Publications by authors named "Alberto Tosetto"

78 Publications

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) occurring shortly after the second dose of mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccine.

Intern Emerg Med 2021 04 9;16(3):803-804. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Hematology Department, S. Bortolo Hospital, ULSS 8 Berica, Viale Rodolfi 37, 36100, Vicenza, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11739-021-02685-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7940863PMC
April 2021

ASH ISTH NHF WFH 2021 guidelines on the management of von Willebrand disease.

Blood Adv 2021 01;5(1):301-325

Outcomes and Implementation Research Unit, Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS.

Background: von Willebrand disease (VWD) is a common inherited bleeding disorder. Significant variability exists in management options offered to patients.

Objective: These evidence-based guidelines from the American Society of Hematology (ASH), the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH), the National Hemophilia Foundation (NHF), and the World Federation of Hemophilia (WFH) are intended to support patients, clinicians, and health care professionals in their decisions about management of VWD.

Methods: ASH, ISTH, NHF, and WFH formed a multidisciplinary guideline panel. Three patient representatives were included. The panel was balanced to minimize potential bias from conflicts of interest. The University of Kansas Outcomes and Implementation Research Unit and the McMaster Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) Centre supported the guideline development process, including performing and updating systematic evidence reviews (through November 2019). The panel prioritized clinical questions and outcomes according to their importance to clinicians and patients. The panel used the GRADE approach, including GRADE Evidence-to-Decision frameworks, to assess evidence and make recommendations, which were subject to public comment.

Results: The panel agreed on 12 recommendations and outlined future research priorities.

Conclusions: These guidelines make key recommendations regarding prophylaxis for frequent recurrent bleeding, desmopressin trials to determine therapy, use of antiplatelet agents and anticoagulant therapy, target VWF and factor VIII activity levels for major surgery, strategies to reduce bleeding during minor surgery or invasive procedures, management options for heavy menstrual bleeding, management of VWD in the context of neuraxial anesthesia during labor and delivery, and management in the postpartum setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020003264DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7805326PMC
January 2021

Bleeding and thrombotic complications during treatment with direct oral anticoagulants or vitamin K antagonists in venous thromboembolic patients included in the prospective, observational START2-register.

BMJ Open 2020 11 27;10(11):e040449. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

Dipartimento di Emergenza e Accettazione, Centro Trombosi ed Emostasi, Ospedale di Circolo, Università dell'Insubria, Varese, Italy.

Objective: The proportion and characteristics of Italian patients affected by venous thromboembolism (VTE) treated with direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) or vitamin K antagonists (VKAs), and complications occurring during follow-up.

Design: A prospective cohort of 2728 VTE patients included in the Survey on anticoagulaTed pAtients RegisTer (START2-Register) from January 2014 to June 2018 was investigated. Characteristics of patients, type of treatment and complications occurring during 2962 years of follow-up were analysed.

Setting: About 60 Italian anticoagulation and thrombosis centres participated in the observational START2-Register PARTICIPANTS: 2728 adult patients with VTE of a lower limb and/or pulmonary embolism (PE), with a follow-up after the initial phase treatment.

Interventions: Patients could receive DOACs or VKAs; both prescribed by the National and Regional Health Systems for patients with VTE.

Outcomes Measures: Efficacy: rate of VTE recurrence (all thrombotic complications were also recorded).

Safety: the rate of major and clinically relevant non-major bleeding events.

Results: Almost 80% of patients were treated with DOACs. The prevalence of symptomatic PE and impaired renal function was higher in patients receiving VKAs. Duration of anticoagulation was >180 days in approximately 70% of patients. Bleeding events were similar in both treatment groups. The overall eventuality of recurrence was significantly higher in DOAC cohorts versus VKA cohorts (HR 2.15 (1.14-4.06), p=0.018); the difference was almost completely due to recurrences occurring during extended treatment (2.73% DOAC vs 0.49% VKA, p<0.0001). All-cause mortality was higher in VKA-treated (5.9%) than in DOAC-treated patients (2.6%, p<0.001).

Conclusion: Italian centres treat most patients with VTE with DOACs and prefer VKA for those with more serious clinical conditions. Recurrences were significantly more frequent in DOAC-treated patients due to increased incidence after 180 days of treatment, probably due to reduced adherence to treatment. These results underline the importance of structured surveillance of DOAC-treated patients with VTE to strengthen treatment adherence during extended therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-040449DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7703414PMC
November 2020

Trial of Rivaroxaban in AntiPhospholipid Syndrome (TRAPS): Two-year outcomes after the study closure.

J Thromb Haemost 2021 02 29;19(2):531-535. Epub 2020 Nov 29.

Thrombosis Research Laboratory, Department of Cardiac Thoracic and Vascular Sciences, and Public Health, University of Padova, Padova, Italy.

Background: Trial of Rivaroxaban in AntiPhospholipid Syndrome was a prospective randomized, open-label, noninferiority study conducted in 14 centers in Italy. Rivaroxaban was compared with warfarin for the prevention of thromboembolic events, major bleeding, and vascular death in high-risk, triple-positive patients with antiphospholipid syndrome.

Objective: The aim of this paper is to report the events during the 2-year follow-up after the study closure.

Methods: On January 28, 2018, the trial was prematurely stopped by adjudication and safety committee for an excess of events in the rivaroxaban group. Randomized patients were advised on trial results and those randomized to rivaroxaban were solicited to switch to warfarin. All 14 participating centers were asked and accepted to follow their patients for clinical events. This report describes the rate of events that occurred between January 28, 2018, and January 28, 2020.

Results: Of 120 randomized patients, 115 were available for follow-up. Outcome events were two in six (33.3%) patients who remained on direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) and six in 109 (5.7%) patients on warfarin (hazard ratio [HR] 6.9; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4-34.5, P = .018). The two patients on DOACs (one taking dabigatran and one taking rivaroxaban) suffered from thromboembolic events, whereas of the six patients with composite outcomes on warfarin, three had thromboembolic events (HR for thrombosis 13.3; 95% CI 2.2-79.9, P = .005).

Conclusion: These data further support the use of warfarin in high-risk patients with antiphospholipid syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jth.15158DOI Listing
February 2021

Efficacy and safety of rIX-FP in surgery: An update from a phase 3b extension study.

Thromb Res 2020 09 28;193:139-141. Epub 2020 May 28.

Hôpital Louis Pradel, University Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Lyon, France. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.thromres.2020.05.046DOI Listing
September 2020

The value of bleeding scores in the assessment of patients presenting with bleeding of unknown cause: Bleeding assessment tools have still a place.

Authors:
Alberto Tosetto

Eur J Intern Med 2020 08 15;78:28-29. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Institution: Hemophilia and Thrombosis Center, Hematology Department, San Bortolo Hospital, AULSS 8 "Berica", viale Rodolfi 37, 36100 Vicenza, Italy. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejim.2020.06.008DOI Listing
August 2020

Managing anticoagulation in the COVID-19 era between lockdown and reopening phases.

Intern Emerg Med 2020 Aug 8;15(5):783-786. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Centro Emostasi e Trombosi, Ospedale di Cremona, Cremona, Italy.

Patients on anticoagulant treatment are constantly increasing, with an estimated prevalence in Italy of 2% of the total population. The recent spreadout of the COVID-19 pandemic requires a re-organization of Anticoagulation Clinics to prevent person-to-person viral diffusion and continue to offer the highest possible quality of assistance to patients. In this paper, based on the Italian Federation of Anticoagulation Clinics statements, we offer some advice aimed at improving patient care during COVID-19 pandemic, with particular regard to the lockdown and reopening periods. We give practical guidance regarding the following points: (1) re-thinking the AC organization, (2) managing patients on anticoagulants when they become infected by the virus, (3) managing anticoagulation surveillance in non-infected patients during the lockdown period, and (4) organizing the activities during the reopening phases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11739-020-02391-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7278243PMC
August 2020

Design and rationale of a randomized, placebo-controlled trial on the efficacy and safety of sulodexide for extended treatment in elderly patients after a first venous thromboembolism.

Intern Emerg Med 2021 Mar 25;16(2):359-368. Epub 2020 May 25.

Centro Trombosi, Azienda Ospedaliera Careggi, Florence, Italy.

How to prevent recurrences after a first venous thromboembolic (VTE) event in elderly patients is still an open issue, especially because of the high bleeding risk of anticoagulation in these patients. The placebo-controlled "Jason" study aims at assessing the efficacy and safety for secondary VTE prevention in elderly patients of oral Sulodexide (Vessel) administration, a mixture of glycosaminoglycans (Alfasigma, Bologna, Italy) which proved effective against recurrences in a general population (SURVET study) without major bleeding (MB) complications. 1450 patients, aged ≥ 75 years, after at least 3 months of anticoagulation treatment for a first VTE episode, are double-blind randomized to receive for 12 months either sulodexide 500 lipasemic units (LSUs) twice daily, or sulodexide 250 LSU twice daily + indistinguishable placebo, or indistinguishable placebo. Primary outcomes for efficacy are the composite of death for VTE and recurrent VTE, and occurrence of MB for safety. Secondary outcomes include stroke, cardiovascular death and other thromboembolic events, and MB + clinically relevant non-MB. The first patient is scheduled to be randomized in May 2020. The study protocol has been approved by AIFA (Agenzia Italiana del Farmaco) and the Ethics Committee of the coordinating center. Written informed consent will be obtained from all patients prior to study participation. Jason study is an investigator-initiated trial, promoted by "Arianna Anticoagulazione" Foundation, Bologna, Italy, and supported by Alfasigma, Bologna, Italy. Study findings will be disseminated to participant centers, at research conferences and in peer-reviewed journals. Trial registration numbers NCT04257487; EudraCT (2019-000570-33).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11739-020-02381-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7952285PMC
March 2021

Anemone study: prevalence of risk factors for superficial vein thrombosis in a large Italian population of blood donors.

J Thromb Thrombolysis 2020 Oct;50(3):689-696

Medical Genetics, University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy.

Knowledge of the distribution of risk factors for superficial thrombosis (SVT) in low-risk population is fundamental to improve the prevention of the disease in each individual and high-risk settings of patients. Exact frequency data for the low-risk population are scarce, but could be useful for optimal use of prophylactic strategies against venous thrombosis. Blood donors represent a low-risk population, because are healthier than the general population. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of vein thrombosis, particularly SVT, and associated risk factors in a low-risk population such as blood donors. In this multicentre cross-sectional study, donors from six Italian blood banks responded to a self-administered questionnaire. The enrolment lasted from 1st June 2017 to 30th July 2018. History of vein thrombosis was referred by 89 (0.76%) individuals, (49 men) with an age-dependent effect. The prevalence reached 2.9% in women and 0.8% in men aged ≥ 49 years, with a significant difference only for women. After controlling for potential confounders, a significant and independent association was found between a history of vein thrombosis and age (OR: 1.03, 95%CI 1.01-1.05), varicose veins (OR: 15.8, 95%CI 7.7-32.6), plaster cast/bed rest (OR: 2.3, 95% CI 1.0-5.3) and transfusion (OR: 5.1, 95% CI 1.3-19.5). This study shows that low-risk individuals share the same risk factors for SVT as patients in secondary care. It also suggests that transfusion confers an increased risk of SVT in healthy population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11239-020-02140-5DOI Listing
October 2020

Bleeding symptoms in patients diagnosed as type 3 von Willebrand disease: Results from 3WINTERS-IPS, an international and collaborative cross-sectional study.

J Thromb Haemost 2020 09 25;18(9):2145-2154. Epub 2020 Aug 25.

Department of Hematology, Hemostasis, Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.

Background: Type 3 von Willebrand's disease (VWD) patients present markedly reduced levels of von Willebrand factor and factor VIII. Because of its rarity, the bleeding phenotype of type 3 VWD is poorly described, as compared to type 1 VWD.

Aims: To evaluate the frequency and the severity of bleeding symptoms across age and sex groups in type 3 patients and to compare these with those observed in type 1 VWD patients to investigate any possible clustering of bleeding symptoms within type 3 patients.

Methods: We compared the bleeding phenotype and computed the bleeding score (BS) using the MCMDM-1VWD bleeding questionnaire in patients enrolled in the 3WINTERS-IPS and MCMDM-1VWD studies.

Results: In 223 unrelated type 3 VWD patients, both the BS and the number of clinically relevant bleeding symptoms were increased in type 3 as compared to type 1 VWD patients (15 versus 6 and 5 versus 3). Intracranial bleeding, oral cavity, hemarthroses, and deep hematomas were at least five-fold over-represented in type 3 VWD. A more severe bleeding phenotype was evident in patients having von Willebrand factor antigen levels < 20 IU/dL at diagnosis in the two merged cohorts. In type 3 patients, there was an apparent clustering of hemarthrosis with gastrointestinal bleeding and epistaxis, whereas bleeding after surgery or tooth extraction clusters with oral bleeding and menorrhagia.

Conclusions: In the largest cohort of type 3 VWD patients, we were able to describe a distinct clinical phenotype that is associated with the presence of a more severe hemostatic defect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jth.14886DOI Listing
September 2020

Turoctocog alfa pegol provides effective management for major and minor surgical procedures in patients across all age groups with severe haemophilia A: Full data set from the pathfinder 3 and 5 phase III trials.

Haemophilia 2020 May 15;26(3):450-458. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Department of Cardiovascular Science, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.

Introduction: Turoctocog alfa pegol is a glycoPEGylated recombinant factor VIII (FVIII) with an extended half-life developed for prophylaxis, treatment of bleeds and perioperative management in patients with haemophilia A.

Aim: Evaluate the efficacy and safety of turoctocog alfa pegol treatment for major and minor surgeries in the pathfinder 3 and 5 phase III trials.

Methods: Adults/adolescents aged ≥12 years with severe haemophilia A (FVIII <1%) received perioperative turoctocog alfa pegol treatment planned to achieve FVIII activity levels >80% during major surgery (pathfinder 3). The primary end point was haemostatic efficacy during surgery; secondary end points were blood loss, haemostatic effect postsurgery, consumption, transfusions, safety and health economics. Children (0-11 years) undergoing minor surgeries received 20-75 IU/kg turoctocog alfa pegol at Investigator's discretion (pathfinder 5).

Results: pathfinder 3 included 35 patients undergoing 49 major surgeries. Haemostasis was successful in 47/49 (95.9%) surgeries; two had moderate haemostatic responses. Median (mean) blood loss during major surgery was 75 (322.6) mL. Four bleeds were reported postsurgery; three were successfully treated with turoctocog alfa pegol (one was not evaluated). On the day of surgery, overall mean (median) dose was 75.5 (74.5) IU/kg and mean (median) number of doses was 1.7 (2.0). Five procedures required 11 transfusions on the day of surgery or days 1-6. No safety concerns or inhibitors were identified. Forty-five minor surgeries in 23 children were performed without complications.

Conclusion: Turoctocog alfa pegol was effective for perioperative haemostatic management of major and minor surgeries in patients across age groups with severe haemophilia A.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/hae.13980DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7317207PMC
May 2020

A randomized double-blind trial of 3 aspirin regimens to optimize antiplatelet therapy in essential thrombocythemia.

Blood 2020 07;136(2):171-182

Hematology Project Foundation, Vicenza, Italy.

Essential thrombocythemia (ET) is characterized by abnormal megakaryopoiesis and enhanced thrombotic risk. Once-daily low-dose aspirin is the recommended antithrombotic regimen, but accelerated platelet generation may reduce the duration of platelet cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) inhibition. We performed a multicenter double-blind trial to investigate the efficacy of 3 aspirin regimens in optimizing platelet COX-1 inhibition while preserving COX-2-dependent vascular thromboresistance. Patients on chronic once-daily low-dose aspirin (n = 245) were randomized (1:1:1) to receive 100 mg of aspirin 1, 2, or 3 times daily for 2 weeks. Serum thromboxane B2 (sTXB2), a validated biomarker of platelet COX-1 activity, and urinary prostacyclin metabolite (PGIM) excretion were measured at randomization and after 2 weeks, as primary surrogate end points of efficacy and safety, respectively. Urinary TX metabolite (TXM) excretion, gastrointestinal tolerance, and ET-related symptoms were also investigated. Evaluable patients assigned to the twice-daily and thrice-daily regimens showed substantially reduced interindividual variability and lower median (interquartile range) values for sTXB2 (ng/mL) compared with the once-daily arm: 4 (2.1-6.7; n = 79), 2.5 (1.4-5.65, n = 79), and 19.3 (9.7-40; n = 85), respectively. Urinary PGIM was comparable in the 3 arms. Urinary TXM was reduced by 35% in both experimental arms. Patients in the thrice-daily arm reported a higher abdominal discomfort score. In conclusion, the currently recommended aspirin regimen of 75 to 100 once daily for cardiovascular prophylaxis appears to be largely inadequate in reducing platelet activation in the vast majority of patients with ET. The antiplatelet response to low-dose aspirin can be markedly improved by shortening the dosing interval to 12 hours, with no improvement with further reductions (EudraCT 2016-002885-30).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2019004596DOI Listing
July 2020

Fundamentals for a Systematic Approach to Mild and Moderate Inherited Bleeding Disorders: An EHA Consensus Report.

Hemasphere 2019 10 17;3(4):e286. Epub 2019 Sep 17.

Department of Medicine, Division of Heamtology-Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Healthy subjects frequently report minor bleedings that are frequently 'background noise' of normality rather than a true disorder. Nevertheless, unexpected or unusual bleeding may be alarming. Thus, the distinction between normal and pathologic bleeding is critical. Understanding the underlying pathologic mechanism in patients with an excessive bleeding is essential for their counseling and treatment. Most of these patients with significant bleeding will result affected by non-severe inherited bleeding disorders (BD), collectively denominated mild or moderate BD for their relatively benign course. Unfortunately, practical recommendations for the management of these disorders are still lacking due to the current state of fragmented knowledge of pathophysiology and lack of a systematic diagnostic approach. To address this gap, an International Working Group (IWG) was established by the European Hematology Association (EHA) to develop consensus-based guidelines on these disorders. The IWG agreed that grouping these disorders by their clinical phenotype under the single category of mild-to-moderate bleeding disorders (MBD) reflects current clinical practice and will facilitate a systematic diagnostic approach. Based on standardized and harmonized definitions a conceptual unified framework is proposed to distinguish normal subjects from affected patients. The IWG proposes a provisional comprehensive patient-centered initial diagnostic approach that will result in classification of MBD into distinct clinical-pathological entities under the overarching principle of clinical utility for the individual patient. While we will present here a general overview of the global management of patients with MBD, this conceptual framework will be adopted and validated in the evidence-based, disease-specific guidelines under development by the IWG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HS9.0000000000000286DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6919472PMC
October 2019

Validation of the ISTH/SSC bleeding assessment tool for inherited platelet disorders: A communication from the Platelet Physiology SSC.

J Thromb Haemost 2020 03 16;18(3):732-739. Epub 2019 Dec 16.

Department of Internal Medicine, IRCCS Policlinico S. Matteo Foundation, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

Background: Careful assessment of bleeding history is the first step in the evaluation of patients with mild/moderate bleeding disorders, and the use of a bleeding assessment tool (BAT) is strongly encouraged. Although a few studies have assessed the utility of the ISTH-BAT in patients with inherited platelet function disorders (IPFD) none of them was sufficiently large to draw conclusions and/or included appropriate control groups.

Objectives: The aim of the present study was to test the utility of the ISTH-BAT in a large cohort of patients with a well-defined diagnosis of inherited platelets disorder in comparison with two parallel cohorts, one of patients with type-1 von Willebrand disease (VWD-1) and one of healthy controls (HC).

Patients/methods: We enrolled 1098 subjects, 482 of whom had inherited platelet disorders (196 IPFD and 286 inherited platelet number disorders [IT]) from 17 countries.

Results: IPFD patients had significantly higher bleeding score (BS; median 9) than VWD-1 patients (median 5), a higher number of hemorrhagic symptoms (4 versus 3), and higher percentage of patients with clinically relevant symptoms (score > 2). The ISTH-BAT showed excellent discrimination power between IPFD and HC (0.9 < area under the curve [AUC] < 1), moderate (0.7 < AUC < 0.9) between IPFD and VWD-1 and between IPFD and inherited thrombocytopenia (IT), while it was inaccurate (AUC ≤ 0.7) in discriminating IT from HC.

Conclusions: The ISTH-BAT allows to efficiently discriminate IPFD from HC, while it has lower accuracy in distinguishing IPFD from VWD-1. Therefore, the ISTH-BAT appears useful for identifying subjects requiring laboratory evaluation for a suspected IPFD once VWD is preliminarily excluded.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jth.14683DOI Listing
March 2020

D-dimer testing, with gender-specific cutoff levels, is of value to assess the individual risk of venous thromboembolic recurrence in non-elderly patients of both genders: a post hoc analysis of the DULCIS study.

Intern Emerg Med 2020 04 5;15(3):453-462. Epub 2019 Nov 5.

Fondazione Arianna Anticoagulazione, Via Paolo Fabbri 1/3, 40138, Bologna, Italy.

Male patients, especially the young, are at a higher risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism (RVTE) than females. Recent scientific reports show the use of D-dimer does not help predict RVTE risk in males. In the present report, we reviewed the data obtained in the DULCIS study (main report published in Blood 2014), focusing on D-dimer results recorded in non-elderly patients of both genders included in the study, and their relationship with RVTE events occurring during follow-up. Using specifically designed cutoff values for positive/negative interpretation, serial D-dimer measurements (performed during warfarin treatment and up to 3 months after discontinuation of anticoagulation) in 475 patients (males 57.3%) aged ≤ 65 years were obtained. D-dimer resulted positive in 46.3% and 30.5% of males and females, respectively (p = 0.001). Following management procedure, anticoagulation was stopped in 53.7% of males and 69.5% of females, who had persistently negative D-dimer results. The rate of subsequent recurrent events was 1.7% (95% CI 0.5-4.5%) and 0.4% (95% CI 0-2.5%) patient-years in males and females, respectively, with upper limits of confidence intervals always below the level of risk considered acceptable by international scientific societies for stopping anticoagulation (< 5%). In conclusion, using sensitive quantitative assays with specifically designed cutoff values and serial measurements during and after discontinuation of anticoagulation, D-dimer testing is useful to predict the risk of RVTE and is of help in deciding the duration of anticoagulation in both male and female adult patients aged up to 65 years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11739-019-02216-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7165144PMC
April 2020

Emergency management in patients with haemophilia A and inhibitors on prophylaxis with emicizumab: AICE practical guidance in collaboration with SIBioC, SIMEU, SIMEUP, SIPMeL and SISET.

Blood Transfus 2020 03 18;18(2):143-151. Epub 2019 Oct 18.

Haemophilia Centre, Internal and Cardiovascular Medicine, "Santa Maria della Misericordia" University Hospital, Perugia, Italy.

Emicizumab has been approved in several countries for regular prophylaxis in patients with congenital haemophilia A and FVIII inhibitors because it substantially reduces their bleeding risk and improves quality of life. However, although significantly less frequent, some breakthrough bleeds may still occur while on emicizumab, requiring treatment with bypassing or other haemostatic agents. Thrombotic complications have been reported with the associated use of activated prothrombin complex concentrates. In addition, when surgery/invasive procedures are needed while on emicizumab, their management requires multidisciplinary competences and direct supervision by experts in the use of this agent. Given this, and in order to expand the current knowledge on the use of emicizumab and concomitant haemostatic agents, and reduce the risk of complications in this setting, the Italian Association of Haemophilia Centres (AICE) here provides guidance on the management of breakthrough bleeds and surgery in emergency situations in patients with haemophilia A and inhibitors on emicizumab prophylaxis. This paper has been shared with other National Scientific Societies involved in the field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2450/2019.0186-19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7141940PMC
March 2020

Antithrombotic prophylaxis for surgery-associated venous thromboembolism risk in patients with inherited platelet disorders. The SPATA-DVT Study.

Haematologica 2020 07 26;105(7):1948-1956. Epub 2019 Sep 26.

Department of Transfusion and Cell Transplantation Kitasato University School of Medicine, Sagamihara, Japan.

Major surgery is associated with an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), thus the application of mechanical or pharmacologic prophylaxis is recommended. The incidence of VTE in patients with inherited platelet disorders (IPD) undergoing surgical procedures is unknown and no information on the current use and safety of thromboprophylaxis, particularly of low-molecular-weight-heparin in these patients is available. Here we explored the approach to thromboprophylaxis and thrombotic outcomes in IPD patients undergoing surgery at VTE-risk participating in the multicenter SPATA study. We evaluated 210 surgical procedures carried out in 155 patients with well-defined forms of IPD (VTE-risk: 31% high, 28.6% intermediate, 25.2% low, 15.2% very low). The use of thromboprophylaxis was low (23.3% of procedures), with higher prevalence in orthopedic and gynecological surgeries, and was related to VTE-risk. The most frequently employed thromboprophylaxis was mechanical and appeared to be effective, as no patients developed thrombosis, including patients belonging to the highest VTE-risk classes. Low-molecular-weight-heparin use was low (10.5%) and it did not influence the incidence of post-surgical bleeding or of antihemorrhagic prohemostatic interventions use. Two thromboembolic events were registered, both occurring after high VTE-risk procedures in patients who did not receive thromboprophylaxis (4.7%). Our findings suggest that VTE incidence is low in patients with IPD undergoing surgery at VTE-risk and that it is predicted by the Caprini score. Mechanical thromboprophylaxis may be of benefit in patients with IPD undergoing invasive procedures at VTE-risk and low-molecular-weight-heparin should be considered for major surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2019.227876DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7327644PMC
July 2020

The effect of management models on thromboembolic and bleeding rates in anticoagulated patients: an ecological study.

Intern Emerg Med 2019 11 15;14(8):1307-1315. Epub 2019 Jul 15.

Department of Oncology, Centre for Bleeding Disorders and Coagulation, Careggi University Hospital, 50134, Florence, Italy.

The primary study objective is to compare the outcomes of patients taking oral anticoagulant medications in two distinct populations treated according to different management models (comprehensive vs. usual care). (Design: regional prospective cohort study; setting: hospital admission data from two regions). Eligible partecipants were patients taking oral anticoagulant drugs (vitamin K antagonist or direct oral anticoagulants), residents in the Vicenza and Cremona districts from February 1st, 2016 to June 30th, 2017. Patients were identified by accessing the administrative databases of patient drug prescriptions. The primary study outcome was admission to the Emergency Department for stroke, systemic arterial embolism, recurrence of venous thromboembolism or major bleeding. The study evaluated outcomes in 14,226 patients taking oral anticoagulants, of whom 6725 being followed in Cremona with a comprehensive management model. There were 19 and 45 thromboembolic events over 6205 and 6530 patient-years in the Cremona and Vicenza cohort, respectively (IRR 0.44, 95% CI 0.24-0.77). The reduction of events in the Cremona cohort was almost entirely explained by a decrease of events in patients taking VKA (IRR 0.41, 95% CI 0.20-0.78) but not DOACs (IRR 1.08, 95% CI 0.25-5.24). The rate of major bleeding was non-significantly higher in Cremona than in Vicenza (IRI 1.32; 95% CI 0.74-2.40). Across the two cohorts, the risk of bleeding was lower in patients being treated with DOACs rather than warfarin (10/4574 vs. 42/8161 event/person-years, respectively, IRR 0.42 95% CI 0.19-0.86). We conclude that a comprehensive management model providing centralized dose prescription and follow-up may significantly reduce the rate of thromboembolic complications, without substantially increasing the number of bleeding complications. Patients treated with direct oral anticoagulants appear to have a rate of thromboembolic complications comparable to VKA patients under the best management model, with a reduction of major bleeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11739-019-02148-7DOI Listing
November 2019

Fixed doses of N8-GP prophylaxis maintain moderate-to-mild factor VIII levels in the majority of patients with severe hemophilia A.

Res Pract Thromb Haemost 2019 Jul 11;3(3):542-554. Epub 2019 Jun 11.

Foundation IRCCS Cà Granda, Maggiore Hospital Polyclinic Angelo Bianchi Bonomi Hemophilia and Thrombosis Centre Milan Italy.

Background: N8-GP is an extended half-life recombinant factor VIII developed for prophylaxis and treatment of bleeds in patients with hemophilia A.

Objective: To assess pharmacokinetic (PK) characteristics of N8-GP in previously treated patients with severe hemophilia A, model the time spent at hemophilia thresholds of ≥1 and ≤5 IU/dL (moderate) or >5 IU/dL (mild) FVIII levels during N8-GP prophylaxis, and investigate the relationship between N8-GP half-life and von Willebrand factor (vWF).

Methods: PK assessments were obtained from patients with severe hemophilia A (FVIII < 1 IU/dL) participating in 4 clinical trials: pathfinder 1 (20-60 years); pathfinder 2 (12-17 and ≥18 years); pathfinder 5 (0-11 years), and pathfinder 7 (25-71 years). All PK profiles were assessed after washout and considered single-dose PK profiles. Pre- and postdose FVIII activity at steady state was measured at all visits.

Results: From 69 patients, 108 PK profiles of N8-GP 50 IU/kg were assessed. Adults/adolescents received 50 IU/kg every 4 days, achieving mean trough levels of 3.0 IU/dL (95% confidence interval, 2.6-3.5, adults) and 2.7 IU/dL (1.8-4.0, adolescents). Children received 60 IU/kg twice weekly, leading to mean trough levels of 1.2 IU/dL (0.8-1.6, 0- to 5-year-olds) and 2.0 IU/dL (1.5-2.7, 6- to 11-year-olds). PK modeling predicted children dosed every 3 days and adults/adolescents dosed every 3 to 4 days would maintain FVIII levels >5 and >1 IU/dL for >80% and 100% of the time, respectively. N8-GP half-life correlated linearly with von Willebrand factor levels in adults/adolescents, less in children.

Conclusions: Prophylaxis with fixed intervals (Q4D/twice weekly) and fixed weight-based dosing (50/60 IU/kg) ensured >1 IU/dL FVIII trough levels in both adults and children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rth2.12220DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6611478PMC
July 2019

The American College of Chest Physician score to assess the risk of bleeding during anticoagulation in patients with venous thromboembolism: reply.

J Thromb Haemost 2019 03 20;17(3):560. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Hematology Department, S. Bortolo Hospital, Vicenza, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jth.14396DOI Listing
March 2019

Platelet cut-off for anticoagulant therapy in thrombocytopenic patients with blood cancer and venous thromboembolism: an expert consensus.

Blood Transfus 2019 05 24;17(3):171-180. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Alessandria.

Background: Management of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with haematologic malignancies and thrombocytopenia is clinically challenging due to the related risks. No prospective studies or clinical trials have been carried out and, therefore, no solid evidence on this compelling issue is available.

Methods: Given this, an expert panel endorsed by the Gruppo Italiano Malattie Ematologiche dell'Adulto Working Party on Thrombosis and Haemostasis was set up to produce a formal consensus, according to the RAND method, in order to issue clinical recommendations about the platelet (PLT) cut-off for safe administration of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) in thrombocytopenic (PLT <100×10/L) adult patients with haematologic malignancies affected by acute (<1 month) or non-acute VTE.

Results: In acute VTE, the panel suggests safe anticoagulation with LMWH at therapeutic doses for PLT between ≥50<100×10/L and at 50% dose reduction for PLT ≥30<50×10/L. In acute VTE for PLT <30×10/L, the following interventions are recommended: positioning of an inferior vena cava (IVC) filter with prophylactic LMWH administration and platelet transfusion. In non-acute VTE, anticoagulation with LMWH at therapeutic doses for PLT between ≥50<100×10/L or over and at 50% dose reduction for PLT ≥30<50×10/L is considered appropriate. The discontinuation of full or reduced therapeutic dose of LMWH is recommended for PLT <30×10/L, both in acute and non-acute VTE.

Discussion: We suggest using dose-adjusted LMWH according to PLT to optimise anticoagulant treatment in patients at high bleeding risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2450/2018.0143-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6596377PMC
May 2019

Rivaroxaban vs warfarin in high-risk patients with antiphospholipid syndrome.

Blood 2018 09 12;132(13):1365-1371. Epub 2018 Jul 12.

Cardiology Clinic, Thrombosis Centre, Department of Cardiac Thoracic and Vascular Sciences, and.

Rivaroxaban is an effective and safe alternative to warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation and venous thromboembolism. We tested the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban compared with warfarin in high-risk patients with thrombotic antiphospholipid syndrome. This is a randomized open-label multicenter noninferiority study with blinded end point adjudication. Rivaroxaban, 20 mg once daily (15 mg once daily based on kidney function) was compared with warfarin (international normalized ratio target 2.5) for the prevention of thromboembolic events, major bleeding, and vascular death in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome. Only high-risk patients triple positive for lupus anticoagulant, anti-cardiolipin, and anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies of the same isotype (triple positivity) were included in the study. The trial was terminated prematurely after the enrollment of 120 patients (59 randomized to rivaroxaban and 61 to warfarin) because of an excess of events among patients in the rivaroxaban arm. Mean follow-up was 569 days. There were 11 (19%) events in the rivaroxaban group, and 2 (3%) events in the warfarin group. Thromboembolic events occurred in 7 (12%) patients randomized to rivaroxaban (4 ischemic stroke and 3 myocardial infarction), whereas no event was recorded in those randomized to warfarin. Major bleeding occurred in 6 patients: 4 (7%) in the rivaroxaban group and 2 (3%) in the warfarin group. No death was reported. The use of rivaroxaban in high-risk patients with antiphospholipid syndrome was associated with an increased rate of events compared with warfarin, thus showing no benefit and excess risk. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02157272.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2018-04-848333DOI Listing
September 2018

The Aspirin Regimens in Essential Thrombocythemia (ARES) phase II randomized trial design: Implementation of the serum thromboxane B assay as an evaluation tool of different aspirin dosing regimens in the clinical setting.

Blood Cancer J 2018 06 1;8(6):49. Epub 2018 Jun 1.

Institute of Hematology "L. and A. Seràgnoli", S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna, Italy.

Once-daily (od), low-dose aspirin (75-100 mg) is recommended to reduce the thrombotic risk of patients with essential thrombocytemia (ET). This practice is based on data extrapolated from other high-risk patients and an aspirin trial in polycythemia vera, with the assumption of similar aspirin pharmacodynamics in the two settings. However, the pharmacodynamics of low-dose aspirin is impaired in ET, reflecting accelerated renewal of platelet cyclooxygenase (COX)-1. ARES is a parallel-arm, placebo-controlled, randomized, dose-finding, phase II trial enrolling 300 ET patients to address two main questions. First, whether twice or three times 100 mg aspirin daily dosing is superior to the standard od regimen in inhibiting platelet thromboxane (TX)A production, without inhibiting vascular prostacyclin biosynthesis. Second, whether long-term persistence of superior biochemical efficacy can be safely maintained with multiple vs. single dosing aspirin regimen. Considering that the primary study end point is serum TXB, a surrogate biomarker of clinical efficacy, a preliminary exercise of reproducibility and validation of this biomarker across all the 11 participating centers was implemented. The results of this preliminary phase demonstrate the importance of controlling reproducibility of biomarkers in multicenter trials and the feasibility of using serum TXB as a reliable end point for dose-finding studies of novel aspirin regimens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41408-018-0078-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5992153PMC
June 2018

Corrigendum to "HDL-C, triglycerides and carotid IMT: A meta-analysis of 21,000 patients with automated edge detection IMT measurement" [Atherosclerosis 232 (2014) 65-71].

Atherosclerosis 2018 06 12;273:158. Epub 2018 Apr 12.

From INSERM U 698, Paris, France; Paris Diderot e Sorbonne Paris City University, Paris, France; Department of Neurology and Stroke Centre, Hôpital Bichat, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris, France. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2018.01.025DOI Listing
June 2018

Scoring Systems for Estimating the Risk of Recurrent Venous Thromboembolism.

Semin Thromb Hemost 2017 Jul 6;43(5):493-499. Epub 2017 Jun 6.

Hematology Department, S. Bortolo Hospital, Vicenza, Italy.

The risk of recurrence after suspension of anticoagulant treatment in patients with a first episode of unprovoked venous thromboembolism (VTE) is highly variable from patient to patient. Not all patients are candidates for life-long anticoagulant therapy, essentially because there remain concerns for such an option regarding hemorrhagic complications and clinical monitoring. Thus, the "treat all" approach may be inadequate for some patients at low risk of relapse. Proper assessment of the recurrence risk may be helpful to decide the optimal therapeutic strategy in such patients. In recent years, attempts have been made to develop and validate clinical prediction rules to estimate the absolute risk of VTE recurrence in individual patients. This article highlights the advantages and disadvantages of such options, presenting three different prediction rules that have been published so far.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0037-1602662DOI Listing
July 2017

Vitamin K antagonist therapy: changes in the treated populations and in management results in Italian anticoagulation clinics compared with those recorded 20 years ago.

Intern Emerg Med 2017 Dec 13;12(8):1109-1119. Epub 2017 May 13.

Angelo Bianchi Bonomi Hemophilia and Thrombosis Center, Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, Università degli Studi di Milano, IRCCS Cà Granda Maggiore Hospital Foundation, Milan, Italy.

Vitamin K antagonists (VKA) are the most widely used anticoagulants in the world. An appropriate management of treated patients is crucial for their efficacy and safety. The prospective, observational, multicenter, inception-cohort FCSA-START Register, a branch of START Register (NCT02219984) included VKA-treated patients managed by centers of Italian Federation of anticoagulation clinics (AC). Baseline patient characteristics and data during treatment were analyzed and compared with those of ISCOAT study, performed by the Federation and published in 1996/7. 5707 naïve patients [53% males, mean age 73.0 years (28.1% >80 years)], 61.6% treated for atrial fibrillation (AF), and 28.0% for venous thromboembolism were included. During the 8906 patient-years (pt-yrs) of observation, 123 patients had major bleeding (MB) (1.38% pt-yrs; fatal: 0.11% pt-yrs), while non-major clinically relevant bleeds were 144 (1.62% pt-yrs). Bleeding was more frequent in elderly (≥70 years; p = 0.04), and during initial 3-month therapy (p = 0.02). Bleeding rate was 2.5% pt-yrs for temporally related INR results <3.0, increasing to 12.5% for INR ≥ 4.5. Thrombotic events were 47 (0.53% pt-yrs; 4 fatal 0.04% pt-yrs). Compared with ISCOAT-1996/7 results, patients older than 80 y are increased from 8 to 28% (p < 0.01), and those treated for AF are increased from 17 to 61%. The quality of anticoagulation control and incidence of MB are not different. However, thrombotic complications fell drastically from 3.5 to 0.53% pt-yrs (p < 0.01), with lower mortality (p = 0.01). VKA-treated patients monitored in Italian AC have good clinical results, with low bleeding and thrombotic complications rates. Important changes in the treated population and improvement in thrombotic complications are detected compared with the ISCOAT-1996/7 study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11739-017-1678-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5691104PMC
December 2017

Bleeding risk of surgery and its prevention in patients with inherited platelet disorders.

Haematologica 2017 07 6;102(7):1192-1203. Epub 2017 Apr 6.

Hematology Department, S. Bortolo Hospital, Vicenza, Italy.

Excessive bleeding at surgery is a feared complication in patients with inherited platelet disorders. However, very few studies have evaluated the frequency of surgical bleeding in these hemorrhagic disorders. We performed a worldwide, multicentric, retrospective study to assess the bleeding complications of surgery, the preventive and therapeutic approaches adopted, and their efficacy in patients with inherited platelet disorders: the Surgery in Platelet disorders And Therapeutic Approach (SPATA) study. We rated the outcome of 829 surgical procedures carried out in 423 patients with well-defined forms of inherited platelet disorders: 238 inherited platelet function disorders and 185 inherited platelet number disorders. Frequency of surgical bleeding was high in patients with inherited platelet disorders (19.7%), with a significantly higher bleeding incidence in inherited platelet function disorders (24.8%) than in inherited platelet number disorders (13.4%). The frequency of bleeding varied according to the type of inherited platelet disorder, with biallelic Bernard Soulier syndrome having the highest occurrence (44.4%). Frequency of bleeding was predicted by a pre-operative World Health Organization bleeding score of 2 or higher. Some types of surgery were associated with a higher bleeding incidence, like cardiovascular and urological surgery. The use of pre-operative pro-hemostatic treatments was associated with a lower bleeding frequency in patients with inherited platelet function disorders but not in inherited platelet number disorders. Desmopressin, alone or with antifibrinolytic agents, was the preventive treatment associated with the lowest bleedings. Platelet transfusions were used more frequently in patients at higher bleeding risk. Surgical bleeding risk in inherited platelet disorders is substantial, especially in inherited platelet function disorders, and bleeding history, type of disorder, type of surgery and female sex are associated with higher bleeding frequency. Prophylactic pre-operative pro-hemostatic treatments appear to be required and are associated with a lower bleeding incidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2016.160754DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5566025PMC
July 2017

Bleeding Assessment Tools: Limits and Advantages for the Diagnosis and Prognosis of Inherited Bleeding Disorders.

Authors:
Alberto Tosetto

Semin Thromb Hemost 2016 Jul 20;42(5):463-70. Epub 2016 Apr 20.

Hematology Department, S. Bortolo Hospital, Vicenza, Italy.

Bleeding assessment tools were first developed essentially as research tools, for the quantification of bleeding symptoms and the study of phenotype/genotype correlations. Interestingly, these tools have been proven useful also for clinicians diagnosing and treating bleeding disorders. The main advantage of these tools is the standardization of the diagnostic process, allowing the introduction of criteria with known specificity and sensitivity for the diagnosis of the most common mild bleeding disorders, particularly von Willebrand disease. This is important also for a rational approach to the laboratory diagnosis because for many mild bleeding disorders, a complex laboratory workup is required. Bleeding assessment tools should always be complemented by ancillary coagulation screening tests to exclude the presence of a bleeding disorder, however. Finally, bleeding severity assessed by such tools has been shown to correlate with the long-term probability of bleeding. Therefore, the bleeding assessment could become an important marker of disease severity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0036-1571313DOI Listing
July 2016