Publications by authors named "Alberto González"

102 Publications

Anthracene induces oxidative stress and activation of antioxidant and detoxification enzymes in Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta).

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 8;11(1):7748. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Laboratory of Marine Biotechnology, Faculty of Chemistry and Biology, University of Santiago of Chile, Alameda, 3363, Santiago, Chile.

In order to analyze whether the marine macroalga Ulva lactuca can absorb and metabolize anthracene (ANT), the alga was cultivated with 5 µM ANT for 0-72 h, and the level of ANT was detected in the culture medium, and in the alga. The level of ANT rapidly decreased in the culture medium reaching a minimal level at 6 h, and rapidly increased in the alga reaching a maximal level at 12 h and then decreased to reach a minimal level at 48 h of culture. In addition, ANT induced an increase in hydrogen peroxide that remained until 72 h and a higher increase in superoxide anions that reach a maximal level at 24 h and remained unchanged until 72 h, indicating that ANT induced an oxidative stress condition. ANT induced an increase in lipoperoxides that reached a maximal level at 24 h and decreased at 48 h indicating that oxidative stress caused membrane damage. The activity of antioxidant enzymes SOD, CAT, AP, GR and GP increased in the alga treated with ANT whereas DHAR remained unchanged. The level of transcripts encoding these antioxidant enzymes increased and those encoding DHAR did not change. Inhibitors of monooxygenases, dioxygenases, polyphenol oxidases, glutathione-S-transferases and sulfotransferases induced an increase in the level of ANT in the alga cultivated for 24 h. These results strongly suggest that ANT is rapidly absorbed and metabolized in U. lactuca and the latter involves Phase I and II metabolizing enzymes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-87147-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8032757PMC
April 2021

Chronic musculoskeletal pain and occupational aspects among Brazilian teachers.

Int J Occup Saf Ergon 2021 Mar 31:1-17. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Public Health, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Londrina, Brazil.

To determine the association between working conditions and chronic musculoskeletal pain (CMP) in regions of the body in teachers. Cross-sectional study with 958 teachers from Brazil. The outcomes were chronic pain in the upper limbs, lower back and lower limbs. The independent variables were characteristics and perceptions about the work. Poisson regression models were adjusted by sociodemographic, lifestyle and comorbidity variables. After the adjustments, strong associations were observed between a negative perception regarding writing on the board and pain in the upper limbs (prevalence ratio [PR]=4.65; 95% confidence interval [CI] [2.02, 10.70]) and with low back pain (PR=2.10; 95% CI [1.06, 4.15]) and between a negative perception of the standing duration and pain in the lower limbs (PR=3.98; 95% CI [1.54, 10.26]). Additionally, the number of workplaces, the number of students and the conditions for carrying teaching material were associated with pain in the upper limbs. Time in the profession and a negative perception of work-life balance were associated with pain in the lower limbs. Different work conditions were associated with CMP in different body regions. Policies to improve teachers' working conditions, such as providing furniture that meets teachers' ergonomic needs, are needed to reduce CMP.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10803548.2021.1906030DOI Listing
March 2021

Choledochal cysts surgical management: Retrospective and historical comparative analysis.

Cir Esp 2021 Mar 10. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Sección de Hepatología, Departamento de Cirugía General y Digestiva, Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal, Madrid, España.

Introduction: Choledochal cysts are rare bile duct dilatations, which have higher prevalence in Asian population. The aim of the study was to analyze clinical and surgical results about biliary cysts management. In addition, a comparative historical analysis was performed.

Methods: Patients who underwent surgery between January 1988 and December 2019 in a single tertiary level center were retrospectively included. Demographic and clinical patient data; cyst types; diagnostic methods and surgical technique were analyzed, as well as short and long-term follow-up complications. A comparative descriptive study focus on the main historical series was also carried out.

Results: A total of seventeen patients were identified; 58.8% were men. The mean age at diagnosis was 39.9 years (SD: 20.54). The median follow-up was 5 years (IQR 1-15). The most frequent cysts were tipe I (41.2%). Abdominal pain was the most common presenting symptom (58.8%). Cystic excision with bilio-enteric anastomosis was the main procedure, it was underwent in 85, 7% type I cysts. 29.4% postoperative complications were recorded. Malignancy was not documented in any pathology specimen.

Conclusions: Choledochal cysts are an uncommon disorder whose diagnosis requires a high level of suspicion. Surgical treatment depends on type of cyst. In most patients with choledochal cysts disease, complete cyst excision with bilio-enteric anastomotic reconstruction is the treatment of choice.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ciresp.2020.10.003DOI Listing
March 2021

The association of continuous-use medications and sleep parameters in a sample of working adults.

Sleep Breath 2021 Mar 13. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Postgraduate Program in Public Health, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Londrina, Brazil.

Purpose: Although polypharmacy is linked to health outcomes in the elderly, the use of multiple medications is increasing in middle-aged adults. This study analyzed whether or not the increased number of continuous-use medications (C-UM) is associated with objective and subjective sleep parameters in a working population.

Methods: Cross-sectional study with schoolteachers from public schools in Londrina, Brazil. The participants were classified according to the self-reported number of C-UM. Sleep data were obtained with actigraphy and a concomitant sleep diary for 7 days. The analyses were adjusted for socio-demographic, lifestyle, and morbidity variables.

Results: A total of 17% of the participants were classified as using ≥3C-UM. In fully adjusted analyses, the use of ≥3C-UM was associated with lower actigraphic sleep duration (<6 h) (odds ratio [OR] = 2.51; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01,6.21), higher actigraphic sleep onset latency (SOL) (OR = 2.65; 95%CI = 1.00,7.02), and with a higher number of awakenings during sleep measured by actigraphy (OR = 3.30; 95%CI = 1.32,8.28). The use of ≥3 C-UM was also associated with higher SOL (OR = 3.76; 95%CI = 1.36,10.5) and lower sleep efficiency (OR = 11.6; 95%CI = 2.92,46.1), as measured with the sleep diary. A 1-unit increment in the number of continuous-use medications was associated with higher self-reported SOL and lower subjective sleep efficiency.

Conclusion: The continuous use of ≥3 medications is associated with worse objective and subjective parameters of sleep duration and quality in schoolteachers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11325-021-02343-xDOI Listing
March 2021

Job strain is prospectively associated with a lower frequency of fruit consumption in schoolteachers.

Public Health Nutr 2021 Feb 24:1-9. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Health and Social Research Center, Cuenca, Spain.

Objective: The current study aimed to analyse the prospective association between perceived work demand and changes in eating behaviours in schoolteachers.

Design: This was a prospective cohort study with self-reported information obtained on the Demand Control Support Questionnaire and eating behaviours at baseline and after a 2-year follow-up. The analyses were performed using mixed-effects models adjusted for the main confounders.

Setting: The setting consisted of elementary and secondary schools located in a large city in southern Brazil.

Participants: The participants were 502 schoolteachers (65·9 % females, median age of 42·7 years [interquartile range 34·2, 49·4]).

Results: A total of 39·2 % of the schoolteachers were classified at baseline with job strain, 28·9 % with passive job, 12·2 % with active job and 19·7 % with low-strain job. In the fully adjusted models, compared with teachers who reported low-strain job, those with higher levels of job strain were more likely to reduce (coefficient = 0·064; 95 % CI 0·018, 0·109) and less likely to increase (coefficient = -0·066; 95 % CI -0·115, -0·016) their frequency of fruit consumption regardless of sociodemographic, lifestyle, health conditions and social support at work.

Conclusion: Job strain plays a relevant role in the frequency of fruit consumption over time in schoolteachers. The balance between demand and control at work must be considered in strategies for promoting healthy eating despite perceived social support.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1368980021000860DOI Listing
February 2021

Work-related rumination and worry at bedtime are associated with worse sleep indicators in schoolteachers: a study based on actigraphy and sleep diaries.

Sleep Med 2021 Apr 1;80:113-117. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Postgraduate Program in Public Health, State University of Londrina, Parana, Brazil; Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Health and Social Research Center, Cuenca, Spain. Electronic address:

Objective/background: Work-related rumination and worry are indicators of occupational stress which can impact sleep when they occur close to bedtime. This study examined the relationship between these repetitive thoughts before sleep with objective and subjective sleep parameters.

Methods: A microlongitudinal study was carried out with schoolteachers who answered questions on rumination and worry before sleep, wore a wrist actigraph, and completed a sleep diary for 5 to 7 consecutive days. Analysis used mixed-effects repeated measures linear models adjusted for sociodemographic, lifestyle, and health status.

Results: Among the 134 schoolteachers studied, 64.9% were women and were aged 41.9 ± 9.5 years. In the fully adjusted analysis, actigraphy indicated that a wake-up time <6:30 a.m. was associated with both rumination (relative risk (RR) = 1.67; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.21-2.31) and worry (RR = 2.44; 95%CI = 1.63-3.64). Moreover, actigraphy-measured nighttime sleep duration <7 h (RR = 1.23; 95%CI = 1.03-1.47) and self-reported sleep latency >15 min (RR = 1.43; 95%CI = 1.02-2.02) were associated with work-related worry.

Conclusions: The occurrence of work-related repetitive thoughts before sleep, particularly worry about next-day issues, is associated with an increased risk of impaired objective and subjective sleep indicators. These findings suggest that these cognitive processes related to work should be addressed in strategies aimed at preventing and treating sleep disturbances and their individual and occupational consequences.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sleep.2021.01.055DOI Listing
April 2021

Benzopyrene induces oxidative stress and increases expression and activities of antioxidant enzymes, and CYP450 and GST metabolizing enzymes in Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta).

Planta 2020 Nov 18;252(6):107. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Laboratory of Marine Biotechnology, Faculty of Chemistry and Biology, University of Santiago of Chile, Alameda 3363, Santiago, Chile.

Main Conclusion: Benzopyrene is rapidly incorporated and metabolized, and induces oxidative stress and activation of antioxidant enzymes, and CYP450 and GST metabolizing enzymes in Ulva lactuca. To analyze absorption and metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in Ulva lactuca, the alga was cultivated with 5 µM of BaP for 72 h. In the culture medium, BaP level rapidly decreased reaching a minimal level at 12 h and, in the alga, BaP level increased until 6 h, remained stable until 24 h, and decreased until 72 h indicating that BaP is being metabolized in U. lactuca. In addition, BaP induced an initial increase in hydrogen peroxide decreasing until 24 h, superoxide anions level that remained high until 72 h, and lipoperoxides that initially increased and decreased until 72 h, showing that BaP induced oxidative stress. Activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (AP), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GP) were increased, whereas dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) activity was unchanged. The level of transcripts encoding these antioxidant enzymes was increased, but transcripts encoding DHAR remained unchanged. Interestingly, the activity of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) was also increased, and inhibitors of cytochrome P450 (CYP450) and GST activities enhanced the level of BaP in algal tissue, suggesting that these enzymes participate in BaP metabolism.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00425-020-03508-wDOI Listing
November 2020

A Robust Reactive Static Obstacle Avoidance System for Surface Marine Vehicles.

Sensors (Basel) 2020 Nov 3;20(21). Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Escuela Superior de Ingeniería, Universidad de Cádiz, 11519 Puerto Real, Spain.

This paper is centered on the guidance systems used to increase the autonomy of unmanned surface vehicles (USVs). The new Robust Reactive Static Obstacle Avoidance System (RRSOAS) has been specifically designed for USVs. This algorithm is easily applicable, since previous knowledge of the USV mathematical model and its controllers is not needed. Instead, a new estimated closed-loop model (ECLM) is proposed and used to estimate possible future trajectories. Furthermore, the prediction errors (due to the uncertainty present in the ECLM) are taken into account by modeling the USV's shape as a time-varying ellipse. Additionally, in order to decrease the computation time, we propose to use a variable prediction horizon and an exponential resolution to discretize the decision space. As environmental model an occupancy probability grid is used, which is updated with the measurements generated by a LIDAR sensor model. Finally, the new RRSOAS is compared with other SOA (static obstacle avoidance) methods. In addition, a robustness study was carried out over a set of random scenarios. The results obtained through numerical simulations indicate that RRSOAS is robust to unknown and congested scenarios in the presence of disturbances, while offering competitive performance with respect to other SOA methods.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s20216262DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7663395PMC
November 2020

Copper-Induced Activation of MAPKs, CDPKs and CaMKs Triggers Activation of Hexokinase and Inhibition of Pyruvate Kinase Leading to Increased Synthesis of ASC, GSH and NADPH in .

Front Plant Sci 2020 9;11:990. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Laboratory of Marine Biotechnology, Faculty of Chemistry and Biology, University of Santiago of Chile, Santiago, Chile.

In order to analyze whether copper induces activation of CaMK, CDPK and/or MAPK signaling pathways leading to carbon flux reprogramming and to the synthesis of ascorbate (ASC), glutathione (GSH) and NADPH in order to buffer copper-induced oxidative stress, was initially cultivated with 10 µM copper for 0 to 10 days. The activities of hexokinase (HK), pyruvate kinase (PK), L-galactone 1,4 lactone dehydrogenase (L-GLDH) and glucose 6-P dehydrogenase (G6PDH) were analyzed. HK activity was increased whereas PK was inhibited, and L-GLDH and G6PDH activities were increased indicating a copper-induced modulation of glycolysis leading to carbon flux reprogramming. Then, the alga was cultivated with an inhibitor of CaMs and CaMKs, CDPKs and MAPKs, and with 10 µM of copper for 5 days and the activities of HK, PK, L-GLDH, G6PDH and glutathione synthase (GS), the levels of ASC/DHA, GSG/GSSG and NADPH/NADP, the levels of superoxide anions (SA) and hydrogen peroxide (HP) and the integrity of plasma membrane were determined. The activation of HK was dependent on MAPKs, the inhibition of PK on CDPKs/MAPKs, the activation of L-GLDH on MAPKs, the activation GS on CDPKs/MAPKs, and the activation of G6PDH on MAPKs. Increases in the level of ASC/DHA were dependent on activation of CaMKs/CDPKs/MAPKs, those of GSG/GSSG on MAPKs and those NADPH/NADP on CaMKs/CDPKs/MAPKs. The accumulation of superoxide anions and hydrogen peroxide and the integrity of plasma membrane were dependent on CaMKs/CDPKs/MAPKs. Thus, copper induced the activation of MAPKs, CDPKs and CaMKs leading to the modulation of glycolysis and carbon flux reprogramming which trigger an increase in ASC, GSH and NADPH syntheses and the activation of antioxidant enzymes in order to buffer copper-induced oxidative stress in .
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2020.00990DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7363978PMC
July 2020

[Teachers on temporary employment contracts reveal more frequent consumption of pre-prepared food].

Cien Saude Colet 2020 Jul;25(7):2645-2652

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Saúde Coletiva, UEL. Londrina PR Brasil.

The scope of this article is to analyze the eating behavior of schoolteachers according to the type of employment contract. Interviews were conducted at 20 public state schools in Londrina, State of Paraná, between 2012 and 2013. Of the 978 teachers interviewed, 672 (68.7%) had permanent employment contracts and 306 (31.3%) were on temporary employment contracts. High frequencies of recommended eating behaviors - consumption of fruit, vegetables and/or vegetables and removing visible fat from red meat - were observed in teachers with a permanent employment contract. On the other hand, teachers with temporary employment contracts revealed a high frequency of non-recommended eating behaviors with consumption of pre-prepared foods and packaged drinks or sodas. It was highlighted that a high frequency of consumption of pre-prepared foods was statistically associated with the type of employment contract irrespective of sociodemographic, lifestyle and health status factors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1413-81232020257.26372018DOI Listing
July 2020

Longitudinal associations of changes in physical activity and TV viewing with chronic musculoskeletal pain in Brazilian schoolteachers.

PLoS One 2020 17;15(6):e0234609. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Department of Public Health, State University of Londrina, Londrina, Parana, Brazil.

This study analyzed the longitudinal association of changes in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) practice and television viewing (TV viewing) with chronic musculoskeletal pain (CMP). The data about LTPA, TV viewing, and CMP were obtained in 2012 and after 24 months through individual interviews with schoolteachers from elementary and secondary education public schools in a large city in the southern region of Brazil. The statistical analysis was performed using generalized estimating equation regression models adjusted for sex, age, body mass index and depression. A total of 527 schoolteachers were studied, among which 66.6% were women, and the median age was 42 years (interquartile range: 34 to 49). A total of 170 (32.3%) participants reported CMP at baseline and 130 (24.7%) at follow-up. Both LTPA and TV viewing were independently and significantly associated with CMP regardless of all adjustment variables. Concretely, increasing LTPA by 60 minutes/week was associated with a 6.2% lower likelihood of CMP, and increasing TV viewing by 30 minutes/day was associated with a 5.1% higher likelihood of having CMP among the participants. In summary, this study showed that LTPA and TV viewing have independent and opposite relationships with the longitudinal risk of CMP, which suggests that the potential benefits obtained from practicing more LTPA are insufficient to compensate for the potential detrimental effect of viewing TV for longer with respect to the CMP.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0234609PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7299367PMC
August 2020

Mechanisms of Copper Tolerance, Accumulation, and Detoxification in the Marine Macroalga (Chlorophyta): 20 Years of Research.

Plants (Basel) 2020 May 27;9(6). Epub 2020 May 27.

Laboratory of Marine Biotechnology, Faculty of Chemistry and Biology, University of Santiago of Chile, Santiago 916000, Chile.

Copper induces an oxidative stress condition in the marine alga that is due to the production of superoxide anions and hydrogen peroxide, mainly in organelles. The increase in hydrogen peroxide is accompanied by increases in intracellular calcium and nitric oxide, and there is a crosstalk among these signals. The increase in intracellular calcium activates signaling pathways involving Calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinases (CaMKs) and Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinases (CDPKs), leading to activation of gene expression of antioxidant enzymes and enzymes involved in ascorbate (ASC) and glutathione (GSH) synthesis. It was recently shown that copper also activates Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAPKs) that participate in the increase in the expression of antioxidant enzymes. The increase in gene expression leads to enhanced activities of antioxidant enzymes and to enhanced levels of ASC and GSH. In addition, copper induces an increase in photosynthesis leading to an increase in the leve of Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate (NADPH). Copper also induces an increase in activities of enzymes involved in C, N, and S assimilation, allowing the replacement of proteins damaged by oxidative stress. The accumulation of copper in acute exposure involved increases in GSH, phytochelatins (PCs), and metallothioneins (MTs) whereas the accumulation of copper in chronic exposure involved only MTs. Acute and chronic copper exposure induced the accumulation of copper-containing particles in chloroplasts. On the other hand, copper is extruded from the alga with an equimolar amount of GSH. Thus, the increases in activities of antioxidant enzymes, in ASC, GSH, and NADPH levels, and in C, N, and S assimilation, the accumulation of copper-containing particles in chloroplasts, and the extrusion of copper ions from the alga constitute essential mechanisms that participate in the buffering of copper-induced oxidative stress in
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants9060681DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7355463PMC
May 2020

Prospective association between burnout and road traffic accidents in teachers.

Stress Health 2020 Dec 22;36(5):629-638. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Department of Public Health, State University of Londrina, Londrina, Brazil.

We investigated whether burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced professional efficacy) is a risk factor for traffic accidents. A prospective cohort study was conducted with 509 school teachers. The teachers were interviewed in 2012-2013, and the Maslach Burnout Inventory was applied. After 2 years, the teachers were interviewed again to determine the occurrence of traffic accidents. Poisson regression models with robust variance were used to adjust the analyses. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) were calculated to assess changes in c-units in the scores of each Burnout dimension, with c equal to 1, 5 and 10 units. The incidence rate of road traffic accidents at follow-up was 10.8%. After adjustments for sex, age, high workload/exposure to the traffic environment, daily consumption of alcoholic beverages and the other dimensions of burnout, depersonalization was a risk factor for traffic accidents. For each 1- and 10-point increase in the depersonalization score, the risk increased by 8 and 119%, respectively. Emotional exhaustion was not associated with these accidents. Increases in the professional efficacy score increased the risk of traffic accidents. The association of depersonalization with future road traffic accidents reinforces the need for measures to improve teachers' work conditions to reduce burnout.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smi.2958DOI Listing
December 2020

[Unhealthy eating habits and associated risk factors among truck drivers].

Cien Saude Colet 2020 Mar 7;25(3):1011-1023. Epub 2018 Jul 7.

Departamento de Saúde Coletiva, UEL. Londrina, PR, Brasil.

The scope of this article is to identify risk factors associated with unhealthy eating habits among truck drivers. It involved a cross-sectional study carried out with truck drivers individually interviewed at the Port of Paranaguá in the State of Paraná, Brazil. Information was obtained on the consumption of fruit, vegetables, fried salted food, sweetened beverages, and the removal of visible fat from red meat and of skin from chicken meat. Hierarchical Poisson regression models were applied to identify factors associated with unhealthy eating habits. Of those interviewed (n = 670), 53.1% had four or more unhealthy eating habits. This condition was associated with age less than 40 years (prevalence ratio, PR = 1.49; 95% confidence interval, CI = 1.28-1.73), moderate, low or very low ability to exercise the profession (PR 1.28; 95% CI 1.08-1.52), not taking physical exercise in free time (PR = 1.66; 95%CI = 1.38- 2.00), overall self-reported eating habits as poor or very poor (RP = 1.25; IC95% = 1.05-1.49) and body mass index < 25 Kg/m2 (PR = 1.22; 95% CI = 1.05-1.43). More than half of the truck drivers revealed unhealthy eating habits, highlighting the need for strategies to rectify these habits.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1413-81232020253.11402018DOI Listing
March 2020

Copper-induced concomitant increases in photosynthesis, respiration, and C, N and S assimilation revealed by transcriptomic analyses in Ulva compressa (Chlorophyta).

BMC Plant Biol 2020 Jan 15;20(1):25. Epub 2020 Jan 15.

Laboratory of Marine Biotechnology, Faculty of Chemistry and Biology, University of Santiago of Chile, Alameda, 3363, Santiago, Chile.

Background: The marine alga Ulva compressa is the dominant species in copper-polluted coastal areas in northern Chile. It has been shown that the alga tolerates micromolar concentrations of copper and accumulates copper at the intracellular level. Transcriptomic analyses were performed using total RNA of the alga cultivated with 10 μ M copper for 0, 1, 3 and 5 days using RNA-seq in order to identify processes involved in copper tolerance.

Results: The levels of transcripts encoding proteins belonging to Light Harvesting Complex II (LHCII), photosystem II (PSII), cytochrome b6f, PSI, LHCI, ATP synthase and proteins involved in repair of PSII and protection of PSI were increased in the alga cultivated with copper. In addition, the level of transcripts encoding proteins of mitochondrial electron transport chain, ATP synthase, and enzymes involved in C, N and S assimilation were also enhanced. The higher percentages of increase in the level of transcripts were mainly observed at days 3 and 5. In contrast, transcripts involved protein synthesis and degradation, signal transduction, and replication and DNA repair, were decreased. In addition, net photosynthesis and respiration increased in the alga cultivated with copper, mainly at days 1 to 3. Furthermore, the activities of enzymes involved in C, N and S assimilation, rubisco, glutamine synthase and cysteine synthase, respectively, were also increased, mainly at days 1 and 3.

Conclusions: The marine alga U. compressa tolerates copper excess through a concomitant increase in expression of proteins involved in photosynthesis, respiration, and C, N and S assimilation, which represents an exceptional mechanism of copper tolerance.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12870-019-2229-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6964094PMC
January 2020

Isolation and Characterization of Copper- and Zinc- Binding Metallothioneins from the Marine Alga (Chlorophyta).

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Dec 25;21(1). Epub 2019 Dec 25.

Laboratory of Marine Biotechnology, Faculty of Chemistry and Biology, University of Santiago of Chile, Alameda 3363, Santiago 9170022, Chile.

In this work, transcripts encoding three metallothioneins from (UcMTs) were amplified: The 5'and 3' UTRs by RACE-PCR, and the open reading frames (ORFs) by PCR. Transcripts encoding UcMT1.1 (-like), UcMT2 (-like), and UcMT3 (-like) showed a 5'UTR of 61, 71, and 65 nucleotides and a 3'UTR of 418, 235, and 193 nucleotides, respectively. UcMT1.1 ORF encodes a protein of 81 amino acids (MW 8.2 KDa) with 25 cysteines (29.4%), arranged as three motifs CC and nine motifs CXC; UcMT2 ORF encode a protein of 90 amino acids (9.05 kDa) with 27 cysteines (30%), arranged as three motifs CC, nine motifs CXC, and one motif CXXC; UcMT3 encode a protein of 139 amino acids (13.4 kDa) with 34 cysteines (24%), arranged as seven motifs CC and seven motifs CXC. UcMT1 and UcMT2 were more similar among each other, showing 60% similarity in amino acids; UcMT3 showed only 31% similarity with UcMT1 and UcMT2. In addition, UcMTs displayed structural similarity with MTs of marine invertebrates MTs and the terrestrial invertebrate MTs, but not with MTs from red or brown macroalgae. The ORFs fused with GST were expressed in bacteria allowing copper accumulation, mainly in MT1 and MT2, and zinc, in the case of the three MTs. Thus, the three MTs allowed copper and zinc accumulation in vivo. UcMTs may play a role in copper and zinc accumulation in .
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21010153DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6981760PMC
December 2019

Reproducibility of Fixed-luminance and Multi-luminance Flicker Electroretinography in Patients With Diabetic Retinopathy Using an Office-based Testing Paradigm.

J Diabetes Sci Technol 2020 11 22;14(6):1095-1103. Epub 2019 Oct 22.

Diopsys, Inc., Pine Brook, NJ, USA.

Background: We evaluated the reproducibility of office-based flicker electroretinography (ERG) in patients with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR).

Methods: An observational study was conducted in which ultra-widefield fluorescein angiography (UWF-FA) was performed on 20 patients with mild-to-moderate NPDR; images were graded by the Fundus Photography Reading Center (Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA). Fixed- and multi-luminance flicker ERG was repeated four times (greater than or equal to seven days apart). Recording consistency was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs), coefficients of variation, and Pearson correlations.

Results: 82.5% and 17.5% of eyes had mild and moderate NPDR using UWF-FA; 90% of the angiograms were given a high confidence grade. Fixed-luminance phase values were highly reproducible (ICC: 0.949;  < .001). There was a significant negative correlation between fixed-luminance phase and log-corrected ischemic index values (-0.426;  = .015).

Conclusions: Office-based, fixed-luminance phase values are highly reproducible and negatively correlate with retinal ischemia in NPDR, suggesting that global retinal dysfunction may be reliably quantified early in patients with diabetes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1932296819882719DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7645135PMC
November 2020

Recurrence of Violence Against Teachers: Two-Year Follow-Up Study.

J Interpers Violence 2019 Jul 9:886260519861659. Epub 2019 Jul 9.

3 Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Brazil.

The objective of this study was to analyze whether the experience of violence by teachers in the school environment increases the risk of teachers suffering violence again within a 2-year period. This longitudinal study included 430 primary and secondary public school teachers from a city in the south of Brazil, with data collected at two time points: T1 (2012-2013) and T2 (2014-2015). The data were obtained via face-to-face interviews and the completion of a questionnaire. The forms of violence investigated included reports of insults from students, humiliation or embarrassment by colleagues or superiors, and threats and physical violence from any member of the school occurring in the 12 months prior to the study. McNemar's test and the Poisson regression with robust error variance were used in the analyses, and the relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated. After 2 years, there was a reduction in violence reported by the teachers from 65.4% (T1) to 56.9% (T2) ( = .003). Teachers who suffered a certain form of violence had three times the risk of suffering that type of violence again. Those who reported three or four forms of violence at T1 had an RR of 2.23 of suffering any form of violence at T2 (95% CI [1.70, 2.93]) compared with those who did not report violence at T1. Psychological violence at T1 was not associated with physical violence at T2, nor was physical violence at T1 associated with psychological violence at T2. Despite the reduction in violence against teachers reported at T2, some forms of violence remained stable after 2 years. Suffering more forms of violence increases the risk of suffering any future violence.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0886260519861659DOI Listing
July 2019

Oligo-carrageenan kappa increases glucose, trehalose and TOR-P and subsequently stimulates the expression of genes involved in photosynthesis, and basal and secondary metabolisms in Eucalyptus globulus.

BMC Plant Biol 2019 Jun 17;19(1):258. Epub 2019 Jun 17.

Faculty of Chemistry and Biology, University of Santiago of Chile, Santiago, Chile.

Background: It has been previously shown that oligo-carrageenan (OC) kappa increases growth, photosynthesis and activities of enzymes involved in basal and secondary metabolisms in Eucalyptus globulus. However, it is not known whether OC kappa may induce the activation of TOR pathway and the increase in expression of genes encoding proteins involved in photosynthesis and enzymes of basal and secondary metabolisms.

Results: E. globulus trees were sprayed on leaves with water (control) or with OC kappa 1 mg mL, once a week, four times in total, and cultivated for 17 additional weeks (21 weeks in total). Treated trees showed a higher level of net photosynthesis than controls, beginning at week 3, a higher height, beginning at week 9, and those differences remained until week 21. In addition, treated trees showed an increase in the level of glucose beginning at week 1, trehalose at weeks 1-3, and in TOR-P level at week 1-2. On the other hand, transcripts encoding proteins involved in photosynthesis, and enzymes involved in glucose accumulation, C, N and S assimilation, and synthesis of secondary metabolites began at weeks 3-4 and with additional peaks at weeks 5-6, 8-11,13-14 and 17-19. Thus, OC kappa induced initial increases in glucose, trehalose and TOR-P levels that were followed by oscillatory increases in the level of transcripts coding for proteins involved in photosynthesis, and in basal and secondary metabolisms suggesting that initial increases in glucose, trehalose and TOR-P may trigger activation of gene expression.

Conclusions: The stimulation of growth induced by OC kappa in E. globulus trees is due, at least in part, to activation of TOR pathway and the increase in expression of genes encoding proteins involved in photosynthesis and enzymes of basal metabolism.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12870-019-1858-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6580502PMC
June 2019

Working conditions and sleepiness while driving among truck drivers.

Traffic Inj Prev 2019 5;20(5):504-509. Epub 2019 Jun 5.

a Postgraduate Program in Public Health , Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL) , Londrina , Paraná , Brazil.

The objective of this study is to identify the role of working conditions as predictors of sleepiness while driving among truck drivers. This was a cross-sectional study carried out among truck drivers who transported grains to Paranaguá Port, Paraná, Brazil. The truck drivers were interviewed and completed a self-administered questionnaire to collect data on sociodemographic and behavioral variables, working conditions, consumption of illicit psychoactive substances, and sleep patterns. Drivers were considered to be sleepy while driving if they reported a medium or high probability of napping while driving at night, during the daytime, or while stopped in traffic. The statistical analysis used logistic regression models progressively adjusted for age, behavioral variables, sleep duration, and other working conditions. In total, 670 male drivers, with a mean age of 41.9 (±11.1) years, were enrolled. The prevalence of sleepiness while driving was 31.5%. After model adjustments, the following working conditions were associated with sleepiness while driving: Distance from the last shipment of more than 1,000 km (odds ratio [OR] = 1.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07-2.23) and a formal labor contract with a productivity-based salary (OR = 2.65; 95% CI, 1.86-3.78). Consumption of illicit psychoactive substances (OR = 1.99; 95% CI, 1.14-3.47) was also associated with sleepiness while driving. Distance traveled and a formal labor contract with productivity-based earnings were the working conditions associated with sleepiness while driving, regardless of other working or behavioral characteristics, age, consumption of illicit psychoactive substances, and sleep duration.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15389588.2019.1609670DOI Listing
July 2020

Job strain among teachers: associations with occupational factors according to social support.

Cien Saude Colet 2019 Apr 2;24(4):1255-1264. Epub 2019 May 2.

Departamento de Saúde Coletiva, Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL). Av. Robert Koch 60, Vila Operária. 86038-350 Londrina PR Brasil.

This study aimed to ascertain the occupational factors associated with job strain among elementary school teachers and whether the associations varied according to social support. This was a cross-sectional study with 842 teachers from the state school system of a municipality in southern Brazil. Occupational information was obtained by means of interviews. Sociodemographic data and the Demand Control Support Questionnaire were included in a self-reported questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis was performed with the calculation of odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. The following were associated with job strain: > 40 working hours/week, having suffered violence at school, negative perceptions about the work-personal life balance, remuneration and number of students in the classroom. A stratified analysis revealed that workload and negative perceptions about the number of students per class were significant only in the lower social support group. Job strain is associated with specific teaching conditions, and social support can provide a moderating effect on some of these associations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1413-81232018244.08542017DOI Listing
April 2019

Reading the Nutritional Information on Food Labels Among Teachers with and without Hypertension in Brazil.

Int J Prev Med 2019 15;10. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

Department of Public Health, State University of Londrina, Paraná State, Brazil.

Background: To examine the associations among nutritional label use, medically diagnosed hypertension, and sociodemographic factors among teachers.

Methods: A cross-sectional study of elementary and secondary school teachers in Londrina, Paraná, Brazil, was conducted. Data regarding sociodemographic variables, hypertension diagnosis, and the reading of nutritional information on food/beverage labels were collected in 2012-2013. Associations were analyzed using Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test, and multivariate binary logistic regression models were used to adjust for possible confounders; odds ratios (ORs), 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and adjusted values were calculated.

Results: Of the 978 teachers interviewed, 15% were diagnosed with hypertension, and 62.5% read nutritional information in the 12 months prior to the survey (41% frequently or always). No differences were found between teachers with and without hypertension with regard to frequent reading (frequently/always) of nutritional labels. The frequent use of nutritional labels was significantly associated with female sex (OR = 1.39; 95% CI = 1.04-1.85) and the highest monthly family income level (OR = 1.82; 95% CI = 1.07-3.11). Teachers with hypertension reported checking for sodium more frequently than those without (adjusted value = 0.040). Medical advice (adjusted value <0.001) and choosing healthier foods (adjusted value = 0.002) were the major reasons for reading labels provided by teachers with and without hypertension, respectively.

Conclusions: Checking for sodium values on nutritional labels was significantly higher among teachers with hypertension, which most likely results from medical advice, and was the major reported reason for reading these labels.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_40_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6360847PMC
January 2019

Increasing incidence of lentigo maligna and lentigo maligna melanoma in Catalonia.

Int J Dermatol 2019 May 13;58(5):577-581. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Dermatology, Hospital Universitari Arnau de Vilanova, University of Lleida, IRBLleida, Lleida & CIBERONC, Lleida, Spain.

Background: Recent epidemiological studies suggest that past data where superficial spreading melanoma was by far the most common subtype of melanoma may not reflect current patterns of sun exposure or other risk factors more involved in other subtypes of melanoma as lentigo maligna (LM) or lentigo maligna melanoma (LMM).

Methods: In order to measure the current situation in our country, all cases of LM and LMM diagnosed in 23 hospitals in Catalonia, from 2000 to 2007, were recorded.

Results: Although for the global period LM/LMM represented only 8.4% of cases, an increasing trend in this percentage was observed throughout the study period (from 6.9% [27 cases] in 2000 to 13.1% [94 cases] in 2007). Also, an increasing incidence of LM/LMM was observed, especially in chronically sun-exposed areas (85.5% involving the head and neck region). During the 8 years of the registry, the mean Breslow thickness of LMM remained stable. However, the increase in the number of LM (in situ) cases was significantly higher than the increase of the invasive ones.

Conclusions: An important observation from this data is that aging of population and current sun exposure patterns could keep increasing the incidence of LM/LMM, which may become an important public healthcare problem, over the other histological subtypes. In order to establish primary or secondary preventive measures to the LM/LMM risk-population, it is imperative to highlight the importance of chronic sun damage as a melanoma risk factor, and not only sunburn, most commonly addressed in melanoma prevention campaigns.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijd.14334DOI Listing
May 2019

Copper excess detoxification is mediated by a coordinated and complementary induction of glutathione, phytochelatins and metallothioneins in the green seaweed Ulva compressa.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2019 Feb 16;135:423-431. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Faculty of Chemistry and Biology, University of Santiago of Chile, Alameda, 3363, Santiago, Chile. Electronic address:

In order to analyze the involvement of intracellular thiol-chelators in the accumulation and detoxification of copper, the marine alga Ulva compressa was cultivated with increasing concentrations of copper such as 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 μM for up to 12 d, and the amount of intracellular copper, glutathione (GSH), phytochelatins (PCs) and transcripts encoding three metallothioneins (MTs) were determined. Over this exposure period and concentration range there was a linear correlation between intracellular copper and the copper concentration in the culture medium. Increases in GSH concentrations occurred mainly between days 1 and 3 and at lower concentrations of copper (2.5 and 5 μM). The level of PCs, and particularly PC2, increased from day 1 of exposure mainly at higher concentrations of copper (7.5 and 10 μM). The levels of transcripts encoding MT7 increased at day 3, whereas those of MT3 and MT6 increased between days 9-12, mainly at higher concentrations of copper. Thus in U. compressa, the initial responses to increasing intracellular copper concentrations are increases in GSH and PCs that are followed by higher levels of MTs expression, suggesting that thiol-containing peptides and proteins may participate in copper accumulation and detoxification responding in a coordinated and complementary manner. In addition, the alga was cultivated with 10 μM copper for 5 d and transferred to synthetic seawater with no copper and cultivated for 3 d. The release of copper from cells to culture medium was observed and accompanied by a similar nanomolar amount of GSH; no PCs or small proteins were detected. These results could suggest that a component of the detoxification mechanism also involves the release of copper and GSH to the extracellular medium.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.11.019DOI Listing
February 2019

Copper-induced increased expression of genes involved in photosynthesis, carotenoid synthesis and C assimilation in the marine alga Ulva compressa.

BMC Genomics 2018 Nov 20;19(1):829. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Faculty of Chemistry and Biology, University of Santiago of Chile, Av. Libertador Bernardo O'Higgins, 3363, Santiago, Chile.

Background: The marine alga Ulva compressa is the dominant species in coastal areas receiving effluents from copper mines. The alga can accumulate high amounts of copper and possesses a strong antioxidant system. Here, we performed short-term transcriptomic analyses using total RNA of the alga cultivated with 10 μM of copper for 0, 3, 6, 12 and 24 h by RNA-seq.

Results: De novo transcriptomes were assembled using the Trinity software, putative proteins were annotated and classified using Blast2GO. Differentially expressed transcripts were identified using edgeR. Transcript levels were compared by paired times 0 vs 3, 0 vs 6, 0 vs 12 and 0 vs 24 h at an FDR < 0.01 and Log2 Fold Change > 2. Up-regulated transcripts encode proteins belonging to photosystem II (PSII), Light Harvesting II Complex (LHCII), PSI and LHCI, proteins involved in assembly and repair of PSII, and assembly and protection of PSI. In addition, transcripts encoding enzymes leading to β-carotene synthesis and enzymes belonging to the Calvin-Benson cycle were also increased. We further analyzed photosynthesis and carotenoid levels in the alga cultivated with 10 μM of copper for 0 to 24 h. Photosynthesis was increased from 3 to 24 h as well as the level of total carotenoids. The increase in transcripts encoding enzymes of the Calvin-Benson cycle suggests that C assimilation may also be increased.

Conclusions: Thus, U. compressa displays a short-term response to copper stress enhancing the expression of genes encoding proteins involved in photosynthesis, enzymes involved carotenoids synthesis, as well as those belonging to the Calvin-Benson cycle, which may result in an increase in C assimilation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-018-5226-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6245705PMC
November 2018

Physical violence against schoolteachers: an analysis using structural equation models.

Cad Saude Publica 2018 28;34(5):e00079017. Epub 2018 May 28.

Programa de Pós-graduação em Saúde Coletiva, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Londrina, Brazil.

This study aimed to identify associations between sociodemographic, workplace, and school environmental factors and the occurrence of physical violence against teachers at school. This was a cross-sectional study of teachers that had been working for at least a year in elementary or middle schools in the state school system in Londrina, Paraná State, Brazil. A convenience sample was taken of the 20 schools with the most teachers in the city of Londrina. Data were obtained through interviews and self-completed questionnaires in 2012 and 2013. Physical violence was defined as reports of attempted or actual physical aggression using cold steel weapons or firearms in the 12 months prior to the study. Structural equation models were used for the data analysis. Of the 937 teachers eligible for the study, 789 (84.2%) were interviewed. The physical violence victimization rate in schoolteachers was 8.4%. Work conditions (number of schools where the teachers worked and type of employment contract) showed a direct effect on physical violence (p = 0.032), as did having experienced previous situations of violence in the school (p = 0.059). Age (up to 40 years) was indirectly related to physical violence, correlating with worse work conditions. The results highlight the importance of improving teachers' work conditions and implementing measures to prevent violence both in schools and in society as a whole.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0102-311x00079017DOI Listing
October 2018

Copper-induced activation of TRPs and VDCCs triggers a calcium signature response regulating gene expression in .

PeerJ 2018 16;6:e4556. Epub 2018 Apr 16.

Laboratory of Marine Biotechnology, Faculty of Chemistry and Biology, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Santiago, Región Metropolitana, Chile.

In certain multicellular photoautotrophs, such as plants and green macroalgae, it has been demonstrated that calcium signaling importantly mediates tolerance to copper excess. However, there is no information in brown macroalgae, which are phylogenetically distant from green algae and plants. We have previously shown that chronic copper levels (2.5 μM) activate transient receptor potential (TRP) channels in the model brown macroalga , allowing extracellular calcium entry at 13, 29, 39 and 51 min. Here, we showed that intracellular calcium increases also occurred at 3 and 5 h of exposure; these increases were inhibited by antagonists of voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs); a chelating agent of extracellular calcium; an antagonist of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) ATPase; and antagonists of cADPR-, NAADP- and IP-dependent calcium channels. Thus, copper activates VDCCs allowing extracellular calcium entry and intracellular calcium release from the ER via cADPR-, IP- and NAADP-dependent channels. Furthermore, the level of transcripts encoding a phytochelatin synthase (PS) and a metallothionein (MT) were analyzed in the alga exposed to 2.5 μM copper from 3 to 24 h. The level of and transcripts increased until 24 h and these increases were inhibited by antagonists of calmodulins (CaMs), calcineurin B-like proteins (CBLs) and calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs). Finally, activation of VDCC was inhibited by a mixture of TRP antagonists and by inhibitors of protein kinases. Thus, copper-mediated activation of TRPs triggers VDCCs via protein kinases, allowing extracellular calcium entry and intracellular calcium release from ER that, in turn, activate CaMs, CBLs and CDPKs increasing expression of PS and MT encoding genes in .
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.4556DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5907779PMC
April 2018

Copper-induced activation of TRP channels promotes extracellular calcium entry and activation of CaMK, PKA, PKC, PKG and CBLPK leading to increased expression of antioxidant enzymes in Ectocarpus siliculosus.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2018 May 2;126:106-116. Epub 2018 Mar 2.

Faculty of Chemistry and Biology, University of Santiago of Chile, Santiago, Chile. Electronic address:

The existence of functional Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels was analyzed in Ectocarpus siliculosus using agonists of human TRPs and specific antagonists of TRPA1, TRPC5, TRPM8 and TRPV; intracellular calcium was detected for 60 min. Increases in intracellular calcium were observed at 13, 29, 39 and 50-52 min, which appeared to be mediated by the activation of TRPM8/V1 at 13 min, TRPV1 at 29 min, TRPA1/V1 at 39 min and TRPA1/C5 at 50-52 min. In addition, intracellular calcium increases appear to be due to extracellular calcium entry, not requiring protein kinase activation. On the other hand, 2.5 μM copper exposure induced increased intracellular calcium at 13, 29, 39 and 51 min, likely due to the activation of a TRPA1/V1 at 13 min, TRPA1/C5/M8 at 29 min, TRPC5/M8 at 39 min, and a TRPC5/V1 at 51 min. The increases in intracellular calcium induced by copper were due to extracellular calcium entry and required protein kinase activation. Furthermore, from 3 to 24 h, copper exposure induced an increase in the level of transcripts encoding antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase and peroxiredoxin. The described upregulation decreased with inhibitors of CaMK, PKA, PKC, PKG and CBLPK, as well as with a mixture of TRP inhibitors. Thus, copper induces the activation of TRP channels allowing extracellular calcium entry as well as the activation of CaMK, PKA, PKC, PKG and CBLPK leading to increased expression of genes encoding antioxidant enzymes in E. siliculosus.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.02.032DOI Listing
May 2018