drawn per dosing occasion. Fifteen patients with (suspected) invasive candidiasis had one dosing occasion and five had two dosing occasions, measured on day 3 (±1) of treatment. Pmetrics was used for population pharmacokinetic modeling and probability of target attainment (PTA). A target 24-h area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) value of 98 mg·h/liter was used as an efficacy parameter. Secondarily, the AUC/MIC targets of 450, 865, and 1,185 were used to calculate PTAs for , , and , respectively. The final 2-compartment model included weight as a covariate on volume of distribution (). The mean of the central compartment was 7.71 (standard deviation [SD], 2.70) liters/kg of body weight, the mean elimination constant ( ) was 0.09 (SD, 0.04) h, the rate constant for the caspofungin distribution from the central to the peripheral compartment was 0.44 (SD, 0.39) h, and the rate constant for the caspofungin distribution from the peripheral to the central compartment was 0.46 (SD, 0.35) h A loading dose of 2 mg/kg on the first day, followed by 1.25 mg/kg as a maintenance dose, was chosen. With this dose, 98% of the patients were expected to reach the AUC target on the first day and 100% of the patients on the third day. The registered caspofungin dose might not be suitable for critically ill patients who were all overweight (≥120 kg), over 80% of median weight (78 kg), and around 25% of lower weight (≤50 kg). A weight-based dose regimen might be appropriate for achieving adequate exposure of caspofungin in intensive care unit patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.00905-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7449215PMC
August 2020

Influence of sedation on delirium recognition in critically ill patients: A multinational cohort study.

Aust Crit Care 2020 09 5;33(5):420-425. Epub 2020 Feb 5.

School of Pharmacy, Northeastern University, Boston, USA; Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Guidelines advocate intensive care unit (ICU) patients be regularly assessed for delirium using either the Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU (CAM-ICU) or the Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist (ICDSC). Single-centre studies, primarily with the CAM-ICU, suggest level of sedation may influence delirium screening results.

Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the association between level of sedation and delirium occurrence in critically ill patients assessed with either the CAM-ICU or the ICDSC.

Methods: This was a secondary analysis of a multinational, prospective cohort study performed in nine ICUs from seven countries. Consecutive ICU patients with a Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale (RASS) of -3 to 0 at the time of delirium assessment where a RASS ≤ 0 was secondary to a sedating medication. Patients were assessed with either the CAM-ICU or the ICDSC. Logistic regression analysis was used to account for factors with the potential to influence level of sedation or delirium occurrence.

Results: Among 1660 patients, 1203 patients underwent 5741 CAM-ICU assessments [9.6% were delirium positive; at RASS = 0 (3.3% were delirium positive), RASS = -1 (19.3%), RASS = -2 (35.1%); RASS = -3 (39.0%)]. The other 457 patients underwent 3210 ICDSC assessments [11.6% delirium positive; at RASS = 0 (4.9% were delirium positive), RASS = -1 (15.8%), RASS = -2 (26.6%); RASS = -3 (20.6%)]. A RASS of -3 was associated with more positive delirium evaluations (odds ratio: 2.31; 95% confidence interval: 1.34-3.98) in the CAM-ICU-assessed patients (vs. the ICDSC-assessed patients). At a RASS of 0, assessment with the CAM-ICU (vs. the ICDSC) was associated with fewer positive delirium evaluations (odds ratio: 0.58; 95% confidence interval: 0.43-0.78). At a RASS of -1 or -2, no association was found between the delirium assessment method used (i.e., CAM-ICU or ICDSC) and a positive delirium evaluation.

Conclusions: The influence of level of sedation on a delirium assessment result depends on whether the CAM-ICU or ICDSC is used. Bedside ICU nurses should consider these results when evaluating their sedated patients for delirium. Future research is necessary to compare the CAM-ICU and the ICDSC simultaneously in sedated and nonsedated ICU patients.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov; NCT02518646.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aucc.2019.12.002DOI Listing
September 2020

Predicting outcome in patients with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury using electroencephalography.

Crit Care 2019 Dec 11;23(1):401. Epub 2019 Dec 11.

Clinical Neurophysiology Group, University of Twente, Drienerlolaan 5, 7522 NB, Enschede, the Netherlands.

Background: Better outcome prediction could assist in reliable quantification and classification of traumatic brain injury (TBI) severity to support clinical decision-making. We developed a multifactorial model combining quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) measurements and clinically relevant parameters as proof of concept for outcome prediction of patients with moderate to severe TBI.

Methods: Continuous EEG measurements were performed during the first 7 days of ICU admission. Patient outcome at 12 months was dichotomized based on the Extended Glasgow Outcome Score (GOSE) as poor (GOSE 1-2) or good (GOSE 3-8). Twenty-three qEEG features were extracted. Prediction models were created using a Random Forest classifier based on qEEG features, age, and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after TBI and combinations of two time intervals. After optimization of the models, we added parameters from the International Mission for Prognosis And Clinical Trial Design (IMPACT) predictor, existing of clinical, CT, and laboratory parameters at admission. Furthermore, we compared our best models to the online IMPACT predictor.

Results: Fifty-seven patients with moderate to severe TBI were included and divided into a training set (n = 38) and a validation set (n = 19). Our best model included eight qEEG parameters and MAP at 72 and 96 h after TBI, age, and nine other IMPACT parameters. This model had high predictive ability for poor outcome on both the training set using leave-one-out (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) = 0.94, specificity 100%, sensitivity 75%) and validation set (AUC = 0.81, specificity 75%, sensitivity 100%). The IMPACT predictor independently predicted both groups with an AUC of 0.74 (specificity 81%, sensitivity 65%) and 0.84 (sensitivity 88%, specificity 73%), respectively.

Conclusions: Our study shows the potential of multifactorial Random Forest models using qEEG parameters to predict outcome in patients with moderate to severe TBI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13054-019-2656-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6907281PMC
December 2019

Early high protein intake and mortality in critically ill ICU patients with low skeletal muscle area and -density.

Clin Nutr 2020 07 23;39(7):2192-2201. Epub 2019 Sep 23.

Department of Adult Intensive Care Medicine, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Sports and Nutrition, Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Background & Aims: Optimal nutritional support during the acute phase of critical illness remains controversial. We hypothesized that patients with low skeletal muscle area and -density may specifically benefit from early high protein intake. Aim of the present study was to determine the association between early protein intake (day 2-4) and mortality in critically ill intensive care unit (ICU) patients with normal skeletal muscle area, low skeletal muscle area, or combined low skeletal muscle area and -density.

Methods: Retrospective database study in mechanically ventilated, adult critically ill patients with an abdominal CT-scan suitable for skeletal muscle assessment around ICU admission, admitted from January 2004 to January 2016 (n = 739). Patients received protocolized nutrition with protein target 1.2-1.5 g/kg/day. Skeletal muscle area and -density were assessed on abdominal CT-scans at the 3rd lumbar vertebra level using previously defined cut-offs.

Results: Of 739 included patients (mean age 58 years, 483 male (65%), APACHE II score 23), 294 (40%) were admitted with normal skeletal muscle area and 445 (60%) with low skeletal muscle area. Two hundred (45% of the low skeletal muscle area group) had combined low skeletal muscle area and -density. In the normal skeletal muscle area group, no significant associations were found. In the low skeletal muscle area group, higher early protein intake was associated with lower 60-day mortality (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) per 0.1 g/kg/day 0.82, 95%CI 0.73-0.94) and lower 6-month mortality (HR 0.88, 95%CI 0.79-0.98). Similar associations were found in the combined low skeletal muscle area and -density subgroup (HR 0.76, 95%CI 0.64-0.90 for 60-day mortality and HR 0.80, 95%CI 0.68-0.93 for 6-month mortality).

Conclusions: Early high protein intake is associated with lower mortality in critically ill patients with low skeletal muscle area and -density, but not in patients with normal skeletal muscle area on admission. These findings may be a further step to personalized nutrition, although randomized studies are needed to assess causality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2019.09.007DOI Listing
July 2020

Why would procalcitonin perform better in patients with a SOFA-score less than 8?

Int J Infect Dis 2019 12 1;89:185-186. Epub 2019 Oct 1.

Department of Intensive Care Medicine, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2019.09.027DOI Listing
December 2019

External Validation of Two Models to Predict Delirium in Critically Ill Adults Using Either the Confusion Assessment Method-ICU or the Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist for Delirium Assessment.

Crit Care Med 2019 10;47(10):e827-e835

Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Radboud Institute for Health Sciences, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Objectives: To externally validate two delirium prediction models (early prediction model for ICU delirium and recalibrated prediction model for ICU delirium) using either the Confusion Assessment Method-ICU or the Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist for delirium assessment.

Design: Prospective, multinational cohort study.

Setting: Eleven ICUs from seven countries in three continents.

Patients: Consecutive, delirium-free adults admitted to the ICU for greater than or equal to 6 hours in whom delirium could be reliably assessed.

Interventions: None.

Measurements And Main Results: The predictors included in each model were collected at the time of ICU admission (early prediction model for ICU delirium) or within 24 hours of ICU admission (recalibrated prediction model for ICU delirium). Delirium was assessed using the Confusion Assessment Method-ICU or the Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist. Discrimination was determined using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. The predictive performance was determined for the Confusion Assessment Method-ICU and Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist cohort, and compared with both prediction models' original reported performance. A total of 1,286 Confusion Assessment Method-ICU-assessed patients and 892 Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist-assessed patients were included. Compared with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.75 (95% CI, 0.71-0.79) in the original study, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the early prediction model for ICU delirium was 0.67 (95% CI, 0.64-0.71) for delirium as assessed using the Confusion Assessment Method-ICU and 0.70 (95% CI, 0.66-0.74) using the Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist. Compared with the original area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.77 (95% CI, 0.74-0.79), the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the recalibrated prediction model for ICU delirium was 0.75 (95% CI, 0.72-0.78) for assessing delirium using the Confusion Assessment Method-ICU and 0.71 (95% CI, 0.67-0.75) using the Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist.

Conclusions: Both the early prediction model for ICU delirium and recalibrated prediction model for ICU delirium are externally validated using either the Confusion Assessment Method-ICU or the Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist for delirium assessment. Per delirium prediction model, both assessment tools showed a similar moderate-to-good statistical performance. These results support the use of either the early prediction model for ICU delirium or recalibrated prediction model for ICU delirium in ICUs around the world regardless of whether delirium is evaluated with the Confusion Assessment Method-ICU or Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CCM.0000000000003911DOI Listing
October 2019

Outcome Prediction in Postanoxic Coma With Deep Learning.

Crit Care Med 2019 10;47(10):1424-1432

Department of Clinical Neurophysiology and Neurology, Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands.

Objectives: Visual assessment of the electroencephalogram by experienced clinical neurophysiologists allows reliable outcome prediction of approximately half of all comatose patients after cardiac arrest. Deep neural networks hold promise to achieve similar or even better performance, being more objective and consistent.

Design: Prospective cohort study.

Setting: Medical ICU of five teaching hospitals in the Netherlands.

Patients: Eight-hundred ninety-five consecutive comatose patients after cardiac arrest.

Interventions: None.

Measurements And Main Results: Continuous electroencephalogram was recorded during the first 3 days after cardiac arrest. Functional outcome at 6 months was classified as good (Cerebral Performance Category 1-2) or poor (Cerebral Performance Category 3-5). We trained a convolutional neural network, with a VGG architecture (introduced by the Oxford Visual Geometry Group), to predict neurologic outcome at 12 and 24 hours after cardiac arrest using electroencephalogram epochs and outcome labels as inputs. Output of the network was the probability of good outcome. Data from two hospitals were used for training and internal validation (n = 661). Eighty percent of these data was used for training and cross-validation, the remaining 20% for independent internal validation. Data from the other three hospitals were used for external validation (n = 234). Prediction of poor outcome was most accurate at 12 hours, with a sensitivity in the external validation set of 58% (95% CI, 51-65%) at false positive rate of 0% (CI, 0-7%). Good outcome could be predicted at 12 hours with a sensitivity of 48% (CI, 45-51%) at a false positive rate of 5% (CI, 0-15%) in the external validation set.

Conclusions: Deep learning of electroencephalogram signals outperforms any previously reported outcome predictor of coma after cardiac arrest, including visual electroencephalogram assessment by trained electroencephalogram experts. Our approach offers the potential for objective and real time, bedside insight in the neurologic prognosis of comatose patients after cardiac arrest.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CCM.0000000000003854DOI Listing
October 2019

Early electroencephalography for outcome prediction of postanoxic coma: A prospective cohort study.

Ann Neurol 2019 08 24;86(2):203-214. Epub 2019 Jun 24.

Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Technical Medical Center, University of Twente, Enschede.

Objective: To provide evidence that early electroencephalography (EEG) allows for reliable prediction of poor or good outcome after cardiac arrest.

Methods: In a 5-center prospective cohort study, we included consecutive, comatose survivors of cardiac arrest. Continuous EEG recordings were started as soon as possible and continued up to 5 days. Five-minute EEG epochs were assessed by 2 reviewers, independently, at 8 predefined time points from 6 hours to 5 days after cardiac arrest, blinded for patients' actual condition, treatment, and outcome. EEG patterns were categorized as generalized suppression (<10 μV), synchronous patterns with ≥50% suppression, continuous, or other. Outcome at 6 months was categorized as good (Cerebral Performance Category [CPC] = 1-2) or poor (CPC = 3-5).

Results: We included 850 patients, of whom 46% had a good outcome. Generalized suppression and synchronous patterns with ≥50% suppression predicted poor outcome without false positives at ≥6 hours after cardiac arrest. Their summed sensitivity was 0.47 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.42-0.51) at 12 hours and 0.30 (95% CI = 0.26-0.33) at 24 hours after cardiac arrest, with specificity of 1.00 (95% CI = 0.99-1.00) at both time points. At 36 hours or later, sensitivity for poor outcome was ≤0.22. Continuous EEG patterns at 12 hours predicted good outcome, with sensitivity of 0.50 (95% CI = 0.46-0.55) and specificity of 0.91 (95% CI = 0.88-0.93); at 24 hours or later, specificity for the prediction of good outcome was <0.90.

Interpretation: EEG allows for reliable prediction of poor outcome after cardiac arrest, with maximum sensitivity in the first 24 hours. Continuous EEG patterns at 12 hours after cardiac arrest are associated with good recovery. ANN NEUROL 2019;86:203-214.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ana.25518DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6771891PMC
August 2019

A multicenter, randomized, double-blind study of ulimorelin and metoclopramide in the treatment of critically ill patients with enteral feeding intolerance: PROMOTE trial.

Intensive Care Med 2019 05 6;45(5):647-656. Epub 2019 May 6.

Lyric Pharmaceuticals, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Purpose: Enteral feeding intolerance (EFI) is a frequent problem in the intensive care unit (ICU), but current prokinetic agents have uncertain efficacy and safety profiles. The current study compared the efficacy and safety of ulimorelin, a ghrelin agonist, with metoclopramide in the treatment of EFI.

Methods: One hundred twenty ICU patients were randomized 1:1 to ulimorelin or metoclopramide for 5 days. EFI was diagnosed by a gastric residual volume (GRV) ≥ 500 ml. A volume-based feeding protocol was employed, and enteral formulas were standardized. The primary end point was the percentage daily protein prescription (%DPP) received by patients over 5 days of treatment. Secondary end points included feeding success, defined as 80% DPP; gastric emptying, assessed by paracetamol absorption; incidences of recurrent intolerance (GRV ≥ 500 ml); vomiting or regurgitation; aspiration, defined by positive tracheal aspirates for pepsin; and pulmonary infection.

Results: One hundred twenty patients were randomized and received the study drug (ulimorelin 62, metoclopramide 58). Mean APACHE II and SOFA scores were 21.6 and 8.6, and 63.3% of patients had medical reasons for ICU admission. Ulimorelin and metoclopramide resulted in comparable %DPPs over 5 days of treatment (median [Q1, Q3]: 82.9% [38.4%, 100.2%] and 82.3% [65.6%, 100.2%], respectively, p = 0.49). Five-day rates of feeding success were 67.7% and 70.6% when terminations unrelated to feeding were excluded, and there were no differences in any secondary outcomes or adverse events between the two groups.

Conclusions: Both prokinetic agents achieved similar rates of feeding success, and no safety differences between the two treatment groups were observed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00134-019-05593-2DOI Listing
May 2019

Coronary Angiography after Cardiac Arrest without ST-Segment Elevation.

N Engl J Med 2019 Apr 18;380(15):1397-1407. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

From the Departments of Cardiology (J.S.L., G.N.J., N.W.H., N.R.), Intensive Care Medicine (P.W.G.E., H.M.O.-S.), and Epidemiology and Biostatistics (P.M.V.), Amsterdam University Medical Center VUmc, the Departments of Cardiology (J.P.H.) and Intensive Care Medicine (A.P.J.V.), Amsterdam University Medical Center AMC, and the Departments of Cardiology (M.A.V.) and Intensive Care Medicine (B.B.), Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Amsterdam, the Thorax Center, Erasmus Medical Center (L.S.D.J., E.A.D.), and the Departments of Cardiology (G.J.V.) and Intensive Care Medicine (B.J.W.E.), Maasstad Hospital, Rotterdam, the Departments of Cardiology (M. Meuwissen) and Intensive Care Medicine (T.A.R.), Amphia Hospital, Breda, the Departments of Cardiology (H.A.B.) and Intensive Care Medicine (M.J.B.), Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem, the Departments of Cardiology (G.B.B.) and Intensive Care Medicine (R.B.), Haga Hospital, and the Department of Cardiology, Haaglanden Medical Center (P.V.O.), The Hague, the Departments of Cardiology (P.H.) and Intensive Care Medicine (I.C.C.H.), University of Groningen, Groningen, the Departments of Cardiology (M.V.) and Intensive Care Medicine (J.J.H.), University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Departments of Intensive Care Medicine (A.B.) and Cardiology (M.S.), Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede, the Departments of Cardiology (C.C., N.R.) and Intensive Care Medicine (H.H.), Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Departments of Cardiology (T.A.C.M.H.) and Intensive Care Medicine (W.R.), Noordwest Ziekenhuisgroep, Alkmaar, the Departments of Intensive Care Medicine (T.S.R.D.) and Cardiology (H.J.G.M.C.), Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, the Department of Cardiology, Scheper Hospital, Emmen (G.A.J.J.), the Department of Cardiology, Isala Hospital, Zwolle (M.T.M.G.), the Department of Cardiology, Tergooi Hospital, Blaricum (K.P.), and the Department of Cardiology, Elisabeth-Tweesteden Hospital, Tilburg (M. Magro) - all in the Netherlands.

Background: Ischemic heart disease is a major cause of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. The role of immediate coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the treatment of patients who have been successfully resuscitated after cardiac arrest in the absence of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) remains uncertain.

Methods: In this multicenter trial, we randomly assigned 552 patients who had cardiac arrest without signs of STEMI to undergo immediate coronary angiography or coronary angiography that was delayed until after neurologic recovery. All patients underwent PCI if indicated. The primary end point was survival at 90 days. Secondary end points included survival at 90 days with good cerebral performance or mild or moderate disability, myocardial injury, duration of catecholamine support, markers of shock, recurrence of ventricular tachycardia, duration of mechanical ventilation, major bleeding, occurrence of acute kidney injury, need for renal-replacement therapy, time to target temperature, and neurologic status at discharge from the intensive care unit.

Results: At 90 days, 176 of 273 patients (64.5%) in the immediate angiography group and 178 of 265 patients (67.2%) in the delayed angiography group were alive (odds ratio, 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.62 to 1.27; P = 0.51). The median time to target temperature was 5.4 hours in the immediate angiography group and 4.7 hours in the delayed angiography group (ratio of geometric means, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.36). No significant differences between the groups were found in the remaining secondary end points.

Conclusions: Among patients who had been successfully resuscitated after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and had no signs of STEMI, a strategy of immediate angiography was not found to be better than a strategy of delayed angiography with respect to overall survival at 90 days. (Funded by the Netherlands Heart Institute and others; COACT Netherlands Trial Register number, NTR4973.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1816897DOI Listing
April 2019

Procalcitonin (PCT)-guided antibiotic stewardship: an international experts consensus on optimized clinical use.

Clin Chem Lab Med 2019 08;57(9):1308-1318

Department of Microbiology, Hampshire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Winchester and Basingstoke, UK.

Background Procalcitonin (PCT)-guided antibiotic stewardship (ABS) has been shown to reduce antibiotics (ABxs), with lower side-effects and an improvement in clinical outcomes. The aim of this experts workshop was to derive a PCT algorithm ABS for easier implementation into clinical routine across different clinical settings. Methods Clinical evidence and practical experience with PCT-guided ABS was analyzed and discussed, with a focus on optimal PCT use in the clinical context and increased adherence to PCT protocols. Using a Delphi process, the experts group reached consensus on different PCT algorithms based on clinical severity of the patient and probability of bacterial infection. Results The group agreed that there is strong evidence that PCT-guided ABS supports individual decisions on initiation and duration of ABx treatment in patients with acute respiratory infections and sepsis from any source, thereby reducing overall ABx exposure and associated side effects, and improving clinical outcomes. To simplify practical application, the expert group refined the established PCT algorithms by incorporating severity of illness and probability of bacterial infection and reducing the fixed cut-offs to only one for mild to moderate and one for severe disease (0.25 μg/L and 0.5 μg/L, respectively). Further, guidance on interpretation of PCT results to initiate, withhold or discontinue ABx treatment was included. Conclusions A combination of clinical patient assessment with PCT levels in well-defined ABS algorithms, in context with continuous education and regular feedback to all ABS stakeholders, has the potential to improve the diagnostic and therapeutic management of patients suspected of bacterial infection, thereby improving ABS effectiveness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/cclm-2018-1181DOI Listing
August 2019

Circulating adrenomedullin estimates survival and reversibility of organ failure in sepsis: the prospective observational multinational Adrenomedullin and Outcome in Sepsis and Septic Shock-1 (AdrenOSS-1) study.

Crit Care 2018 12 21;22(1):354. Epub 2018 Dec 21.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Saint Luc University Hospital, Université Catholique de Louvain, Avenue Hippocrate 10, 1200, Brussels, Belgium.

Background: Adrenomedullin (ADM) regulates vascular tone and endothelial permeability during sepsis. Levels of circulating biologically active ADM (bio-ADM) show an inverse relationship with blood pressure and a direct relationship with vasopressor requirement. In the present prospective observational multinational Adrenomedullin and Outcome in Sepsis and Septic Shock 1 (, AdrenOSS-1) study, we assessed relationships between circulating bio-ADM during the initial intensive care unit (ICU) stay and short-term outcome in order to eventually design a biomarker-guided randomized controlled trial.

Methods: AdrenOSS-1 was a prospective observational multinational study. The primary outcome was 28-day mortality. Secondary outcomes included organ failure as defined by Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, organ support with focus on vasopressor/inotropic use, and need for renal replacement therapy. AdrenOSS-1 included 583 patients admitted to the ICU with sepsis or septic shock.

Results: Circulating bio-ADM levels were measured upon admission and at day 2. Median bio-ADM concentration upon admission was 80.5 pg/ml [IQR 41.5-148.1 pg/ml]. Initial SOFA score was 7 [IQR 5-10], and 28-day mortality was 22%. We found marked associations between bio-ADM upon admission and 28-day mortality (unadjusted standardized HR 2.3 [CI 1.9-2.9]; adjusted HR 1.6 [CI 1.1-2.5]) and between bio-ADM levels and SOFA score (p < 0.0001). Need of vasopressor/inotrope, renal replacement therapy, and positive fluid balance were more prevalent in patients with a bio-ADM > 70 pg/ml upon admission than in those with bio-ADM ≤ 70 pg/ml. In patients with bio-ADM > 70 pg/ml upon admission, decrease in bio-ADM below 70 pg/ml at day 2 was associated with recovery of organ function at day 7 and better 28-day outcome (9.5% mortality). By contrast, persistently elevated bio-ADM at day 2 was associated with prolonged organ dysfunction and high 28-day mortality (38.1% mortality, HR 4.9, 95% CI 2.5-9.8).

Conclusions: AdrenOSS-1 shows that early levels and rapid changes in bio-ADM estimate short-term outcome in sepsis and septic shock. These data are the backbone of the design of the biomarker-guided AdrenOSS-2 trial.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02393781 . Registered on March 19, 2015.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13054-018-2243-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6305573PMC
December 2018

Postmortem histopathology of electroencephalography and evoked potentials in postanoxic coma.

Resuscitation 2019 01 15;134:26-32. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Rijnstate Ziekenhuis, Arnhem, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Clinical Neurophysiology, University of Twente, PO Box 217, 7500 KA Enschede, The Netherlands.

Early EEG patterns and SSEP responses are associated with neurological recovery of comatose patients with postanoxic encephalopathy after cardiac arrest. However, the nature and distribution of brain damage underlying the characteristic EEG and SSEP patterns are unknown. We relate EEG and SSEP findings with results from histological analyses of the brains of eleven non-survivors. With restoration towards continuous rhythms within 24 h after cardiac arrest, no signs of structural neuronal damage were observed. Absent SSEP responses were always accompanied by thalamic damage. Pathological burst suppression patterns were associated with a variable degree of neuronal damage to cortex, cerebellum and hippocampus. In patients with additional thalamic involvement, burst-suppression with identical bursts was observed, a characteristic EEG pattern presumably reflecting residual activity from a relatively isolated and severely compromised cortex.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resuscitation.2018.12.007DOI Listing
January 2019

Proenkephalin A 119-159 (Penkid) Is an Early Biomarker of Septic Acute Kidney Injury: The Kidney in Sepsis and Septic Shock (Kid-SSS) Study.

Kidney Int Rep 2018 11 22;3(6):1424-1433. Epub 2018 Aug 22.

Department of Anaesthesiology, Burn and Critical Care Medicine, AP-HP, Saint Louis and Lariboisière University Hospitals, Paris, France.

Introduction: Sepsis is the leading cause of acute kidney injury (AKI) in critically ill patients. The Kidney in Sepsis and Septic Shock (Kid-SSS) study evaluated the value of proenkephalin A 119-159 (penkid)-a sensitive biomarker of glomerular function, drawn within 24 hours upon intensive care unit (ICU) admission and analyzed using a chemiluminescence immunoassay-for kidney events in sepsis and septic shock.

Methods: The Kid-SSS study was a substudy of Adrenomedullin and Outcome in Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock (AdrenOSS) (NCT02393781), a prospective, observational, multinational study including 583 patients admitted to the intensive care unit with sepsis or septic shock and a validation cohort of 525 patients from the French and euRopean Outcome reGistry in Intensive Care Units (FROG-ICU) study. The primary endpoint was major adverse kidney events (MAKEs) at day 7, composite of death, renal replacement therapy, and persistent renal dysfunction. The secondary endpoints included AKI, transient AKI, worsening renal function (WRF), and 28-day mortality.

Results: Median age was 66 years (interquartile range 55-75), and 28-day mortality was 22% (95% confidence interval [CI] 19%-25%). Of the patients, 293 (50.3%) were in shock upon ICU admission. Penkid was significantly elevated in patients with MAKEs, persistent AKI, and WRF (median = 65 [IQR = 45-106] vs. 179 [114-242]; 53 [39-70] vs. 133 [79-196] pmol/l; and 70 [47-121] vs. 174 [93-242] pmol/l, all  < 0.0001), also after adjustment for confounding factors (adjusted odds ratio = 3.3 [95% CI = 1.8-6.0], 3.9 [95% CI = 2.1-7.2], and 3.4 [95% CI = 1.9-6.2], all  < 0.0001). Penkid increase preceded elevation of serum creatinine with WRF and was low in renal recovery.

Conclusion: Admission penkid concentration was associated with MAKEs, AKI, and WRF in a timely manner in septic patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ekir.2018.08.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6224621PMC
November 2018

Cost-effectiveness of procalcitonin testing to guide antibiotic treatment duration in critically ill patients: results from a randomised controlled multicentre trial in the Netherlands.

Crit Care 2018 Nov 13;22(1):293. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Department of Health Technology and Services Research, Faculty of Behavioural, Management and Social Sciences, Technical Medical Centre, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE, Enschede, the Netherlands.

Background: Procalcitonin (PCT) testing can help in safely reducing antibiotic treatment duration in intensive care patients with sepsis. However, the cost-effectiveness of such PCT guidance is not yet known.

Methods: A trial-based analysis was performed to estimate the cost-effectiveness of PCT guidance compared with standard of care (without PCT guidance). Patient-level data were used from the SAPS trial in which 1546 patients were randomised. This trial was performed in the Netherlands, which is a country with, on average, low antibiotic use and a short duration of hospital stay. As quality of life among sepsis survivors was not measured during the SAPS, this was derived from a Dutch follow-up study. Outcome measures were (1) incremental direct hospital cost and (2) incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained from a healthcare perspective over a one-year time horizon. Uncertainty in outcomes was assessed with bootstrapping.

Results: Mean in-hospital costs were €46,081/patient in the PCT group compared with €46,146/patient with standard of care (i.e. - €65 (95% CI - €6314 to €6107); - 0.1%). The duration of the first course of antibiotic treatment was lower in the PCT group with 6.9 vs. 8.2 days (i.e. - 1.2 days (95% CI - 1.9 to - 0.4), - 14.8%). This was accompanied by lower in-hospital mortality of 21.8% vs. 29.8% (absolute decrease 7.9% (95% CI - 13.9% to - 1.8%), relative decrease 26.6%), resulting in an increase in mean QALYs/patient from 0.47 to 0.52 (i.e. + 0.05 (95% CI 0.00 to 0.10); + 10.1%). However, owing to high costs among sepsis survivors, healthcare costs over a one-year time horizon were €73,665/patient in the PCT group compared with €70,961/patient with standard of care (i.e. + €2704 (95% CI - €4495 to €10,005), + 3.8%), resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of €57,402/QALY gained. Within this time frame, the probability of PCT guidance being cost-effective was 64% at a willingness-to-pay threshold of €80,000/QALY.

Conclusions: Although the impact of PCT guidance on total healthcare-related costs during the initial hospitalisation episode is likely negligible, the lower in-hospital mortality may lead to a non-significant increase in costs over a one-year time horizon. However, since uncertainty remains, it is recommended to investigate the long-term cost-effectiveness of PCT guidance, from a societal perspective, in different countries and settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13054-018-2234-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6234639PMC
November 2018

Effect of Human Recombinant Alkaline Phosphatase on 7-Day Creatinine Clearance in Patients With Sepsis-Associated Acute Kidney Injury: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA 2018 11;320(19):1998-2009

Clinical Department, AM-Pharma BV, Bunnik, the Netherlands.

Importance: Sepsis-associated acute kidney injury (AKI) adversely affects long-term kidney outcomes and survival. Administration of the detoxifying enzyme alkaline phosphatase may improve kidney function and survival.

Objective: To determine the optimal therapeutic dose, effect on kidney function, and adverse effects of a human recombinant alkaline phosphatase in patients who are critically ill with sepsis-associated AKI.

Design, Setting, And Participants: The STOP-AKI trial was an international (53 recruiting sites), randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-finding, adaptive phase 2a/2b study in 301 adult patients admitted to the intensive care unit with a diagnosis of sepsis and AKI. Patients were enrolled between December 2014 and May 2017, and follow-up was conducted for 90 days. The final date of follow-up was August 14, 2017.

Interventions: In the intention-to-treat analysis, in part 1 of the trial, patients were randomized to receive recombinant alkaline phosphatase in a dosage of 0.4 mg/kg (n = 31), 0.8 mg/kg (n = 32), or 1.6 mg/kg (n = 29) or placebo (n = 30), once daily for 3 days, to establish the optimal dose. The optimal dose was identified as 1.6 mg/kg based on modeling approaches and adverse events. In part 2, 1.6 mg/kg (n = 82) was compared with placebo (n = 86).

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary end point was the time-corrected area under the curve of the endogenous creatinine clearance for days 1 through 7, divided by 7 to provide a mean daily creatinine clearance (AUC1-7 ECC). Incidence of fatal and nonfatal (serious) adverse events ([S]AEs) was also determined.

Results: Overall, 301 patients were enrolled (men, 70.7%; median age, 67 years [interquartile range {IQR}, 59-73]). From day 1 to day 7, median ECC increased from 26.0 mL/min (IQR, 8.8 to 59.5) to 65.4 mL/min (IQR, 26.7 to 115.4) in the recombinant alkaline phosphatase 1.6-mg/kg group vs from 35.9 mL/min (IQR, 12.2 to 82.9) to 61.9 mL/min (IQR, 22.7 to 115.2) in the placebo group (absolute difference, 9.5 mL/min [95% CI, -23.9 to 25.5]; P = .47). Fatal adverse events occurred in 26.3% of patients in the 0.4-mg/kg recombinant alkaline phosphatase group; 17.1% in the 0.8-mg/kg group, 17.4% in the 1.6-mg/kg group, and 29.5% in the placebo group. Rates of nonfatal SAEs were 21.0% for the 0.4-mg/kg recombinant alkaline phosphatase group, 14.3% for the 0.8-mg/kg group, 25.7% for the 1.6-mg/kg group, and 20.5% for the placebo group.

Conclusions And Relevance: Among patients who were critically ill with sepsis-associated acute kidney injury, human recombinant alkaline phosphatase compared with placebo did not significantly improve short-term kidney function. Further research is necessary to assess other clinical outcomes.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02182440.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2018.14283DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6248164PMC
November 2018
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