Publications by authors named "Alberto Bessudo"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The McCAVE Trial: Vanucizumab plus mFOLFOX-6 Versus Bevacizumab plus mFOLFOX-6 in Patients with Previously Untreated Metastatic Colorectal Carcinoma (mCRC).

Oncologist 2020 03 30;25(3):e451-e459. Epub 2019 Sep 30.

Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

Background: Bevacizumab, a VEGF-A inhibitor, in combination with chemotherapy, has proven to increase progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival in multiple lines of therapy of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). The angiogenic factor angiopoetin-2 (Ang-2) is associated with poor prognosis in many cancers, including mCRC. Preclinical models demonstrate improved activity when inhibiting both VEGF-A and Ang-2, suggesting that the dual VEGF-A and Ang-2 blocker vanucizumab (RO5520985 or RG-7221) may improve clinical outcomes. This phase II trial evaluated the efficacy of vanucizumab plus modified (m)FOLFOX-6 (folinic acid (leucovorin), fluorouracil (5-FU) and oxaliplatin) versus bevacizumab/mFOLFOX-6 for first-line mCRC.

Patients And Methods: All patients received mFOLFOX-6 and were randomized 1:1 to also receive vanucizumab 2,000 mg or bevacizumab 5 mg/kg every other week. Oxaliplatin was given for eight cycles; other agents were continued until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity for a maximum of 24 months. The primary endpoint was investigator-assessed PFS.

Results: One hundred eighty-nine patients were randomized (vanucizumab, n = 94; bevacizumab, n = 95). The number of PFS events was comparable (vanucizumab, n = 39; bevacizumab, n = 43). The hazard ratio was 1.00 (95% confidence interval, 0.64-1.58; p = .98) in a stratified analysis based on number of metastatic sites and region. Objective response rate was 52.1% and 57.9% in the vanucizumab and bevacizumab arm, respectively. Baseline plasma Ang-2 levels were prognostic in both arms but not predictive for treatment effects on PFS of vanucizumab. The incidence of adverse events of grade ≥3 was similar between treatment arms (83.9% vs. 82.1%); gastrointestinal perforations (10.8% vs. 8.4%) exceeded previously reported rates in this setting. Hypertension and peripheral edema were more frequent in the vanucizumab arm.

Conclusion: Vanucizumab/mFOLFOX-6 did not improve PFS and was associated with increased rates of antiangiogenic toxicity compared with bevacizumab/mFOLFOX-6. Our results suggest that Ang-2 is not a relevant therapeutic target in first-line mCRC.

Implications For Practice: This randomized phase II study demonstrates that additional angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) inhibition does not result in superior benefit over anti-VEGF-A blockade alone when each added to standard chemotherapy. Moreover, the performed pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic analysis revealed that vanucizumab was bioavailable and affected its intended target, thereby strongly suggesting that Ang-2 is not a relevant therapeutic target in the clinical setting of treatment-naïve metastatic colorectal cancer. As a result, the further clinical development of the dual VEGF-A and Ang-2 inhibitor vanucizumab was discontinued.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1634/theoncologist.2019-0291DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7066709PMC
March 2020

Obinutuzumab plus CHOP is effective and has a tolerable safety profile in previously untreated, advanced diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: the phase II GATHER study.

Leuk Lymphoma 2019 04 2;60(4):894-903. Epub 2018 Oct 2.

n Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center and Weill Cornell Medical Center , New York , NY , USA.

This study investigated the safety and efficacy of obinutuzumab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (G-CHOP) in patients with advanced diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and explored the impact of cell-of-origin (COO) on patient outcomes. Patients (N = 100) received obinutuzumab (1000 mg on the days 1, 8, and 15 of cycle 1, and day 1 of cycles 2-8) plus CHOP (cycles 1-6). For patients without grade ≥3 infusion-related reactions (IRRs) to standard-rate obinutuzumab infusion, a shorter duration of infusion (SDI) was evaluated. Overall and complete response rates, as determined according to the Cheson et al. criteria by investigators/independent radiological facility, were 82.0/75.0% and 55.0/58.0%, respectively. SDI of 120 minutes and 90 minutes were well tolerated with no grade ≥3 IRRs. Among all patients, IRRs typically occurred during cycle 1, day 1. G-CHOP is active and has an acceptable safety profile in the first-line treatment of patients with advanced DLBCL. Clinical Trials: NCT01414855DLBCL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2018.1515940DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6445782PMC
April 2019

Phase I study of the anti-α5β1 monoclonal antibody MINT1526A with or without bevacizumab in patients with advanced solid tumors.

Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2018 08 15;82(2):339-351. Epub 2018 Jun 15.

California Cancer Associates for Research & Excellence, Encinitas, CA, USA.

Purpose: MINT1526A is a monoclonal antibody that blocks the interaction of integrin alpha 5 beta 1 (α5β1) with its extracellular matrix ligands. This phase I study evaluated the safety and pharmacokinetics of MINT1526A with or without bevacizumab in patients with advanced solid tumors.

Methods: MINT1526A was administered every 3 weeks (Q3W) as monotherapy (arm 1) or in combination with bevacizumab 15 mg/kg, Q3W (arm 2). Each arm included a 3 + 3 dose-escalation stage and a dose-expansion stage.

Results: Twenty-four patients were enrolled in arm 1 (dose range 2-30 mg/kg) and 30 patients were enrolled in arm 2 (dose range 3-15 mg/kg). Monocyte α5β1 receptor occupancy was saturated at a dose of 15 mg/kg. No dose-limiting toxicities were observed, and the maximum tolerated dose was not reached in either arm. The most common adverse events, regardless of causality, included abdominal pain (25%), diarrhea (25%), nausea (21%), vomiting (21%), and fatigue (21%) in arm 1 and nausea (40%), fatigue (33%), vomiting (30%), dehydration (30%), headache (30%), and hypertension (30%) in arm 2. No grade ≥ 3 bleeding events were observed in either arm. No confirmed partial responses (PR) were observed in arm 1. In arm 2, one patient with thymic carcinoma experienced a confirmed PR and two patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) experienced durable minor radiographic responses.

Conclusions: MINT1526A, with or without bevacizumab, was well-tolerated. Preliminary evidence of combination efficacy, including in patients with HCC, was observed, but cannot be distinguished from bevacizumab monotherapy in this phase I study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00280-018-3622-8DOI Listing
August 2018

Metabolic therapy with PEG-arginase induces a sustained complete remission in immunotherapy-resistant melanoma.

J Hematol Oncol 2018 05 18;11(1):68. Epub 2018 May 18.

Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.

Background: Metastatic melanoma is an aggressive skin cancer with a poor prognosis. Current treatment strategies for high-stage melanoma are based around the use of immunotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors such as anti-PDL1 or anti-CTLA4 antibodies to stimulate anti-cancer T cell responses, yet a number of patients will relapse and die of disease. Here, we report the first sustained complete remission in a patient with metastatic melanoma who failed two immunotherapy strategies, by targeting tumour arginine metabolism.

Case Presentation: A 65-year-old patient with metastatic melanoma who progressed through two immunotherapy strategies with immune checkpoint inhibitor antibodies was enrolled in a phase I study (NCT02285101) and treated with 2 mg/kg intravenously, weekly pegylated recombinant arginase (BCT-100). The patient experienced no toxicities > grade 2 and entered a complete remission which is sustained for over 30 months. RNA-sequencing identified a number of transcriptomic pathway alterations compared to control samples. The tumour had absent expression of the recycling enzymes argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) and ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) indicating a state of arginine auxotrophy, which was reconfirmed by immunohistochemistry, and validation in a larger cohort of melanoma tumour samples.

Conclusions: Targeting arginine metabolism with therapeutic arginase in arginine auxotrophic melanoma can be an effective salvage for the treatment of patients who fail immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13045-018-0612-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5960181PMC
May 2018

Safety and efficacy of pomalidomide, dexamethasone and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin for patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma.

Br J Haematol 2018 01 21;180(1):60-70. Epub 2017 Nov 21.

Oncotherapeutics, West Hollywood, CA, USA.

Immunomodulatory drugs including thalidomide, lenalidomide (LEN) and pomalidomide (POM), are effective for treating multiple myeloma (MM). POM has shown enhanced efficacy with dexamethasone (DEX). Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) with bortezomib is US Food and Drug Administration-approved for treating MM. PLD with LEN or thalidomide has shown efficacy for MM patients. LEN with DEX, PLD and bortezomib achieves high response rates. We evaluated the combination of POM with DEX 40 mg and PLD 5 mg/m with the latter two drugs administered on days 1, 4, 8 and 11 on a 28-day cycle for the treatment of relapsed/refractory MM patients. During Phase 1, the maximum tolerated dose of POM was 4 mg, and was used in Phase 2, which also required patients to be refractory to LEN. However, neutropenia ≥ grade 3 was observed in 10/17 (59%) patients, and the dose was lowered to 3 mg. Median PFS was 5·4 months (range, 0·3-29·0 +  months). Overall response rates for patients in Phase 2 were 39% and 31% among subjects receiving POM at 3 mg and 4 mg, respectively, and clinical benefit rates were 51% and 44%, respectively. POM, PLD and DEX is a treatment option for relapsed/refractory MM patients including those who are refractory to LEN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.14992DOI Listing
January 2018

Effects of Strong CYP3A Inhibition and Induction on the Pharmacokinetics of Ixazomib, an Oral Proteasome Inhibitor: Results of Drug-Drug Interaction Studies in Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors or Lymphoma and a Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Analysis.

J Clin Pharmacol 2018 02 11;58(2):180-192. Epub 2017 Aug 11.

Mary Crowley Cancer Research Center, Dallas, TX, USA.

At clinically relevant ixazomib concentrations, in vitro studies demonstrated that no specific cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme predominantly contributes to ixazomib metabolism. However, at higher than clinical concentrations, ixazomib was metabolized by multiple CYP isoforms, with the estimated relative contribution being highest for CYP3A at 42%. This multiarm phase 1 study (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01454076) investigated the effect of the strong CYP3A inhibitors ketoconazole and clarithromycin and the strong CYP3A inducer rifampin on the pharmacokinetics of ixazomib. Eighty-eight patients were enrolled across the 3 drug-drug interaction studies; the ixazomib toxicity profile was consistent with previous studies. Ketoconazole and clarithromycin had no clinically meaningful effects on the pharmacokinetics of ixazomib. The geometric least-squares mean area under the plasma concentration-time curve from 0 to 264 hours postdose ratio (90%CI) with vs without ketoconazole coadministration was 1.09 (0.91-1.31) and was 1.11 (0.86-1.43) with vs without clarithromycin coadministration. Reduced plasma exposures of ixazomib were observed following coadministration with rifampin. Ixazomib area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time 0 to the time of the last quantifiable concentration was reduced by 74% (geometric least-squares mean ratio of 0.26 [90%CI 0.18-0.37]), and maximum observed plasma concentration was reduced by 54% (geometric least-squares mean ratio of 0.46 [90%CI 0.29-0.73]) in the presence of rifampin. The clinical drug-drug interaction study results were reconciled well by a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model that incorporated a minor contribution of CYP3A to overall ixazomib clearance and quantitatively considered the strength of induction of CYP3A and intestinal P-glycoprotein by rifampin. On the basis of these study results, the ixazomib prescribing information recommends that patients should avoid concomitant administration of strong CYP3A inducers with ixazomib.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcph.988DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5811830PMC
February 2018

A Phase 1 Study to Assess the Relative Bioavailability of Two Capsule Formulations of Ixazomib, an Oral Proteasome Inhibitor, in Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors or Lymphoma.

J Clin Pharmacol 2018 Jan 7;58(1):114-121. Epub 2017 Aug 7.

Mary Crowley Cancer Research Center, Dallas, TX, USA.

The oral proteasome inhibitor ixazomib is approved in multiple countries in combination with lenalidomide and dexamethasone for the treatment of patients with multiple myeloma who have received at least 1 prior therapy. Two oral capsule formulations of ixazomib have been used during clinical development. This randomized, 2-period, 2-sequence crossover study (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT01454076) assessed the relative bioavailability of capsule B in reference to capsule A in adult patients with advanced solid tumors or lymphoma. The study was conducted in 2 parts. In cycle 1 (pharmacokinetic cycle), patients received a 4-mg dose of ixazomib as capsule A or capsule B on day 1, followed by a 4-mg dose of the alternate capsule formulation on day 15. Pharmacokinetic samples were collected over 216 hours postdose. After the pharmacokinetic cycle, patients could continue in the study and receive ixazomib (capsule B only) on days 1, 8, and 15 of each 28-day cycle. Twenty patients were enrolled; of these, 14 were included in the pharmacokinetic-evaluable population. Systemic exposures of ixazomib were similar after administration of capsule A or capsule B. The geometric least-squares mean ratios (capsule B versus capsule A) were 1.16 for C (90% confidence interval [CI], 0.84-1.61) and 1.04 for AUC (90%CI, 0.91-1.18). The most frequently reported grade 3 drug-related adverse events were fatigue (15%) and nausea (10%); there were no grade 4 drug-related adverse events. These results support the combined analysis of data from studies that used either formulation of ixazomib during development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcph.987DOI Listing
January 2018

A Multicenter, Open-Label, Phase 1b Study of Carfilzomib, Cyclophosphamide, and Dexamethasone in Newly Diagnosed Multiple Myeloma Patients (CHAMPION-2).

Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk 2017 07 10;17(7):433-437. Epub 2017 May 10.

Institute for Myeloma & Bone Cancer Research, West Hollywood, CA.

Introduction: This phase 1b study evaluated the safety and efficacy of 3 dose levels of carfilzomib when provided with fixed dose oral cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone (KCyd) in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM).

Patients And Methods: CHAMPION-2 was a multicenter single-arm study. Patients with newly diagnosed secretory MM were enrolled and received KCyd treatment for up to 8 cycles. A 3 + 3 dose escalation scheme was used to evaluate twice-weekly carfilzomib at 36, 45, and 56 mg/m dose levels, followed by a dose expansion.

Results: No dose-limiting toxicities were observed in any of the dose evaluation cohorts. The KCyd regimen that included the maximum planned carfilzomib dose of 56 mg/m twice weekly was brought forward into dose expansion. A total of 16 patients were treated at this dose level. At 56 mg/m the overall response rate was 87.5% (95% confidence interval, 61.7-98.4), and the median time to response of 14 patients whose disease responded to therapy was 1 month. At this dose level, common adverse events of grade 3 or higher were anemia (25.0%), neutropenia (18.8%), acute kidney injury (12.5%), and decreased white blood cell count (12.5%). Ten of 16 patients who received carfilzomib at 56 mg/m completed all 8 cycles, 5 patients discontinued study therapy before cycle 8 as a result of adverse events, and 1 patient discontinued therapy as a result of progressive disease.

Conclusion: Carfilzomib in combination with cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone is effective and has manageable toxicity for patients with newly diagnosed MM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clml.2017.05.009DOI Listing
July 2017

CHAMPION-1: a phase 1/2 study of once-weekly carfilzomib and dexamethasone for relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma.

Blood 2016 06 12;127(26):3360-8. Epub 2016 May 12.

Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Nashville, TN.

Carfilzomib, a proteasome inhibitor, is approved in the United States as a single agent, and in combination with dexamethasone or lenalidomide/dexamethasone (KRd) for relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (MM). Under the single-agent and KRd approvals, carfilzomib is administered as a 10-minute IV infusion on days 1, 2, 8, 9, 15, and 16 of 28-day cycles (20 mg/m(2) [cycle 1, days 1-2]; 27 mg/m(2) thereafter). This multicenter, single-arm, phase 1/2 study, Community Harmonized Assessment of Myeloma Patients via an Integrated Oncology Network-1 (CHAMPION-1), evaluated once-weekly carfilzomib with dexamethasone in relapsed, or relapsed and refractory MM (1-3 prior therapies). Patients received carfilzomib (30-minute IV infusion) on days 1, 8, and 15 of 28-day cycles. The phase 1 portion used a 3 + 3 dose-escalation scheme to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of carfilzomib. During phase 2, patients received carfilzomib on the same schedule at the MTD. Patients received dexamethasone (40 mg) on days 1, 8, 15, and 22; dexamethasone was omitted on day 22 for cycles 9+. A total of 116 patients were enrolled. The MTD was 70 mg/m(2), and 104 patients (phase 1/2) received carfilzomib 70 mg/m(2) At 70 mg/m(2), the median number of prior regimens was 1; and 52% were bortezomib-refractory. At 70 mg/m(2), the most common grade ≥3 adverse events were fatigue (11%) and hypertension (7%). Overall response rate at 70 mg/m(2) was 77%. Median progression-free survival was 12.6 months. These findings merit additional evaluation of the once-weekly dosing regimen. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01677858.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2015-11-683854DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4929927PMC
June 2016

Clinical translation of ferumoxytol-based vessel size imaging (VSI): Feasibility in a phase I oncology clinical trial population.

Magn Reson Med 2017 02 26;77(2):814-825. Epub 2016 Feb 26.

Clinical Imaging Group, Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, California, USA.

Purpose: To assess the feasibility of acquiring vessel size imaging (VSI) metrics using ferumoxytol injections and stock pulse sequences in a multicenter Phase I trial of a novel therapy in patients with advanced metastatic disease.

Methods: Scans were acquired before, immediately after, and 48 h after injection, at screening and after 2 weeks of treatment. ΔR , ΔR2*, vessel density (Q), and relative vascular volume fractions (VVF) were estimated in both normal tissue and tumor, and compared with model-derived theoretical and experimental estimates based on preclinical murine xenograft data.

Results: R and R2* relaxation rates were still significantly elevated in tumors and liver 48 h after ferumoxytol injection; liver values returned to baseline by week 2. Q was relatively insensitive to changes in ΔR2*, indicating lack of dependence on contrast agent concentration. Variability in Q was higher among human tumors compared with xenografts and was mostly driven by ΔR . Relative VVFs were higher in human tumors compared with xenografts, while values in muscle were similar between species.

Conclusion: Clinical ferumoxytol-based VSI is feasible using standard MRI techniques in a multicenter study of patients with lesions outside of the brain. Ferumoxytol accumulation in the liver does not preclude measurement of VSI parameters in liver metastases. Magn Reson Med 77:814-825, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mrm.26167DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5677523PMC
February 2017

A randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 1/2 study of tivantinib (ARQ 197) in combination with irinotecan and cetuximab in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer with wild-type KRAS who have received first-line systemic therapy.

Int J Cancer 2016 Jul 22;139(1):177-86. Epub 2016 Mar 22.

Tennessee Oncology/Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Nashville, TN.

Cetuximab in combination with an irinotecan-containing regimen is a standard treatment in patients with KRAS wild-type (KRAS WT), metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). We investigated the addition of the oral MET inhibitor tivantinib to cetuximab + irinotecan (CETIRI) based on preclinical evidence that activation of the MET pathway may confer resistance to anti-EGFR therapy. Previously treated patients with KRAS WT advanced or mCRC were enrolled. The phase 1, open-label 3 + 3, dose-escalation study evaluated the safety and maximally tolerated dose of tivantinib plus CETIRI. The phase 2, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study of biweekly CETIRI plus tivantinib or placebo was restricted to patients who had received only one prior line of chemotherapy. The phase 2 primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). The recommended phase 2 dose was tivantinib (360 mg/m(2) twice daily) with biweekly cetuximab (500 mg/m(2)) and irinotecan (180 mg/m(2)). Among 117 patients evaluable for phase 2 analysis, no statistically significant PFS difference was observed: 8.3 months on tivantinib vs. 7.3 months on placebo (HR, 0.85; 95% confidence interval, 0.55-1.33; P = 0.38). Subgroup analyses trended in favor of tivantinib in patients with MET-High tumors by immunohistochemistry, PTEN-Low tumors, or those pretreated with oxaliplatin, but subgroups were too small to draw conclusions. Neutropenia, diarrhea, nausea and rash were the most frequent severe adverse events in tivantinib-treated patients. The combination of tivantinib and CETIRI was well tolerated but did not significantly improve PFS in previously treated KRAS WT mCRC. Tivantinib may be more active in specific subgroups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.30049DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5071720PMC
July 2016

The Effect of a High-Fat Meal on the Pharmacokinetics of Ixazomib, an Oral Proteasome Inhibitor, in Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors or Lymphoma.

J Clin Pharmacol 2016 10 17;56(10):1288-95. Epub 2016 Mar 17.

Mary Crowley Cancer Research Center, Dallas, TX, USA.

Ixazomib is the first oral proteasome inhibitor to be investigated in the clinic. This clinical study assessed whether the pharmacokinetics of ixazomib would be altered if administered after a high-calorie, high-fat meal. In a 2-period, 2-sequence, crossover study design, adult patients with advanced solid tumors or lymphoma received a 4-mg oral dose of ixazomib as immediate-release capsules on day 1 without food (fasted, administered following an overnight fast) or with food (fed, following consumption of a high-calorie, high-fat meal), followed by another dose on day 15 in the alternate food intake condition (fasted to fed or fed to fasted). Twenty-four patients were enrolled; of these, 15 were included in the pharmacokinetic-evaluable population. Administration of ixazomib after a high-fat meal reduced both the rate and extent of absorption of ixazomib. Under fed conditions, the median time to peak plasma concentration (Tmax ) of ixazomib was delayed by approximately 3 hours compared with administration in the fasted state (1.02 hours vs 4.0 hours), and there was a 28% reduction in total systemic exposure (area under the curve, AUC) and a 69% reduction in peak plasma concentration (Cmax ). Together, the results support the administration of ixazomib on an empty stomach, at least 1 hour before or at least 2 hours after food. These recommendations are reflected in the United States Prescribing Information for ixazomib (clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT01454076).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcph.719DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5069578PMC
October 2016

A phase 1 study to evaluate effect of food on veliparib pharmacokinetics and relative bioavailability in subjects with solid tumors.

Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2014 Sep 23;74(3):583-91. Epub 2014 Jul 23.

Research and Development, AbbVie Inc., One N. Waukegan Road, North Chicago, IL, 60064, USA,

Purpose: A phase 1 study was conducted to evaluate the bioavailability and food effect of a new veliparib formulation in subjects with solid tumors.

Methods: Subjects (planned: Stage I, N = 20; Stage II, N = 16) received four regimens of a single oral dose of veliparib utilizing a group-sequential design. Subjects were administered single doses of 40 mg veliparib supplied as four 10 mg current formulation, four 10 mg new formulation and one 40 mg new formulation under fasting conditions and under non-fasting conditions. Serial blood samples were collected for the determination of veliparib pharmacokinetics. At the end of Stage I, the relative bioavailability between each pair of regimens was assessed by a two one-sided tests procedure from the analyses of the natural logarithms of C(max) and AUC. A 92.7 % confidence interval within the 0.80-1.25 range between each regimen pair determined bioequivalence.

Results: Four 10 mg current formulation capsules, four 10 mg new formulation and one 40 mg new formulation were bioequivalent with respect to C(max) and AUC under fasting conditions. The administration of a high-fat meal did not have a significant effect on AUC and only caused a slight decrease in veliparib C(max) (17 %) and a delay of approximately 1 h in T(max).

Conclusions: The 40 mg new capsule was bioequivalent to currently used formulation. Food had no effect on the extent of veliparib absorption and only a small (17 %) decrease in peak exposure of veliparib.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00280-014-2529-2DOI Listing
September 2014

Denosumab for treatment of hypercalcemia of malignancy.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2014 Sep 10;99(9):3144-52. Epub 2014 Jun 10.

University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center (M.I.H.), Houston, Texas 77030; Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center and Weill Cornell Medical College (I.G.G.), New York, New York 10065; Institut Gustave Roussy (S.L.), Villejuif, France; Yale School of Medicine (K.I.), New Haven, Connecticut 06510; Montefiore Medical Center-Bronx (R.G.), New York, New York 10467; Endocrinology Department, Medical Center for Postgraduate Education (W.M.), Warsaw, Poland; Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute (B.Y.), Tampa, Florida 33607; Peninsula Regional Medical Center (P.Z.), Salisbury, Maryland 21801; Institut Régional du Cancer de Montpellier-Val d'Aurelle (D.T.), Montpellier, France; California Cancer Associates for Research and Excellence (A.B.), Encinitas, California 92024; Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Limoges-Hôpital Dupuytren (A.J.), Limoges, France; Policlinico Universitario Campus Bio-Medico (G.T.), Rome, Italy; and Amgen Inc (W.Y., A.B., R.K.J.), Thousand Oaks, California 91320.

Context: Hypercalcemia of malignancy (HCM) in patients with advanced cancer is often caused by excessive osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. Patients may not respond to or may relapse after iv bisphosphonate therapy.

Objective: We investigated whether denosumab, a potent inhibitor of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, reduces serum calcium in patients with bisphosphonate-refractory HCM.

Design, Setting, And Participants: In this single-arm international study, participants had serum calcium levels corrected for albumin (CSC) >12.5 mg/dL (3.1 mmol/L) despite bisphosphonates given >7 and ≤30 days before screening.

Intervention: Patients received 120 mg sc denosumab on days 1, 8, 15, and 29 and then every 4 weeks.

Main Outcome Measures: The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with CSC ≤11.5 mg/dL (2.9 mmol/L) (response) by day 10. Secondary endpoints included response by visit, duration of response, and the proportion of patients with a complete response (CSC ≤10.8 mg/dL [2.7 mmol/L]) by day 10 and during the study.

Results: Patients (N = 33) had solid tumors or hematologic malignancies. By day 10, 21 patients (64%) reached CSC ≤11.5 mg/dL, and 12 patients (33%) reached CSC ≤10.8 mg/dL. During the study, 23 patients (70%) reached CSC ≤11.5 mg/dL, and 21 patients (64%) reached CSC ≤10.8 mg/dL. Estimated median response duration was 104 days. The most common serious adverse events were hypercalcemia worsening (5 patients, 15%) and dyspnea (3 patients, 9%).

Conclusions: In patients with HCM despite recent iv bisphosphonate treatment, denosumab lowered serum calcium in 64% of patients within 10 days, inducing durable responses. Denosumab may offer a new treatment option for HCM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2014-1001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4154084PMC
September 2014

Phase I/II trial assessing bendamustine plus bortezomib combination therapy for the treatment of patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma.

Br J Haematol 2013 Feb 15;160(3):321-30. Epub 2012 Nov 15.

Oncotherapeutics, Institute for Myeloma & Bone Cancer Research, 9201 W. Sunset Blvd, West Hollywood, CA 90069, USA.

Bendamustine, active in multiple myeloma (MM), is a bifunctional mechlorethamine derivative with alkylating properties. Bortezomib, approved to treat MM, is effective in combination with alkylators. The tolerability and efficacy of bendamustine plus bortezomib in relapsed/refractory MM was assessed in an open-label, dose-escalating, phase I/II study. Patients aged ≥18 years received intravenous bendamustine 50, 70, or 90 mg/m(2) (days 1 and 4) plus bortezomib 1·0 mg/m(2) (days 1, 4, 8, and 11) for up to eight 28-day cycles. No dose-limiting toxicity was observed after cycle 1; bendamustine 90 mg/m(2) plus bortezomib 1·0 mg/m(2) was designated the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). The most common grade 3/4 adverse events were leucopenia (58%), neutropenia (50%), lymphopenia (45%), and thrombocytopenia (30%). Primary efficacy measure was overall response rate (ORR), which was the combined complete response (CR), very good partial response (VGPR), partial response (PR), and minimal response (MR). ORR was 48% (one CR, two VGPR, nine PR, and seven MR) for all 40 enrolled patients, 52% (16/31) at the MTD (90 mg/m(2) ), and 42% and 46% for prior use of bortezomib (n = 31) or alkylators (n = 28) respectively. Bendamustine plus bortezomib was well tolerated with promising efficacy in this heavily pretreated population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.12129DOI Listing
February 2013

A modified regimen of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin, bortezomib and dexamethasone (DVD) is effective and well tolerated for previously untreated multiple myeloma patients.

Br J Haematol 2011 Dec 26;155(5):580-7. Epub 2011 Sep 26.

Oncotherapeutics, James R. Berenson, MD, Inc. Institute for Myeloma and Bone Cancer Research, 9201 W. Sunset Blvd., West Hollywood, CA 90069, USA.

The combination of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD), bortezomib and dexamethasone has shown efficacy in the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM) patients. Our earlier retrospective study suggested that modification of the doses, schedules and route of administration of these drugs appears to reduce toxicity without compromising anti-MM activity. As a result, we evaluated this modified drug combination in the frontline setting in a prospective multicentre phase II trial. Thirty-five previously untreated MM patients were enrolled. Dexamethasone IV 40 mg, bortezomib 1 mg/m(2) and PLD 5 mg/m(2) were administered on days 1, 4, 8 and 11 of a 4-week cycle. Patients were treated to their maximum response plus two additional cycles. The treatment regimen was discontinued after a maximum of eight cycles. Our modified schedule and dosing regimen achieved a high overall response rate of 86%, while showing a marked decrease in the incidence and severity of peripheral neuropathy, palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia and myelosuppression compared to the standard dosing on a 3-week cycle using these drugs. This modified regimen of dexamethasone, bortezomib and PLD shows improved tolerability and safety while maintaining a high response rate when compared to standard treatment with these agents in the frontline setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2141.2011.08884.xDOI Listing
December 2011

Bendamustine in patients with rituximab-refractory indolent and transformed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: results from a phase II multicenter, single-agent study.

J Clin Oncol 2008 Jan;26(2):204-10

James P. Wilmot Cancer Center, University of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Ave, Box 704, Rochester, NY, 14642, USA.

Purpose: Bendamustine hydrochloride is an alkylating agent with novel mechanisms of action. This phase II multicenter study evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of bendamustine in patients with B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) refractory to rituximab.

Patients And Methods: Patients received bendamustine 120 mg/m(2) intravenously on days 1 and 2 of each 21-day cycle. Outcomes included response, duration of response, progression-free survival, and safety.

Results: Seventy-six patients, ages 38 to 84 years, with predominantly stage III/IV indolent (80%) or transformed (20%) disease were treated; 74 were assessable for response. Twenty-four (32%) were refractory to chemotherapy. Patients received a median of two prior unique regimens. An overall response rate of 77% (15% complete response, 19% unconfirmed complete response, and 43% partial) was observed. The median duration of response was 6.7 months (95% CI, 5.1 to 9.9 months), 9.0 months (95% CI, 5.8 to 16.7) for patients with indolent disease, and 2.3 months (95% CI, 1.7 to 5.1) for those with transformed disease. Thirty-six percent of these responses exceeded 1 year. The most frequent nonhematologic adverse events included nausea and vomiting, fatigue, constipation, anorexia, fever, cough, and diarrhea. Grade 3 or 4 reversible hematologic toxicities included neutropenia (54%), thrombocytopenia (25%), and anemia (12%).

Conclusion: Single-agent bendamustine produced durable objective responses with acceptable toxicity in heavily pretreated patients with rituximab-refractory, indolent NHL. These findings are promising and will serve as a benchmark for future clinical trials in this novel patient population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2007.12.5070DOI Listing
January 2008

Efficacy and safety of melphalan, arsenic trioxide and ascorbic acid combination therapy in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma: a prospective, multicentre, phase II, single-arm study.

Br J Haematol 2006 Oct;135(2):174-83

Institute for Myeloma and Bone Cancer Research, West Hollywood, CA 90069, USA.

We assessed the safety and efficacy of melphalan, arsenic trioxide (ATO) and ascorbic acid (AA) (MAC) combination therapy for patients with multiple myeloma (MM) who failed more than two different prior regimens. Patients received melphalan (0.1 mg/kg p.o.), ATO (0.25 mg/kg i.v.) and AA (1 g i.v) on days 1-4 of week 1, ATO and AA twice weekly during weeks 2-5 and no treatment during week 6 of cycle 1; during cycles 2-6, the schedule remained the same except ATO and AA were given twice weekly in week 1. Objective responses occurred in 31 of 65 (48%) patients, including two complete, 15 partial and 14 minor responses. Median progression-free survival and overall survival were 7 and 19 months respectively. Twenty-two patients had elevated serum creatinine levels (SCr) at baseline, and 18 of 22 (82%) showed decreased SCr levels during treatment. Specific grade 3/4 haematological (3%) or cardiac adverse events occurred infrequently. Frequent grade 3/4 non-haematological adverse events included fever/chills (15%), pain (8%) and fatigue (6%). This steroid-free regimen was effective and well tolerated in this heavily pretreated group. These results indicate that the MAC regimen is a new therapeutic option for patients with relapsed or refractory MM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2141.2006.06280.xDOI Listing
October 2006

Phase II trial of idiotype vaccination in previously treated patients with indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma resulting in durable clinical responses.

J Clin Oncol 2006 Jul 5;24(19):3107-12. Epub 2006 Jun 5.

Sharp Healthcare, San Diego, CA, USA.

Purpose: To evaluate idiotype (Id) vaccination as a single agent in previously treated patients with indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

Patients And Methods: Patients underwent biopsy for determination of their lymphoma-specific Id sequence. Recombinant Id protein was manufactured and covalently linked with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) to generate Id/KLH. Patients received Id/KLH 1 mg on day 1 subcutaneously, with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor 250 mug on days 1 to 4, monthly for 6 months. Booster injections were administered until progression. Both clinical and immune responses were evaluated.

Results: Thirty-two previously treated patients received at least one injection of Id/KLH, and 31 were assessed for efficacy. Responses were observed in four patients (one complete response and three partial responses). Median time to onset of response was 5.9 months (range, 2.3 to 14.1 months). Median duration of response has not been reached but should be at least 19.4 months (range, 10.4 to 27.2+ months). Median time to progression is 13.5 months. The most common adverse events were mild to moderate injection site reactions. Six (67%) of nine patients tested demonstrated a cellular immune response, and four (20%) of 20 patients demonstrated an antibody response against their Id.

Conclusion: This trial demonstrates that Id/KLH alone can induce tumor regression and durable objective responses. Further study of Id/KLH is recommended in other settings where efficacy may be further enhanced as in first-line therapy or after cytoreductive therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2005.04.4289DOI Listing
July 2006