Publications by authors named "Albert Tran"

152 Publications

Clinical and Economic Impact of Previous Bariatric Surgery on Liver Transplantation: a Nationwide, Population-Based Retrospective Study.

Obes Surg 2021 Sep 9. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nice, Department of Clinical Research and Innovation, Université Côte D'Azur, Nice, France.

Purpose: The present study aims to determine the impact of previous bariatric surgery (BS) on the length of hospital stay; the incidence of mortality, re-transplantation, and re-hospitalization after LT; and the related economic costs, through the analysis of the French National Health Insurance Information System.

Materials And Methods: All patients aged > 18 years who underwent LT in France in the period from 2010 to 2019 were included. Thirty-nine patients with a history of BS (study group) were compared with 1798 obese patients without previous BS (control group).

Results: At the time of LT, patients with a history of BS were significantly younger than those of the control group and had lower Charlson comorbidity index. Female sex was significantly more represented in the study group. No significant differences were detected between the two groups regarding the postoperative mortality rate after LT (10.3% in the study group versus 8.0% in the control group), long-term mortality (0.038 versus 0.029 person-year of follow-up, respectively), re-transplantation (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 2.15, p = 0.2437), re-hospitalization (adjusted analysis, IRR = 0.93, p = 0.7517), and costs of LT hospitalization (73,515 € in the study group versus 65,878 € in the control group). After 1:2 propensity score matching, the duration of the LT hospital stay was significantly longer in the study group (58.3 versus 33.4 days, p = 0.0172).

Conclusion: No significant differences were detected between patients with previous BS versus obese patients without history of BS undergoing LT concerning the rates of mortality, re-LT, re-hospitalization after LT, and costs of hospitalization and re-hospitalizations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11695-021-05684-4DOI Listing
September 2021

SYK-3BP2 Pathway Activity in Parenchymal and Myeloid Cells Is a Key Pathogenic Factor in Metabolic Steatohepatitis.

Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Aug 16. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Université Côte d'Azur, INSERM, U1065, C3M, Nice, France. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) signaling pathway regulates critical processes in innate immunity, but its role in parenchymal cells remains elusive in chronic liver diseases. We investigate the relative contribution of SYK and its substrate c-Abl Src homology 3 domain-binding protein-2 (3BP2) in both myeloid cells and hepatocytes in the onset of metabolic steatohepatitis.

Methods: Hepatic SYK-3BP2 pathway was evaluated in mouse models of metabolic-associated fatty liver diseases (MAFLD) and in obese patients with biopsy-proven MAFLD (n = 33). Its role in liver complications was evaluated in Sh3bp2 KO and myeloid-specific Syk KO mice challenged with methionine and choline deficient diet and in homozygous Sh3bp2 mice with and without SYK expression in myeloid cells.

Results: Here we report that hepatic expression of 3BP2 and SYK correlated with metabolic steatohepatitis severity in mice. 3BP2 deficiency and SYK deletion in myeloid cells mediated the same protective effects on liver inflammation, injury, and fibrosis priming upon diet-induced steatohepatitis. In primary hepatocytes, the targeting of 3BP2 or SYK strongly decreased the lipopolysaccharide-mediated inflammatory mediator expression and 3BP2-regulated SYK expression. In homozygous Sh3bp2 mice, the chronic inflammation mediated by the proteasome-resistant 3BP2 mutant promoted severe hepatitis and liver fibrosis with augmented liver SYK expression. In these mice, the deletion of SYK in myeloid cells was sufficient to prevent these liver lesions. The hepatic expression of SYK is also up-regulated with metabolic steatohepatitis and correlates with liver macrophages in biopsy-proven MAFLD patients.

Conclusions: Collectively, these data suggest an important role for the SYK-3BP2 pathway in the pathogenesis of chronic liver inflammatory diseases and highlight its targeting in hepatocytes and myeloid cells as a potential strategy to treat metabolic steatohepatitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcmgh.2021.08.004DOI Listing
August 2021

NON-INVASIVE DIAGNOSIS AND FOLLOW-UP OF CHRONIC INFECTION WITH HEPATITIS C VIRUS.

Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol 2021 Jul 28:101771. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Service d'hépato-gastroentérologie, Hôpital Haut-Lévêque, CHU Bordeaux, pessac & INSERM U1053, Université de Bordeaux, Bordeaux.

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of chronic liver disease. Clinical care for patients with HCV-related liver disease has advanced considerably with developments in screening, diagnostic procedures to evaluate liver fibrosis and improvements in therapy with pangenotypic direct antivirals and prevention. These AFEF guidelines on the non-invasive diagnosis and follow up of chronic infection with HCV describe the optimal management of HCV positive patients with non-invasive methods in screening, in assessing viral disease and liver fibrosis and the follow-up of these patients according to the value of FibroScan®, Fibrotest® or Fibrometer®. Hepatocellular carcinoma screening must continue in patients with liver stiffness by FibroScan® ≥10 kPa or Fibrotest® >0.58 or Fibrometer® >0.78 prior to treatment initiation. After reaching sustained virologic response, patients with a measurement of liver stiffness by FibroScan®<10 kPa or Fibrotest®≤0.58 or Fibrometer®≤0.78 before treatment initiation and without liver comorbidity (alcohol consumption, metabolic syndrome, HBV co-infection etc.) no longer require specific monitoring. The role of liver biopsy is discussed in some rare situations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinre.2021.101771DOI Listing
July 2021

Expected outcomes and patients' selection before chemoembolization-"Six-and-Twelve or Pre-TACE-Predict" scores may help clinicians: Real-life French cohorts results.

World J Clin Cases 2021 Jun;9(18):4559-4572

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Hôpital Saint-Joseph, Marseille 13008, France.

Background: Careful selection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients prior to chemoembolization treatment is a daily reality, and is even more necessary with new available therapeutic options in HCC.

Aim: To propose two new models to better stratify patients and maximize clinical benefit: "6 and 12" and "pre/post-TACE-predict" (TACE, transarterial chemoembolization).

Methods: We evaluated and compared their performance in predicting overall survival with other systems {Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC), Albumin-Bilirubin (ALBI) and NIACE [Number of tumor(s), Infiltrative HCC, alpha-fetoprotein, Child-Pugh (CP), and performance status]} in two HCC French cohorts of different stages enrolled between 2010 and 2018.

Results: The cohorts included 324 patients classified as BCLC stages A/B (cohort 1) and 137 patients classified as BCLC stages B/C (cohort 2). The majority of the patients had cirrhosis with preserved liver function. "Pre-TACE-predict" and "6 and 12" models identified three distinct categories of patients exhibiting different prognosis in cohort 1. However, their prognostic value was no better than the BCLC system or NIACE score. Liver function based on CP and ALBI grades significantly impacted patient survival. Conversely, the "post-TACE-predict" model had a higher predictive value than other models. The stratification ability as well as predictive performance of these new models in an intermediate/advanced stage population was less efficient (cohort 2).

Conclusion: The newly proposed "Pre-TACE-predict" and "6 and 12" models offer an interesting stratification into three categories in a recommended TACE population, as they identify poor candidates, those with partial control and durable response. The models' contribution was reduced in a population with advanced stage HCCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12998/wjcc.v9.i18.4559DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8223847PMC
June 2021

Predictive factors for hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic hepatitis B using structural equation modeling: a prospective cohort study.

Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol 2021 Apr 27;45(5):101713. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Digestive Center, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nice, INSERM U1065-8, Nice, France.

Background & Aims: The factors predicting hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) occurrence in chronic hepatitis B need to be precisely known to improve its detection. We identified pathways and individual predictive factors associated with HCC in the ANRS CO22 HEPATHER cohort.

Methods: The study analyzed HBV-infected patients recruited at 32 French expert hepatology centers from August 6, 2012, to December 31, 2015. We excluded patients with chronic HCV, HDV and a history of HCC, decompensated cirrhosis or liver transplantation. Structural equation models were developed to characterize the causal pathways leading to HCC occurrence. The association between clinical characteristics (age, gender, body-mass index, liver fibrosis, alcohol consumption, smoking status, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, alpha-fetoprotein, HBV DNA levels, antiviral therapy) and incident HCC was quantified.

Results: Among the 4489 patients included, 33 patients reported incident HCC. The median follow-up was 45.5 months. Age (β = 0.18 by decade, 95% CI 0.14-0.23), male gender (β = 0.23, 95% CI 0.18-0.29), metabolic syndrome (β = 0.28, 95% CI 0.22-0.33), alcohol consumption (β = 0.09, 95% CI 0.05-0.14) and HBV DNA (β = 0.25, 95% CI 0.170.34) had a significant and direct effect on the occurrence of advanced liver fibrosis. Liver fibrosis (β = 0.71, 95% CI 0.55-0.87) predicted, in turn, the occurrence of HCC.

Conclusions: Liver fibrosis mediates the effects of age, gender, alcohol, metabolic syndrome and HBV DNA on the occurrence of HCC. Elderly men with chronic hepatitis B, risky alcohol use, advanced liver fibrosis, metabolic syndrome and high HBV DNA levels should be monitored closely to detect the development of HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinre.2021.101713DOI Listing
April 2021

MCD diet-induced steatohepatitis generates a diurnal rhythm of associated biomarkers and worsens liver injury in Klf10 deficient mice.

Sci Rep 2020 07 22;10(1):12139. Epub 2020 Jul 22.

Université Côte D'Azur, CNRS, INSERM, iBV, Nice, France.

A large number of hepatic functions are regulated by the circadian clock and recent evidence suggests that clock disruption could be a risk factor for liver complications. The circadian transcription factor Krüppel like factor 10 (KLF10) has been involved in liver metabolism as well as cellular inflammatory and death pathways. Here, we show that hepatic steatosis and inflammation display diurnal rhythmicity in mice developing steatohepatitis upon feeding with a methionine and choline deficient diet (MCDD). Core clock gene mRNA oscillations remained mostly unaffected but rhythmic Klf10 expression was abolished in this model. We further show that Klf10 deficient mice display enhanced liver injury and fibrosis priming upon MCDD challenge. Silencing Klf10 also sensitized primary hepatocytes to apoptosis along with increased caspase 3 activation in response to TNFα. This data suggests that MCDD induced steatohepatitis barely affects the core clock mechanism but leads to a reprogramming of circadian gene expression in the liver in analogy to what is observed in other experimental disease paradigms. We further identify KLF10 as a component of this transcriptional reprogramming and a novel hepato-protective factor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-69085-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7376252PMC
July 2020

Serum Alpha-fetoprotein Levels and Clinical Outcomes in the Phase III CELESTIAL Study of Cabozantinib versus Placebo in Patients with Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Clin Cancer Res 2020 09 7;26(18):4795-4804. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York.

Purpose: The phase III CELESTIAL study demonstrated improved overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) with cabozantinib versus placebo in patients with previously treated, advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We analyzed outcomes by baseline alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and on-treatment AFP changes.

Patients And Methods: Serum AFP was measured every 8 weeks by blinded, centralized testing. Outcomes were analyzed by baseline AFP bifurcated at 400 ng/mL and by on-treatment AFP response (≥20% decrease from baseline at Week 8). The optimal cutoff for change in AFP at Week 8 was evaluated using maximally selected rank statistics.

Results: Median OS for cabozantinib versus placebo was 13.9 versus 10.3 months [HR, 0.81; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.62-1.04] for patients with baseline AFP <400 ng/mL, and 8.5 versus 5.2 months (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.54-0.94) for patients with baseline AFP ≥400 ng/mL. Week 8 AFP response rate was 50% for cabozantinib versus 13% for placebo. In the cabozantinib arm, median OS for patients with and without AFP response was 16.1 versus 9.1 months (HR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.45-0.84). AFP response was independently associated with longer OS. The optimal cutoff for association with OS in the cabozantinib arm was ≤0% change in AFP at Week 8 [AFP control; HR 0.50 (95% CI, 0.35-0.71)]. HRs for PFS were consistent with those for OS.

Conclusions: Cabozantinib improved outcomes versus placebo across a range of baseline AFP levels. On-treatment AFP response and control rates were higher with cabozantinib than placebo, and were associated with longer OS and PFS with cabozantinib.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-19-3884DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7779341PMC
September 2020

Personalized surveillance for hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhosis - using machine learning adapted to HCV status.

J Hepatol 2020 12 29;73(6):1434-1445. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

AP-HP, Groupe Hospitalier de La Pitié-Salpêtrière, Service d'Hépatologie, Paris.

Background & Aims: Refining hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) surveillance programs requires improved individual risk prediction. Thus, we aimed to develop algorithms based on machine learning approaches to predict the risk of HCC more accurately in patients with HCV-related cirrhosis, according to their virological status.

Methods: Patients with compensated biopsy-proven HCV-related cirrhosis from the French ANRS CO12 CirVir cohort were included in a semi-annual HCC surveillance program. Three prognostic models for HCC occurrence were built, using (i) Fine-Gray regression as a benchmark, (ii) single decision tree (DT), and (iii) random survival forest for competing risks survival (RSF). Model performance was evaluated from C-indexes validated externally in the ANRS CO22 Hepather cohort (n = 668 enrolled between 08/2012-01/2014).

Results: Out of 836 patients analyzed, 156 (19%) developed HCC and 434 (52%) achieved sustained virological response (SVR) (median follow-up 63 months). Fine-Gray regression models identified 6 independent predictors of HCC occurrence in patients before SVR (past excessive alcohol intake, genotype 1, elevated AFP and GGT, low platelet count and albuminemia) and 3 in patients after SVR (elevated AST, low platelet count and shorter prothrombin time). DT analysis confirmed these associations but revealed more complex interactions, yielding 8 patient groups with varying cancer risks and predictors depending on SVR achievement. On RSF analysis, the most important predictors of HCC varied by SVR status (non-SVR: platelet count, GGT, AFP and albuminemia; SVR: prothrombin time, ALT, age and platelet count). Externally validated C-indexes before/after SVR were 0.64/0.64 [Fine-Gray], 0.60/62 [DT] and 0.71/0.70 [RSF].

Conclusions: Risk factors for hepatocarcinogenesis differ according to SVR status. Machine learning algorithms can refine HCC risk assessment by revealing complex interactions between cancer predictors. Such approaches could be used to develop more cost-effective tailored surveillance programs.

Lay Summary: Patients with HCV-related cirrhosis must be included in liver cancer surveillance programs, which rely on ultrasound examination every 6 months. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) screening is hampered by sensitivity issues, leading to late cancer diagnoses in a substantial number of patients. Refining surveillance periodicity and modality using more sophisticated imaging techniques such as MRI may only be cost-effective in patients with the highest HCC incidence. Herein, we demonstrate how machine learning algorithms (i.e. data-driven mathematical models to make predictions or decisions), can refine individualized risk prediction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2020.05.052DOI Listing
December 2020

Absence of impact of direct acting antivirals for hepatitis C virus on recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma tumor growth in the AFEF/ANRS CO22 Hepather cohort.

Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol 2021 Jan 25;45(1):101459. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Hepatology Unit, Hôpital Cochin, AP-HP, 27, rue du Fg Saint-Jacques, 75014 Paris, France.

Background: Although it has now been excluded that direct-acting antivirals (DAA) are associated with a significant risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in HCV-infected patients, a possible effect of DAA on tumor growth is still a subject of debate. We performed a blind comparison of the kinetics of HCC recurrence in patients after HCV treatment with or without DAA to evaluate the potential aggressiveness of HCC after DAA treatment.

Basic Procedures: Thirty-nine HCV-infected patients from the AFEF/ANRS CO22 Hepather cohort who experienced HCC recurrence after so-called curative treatment were evaluated. Contrast-enhanced CT and/or MR images were read blindly 6 months before HCC recurrence and during the follow-up period. Seventeen patients who received DAA (DAA+) before HCC recurrence were compared to the 22 who did not receive (DAA-), according to the LiRads and mRECIST criteria.

Main Findings: There were 28 men and 11 women, median age 62 years old, 37 (95%) with cirrhosis. DAA+ patients had a lower median MELD score (8±2 vs. 10±4, P=0.0286) than DAA- patients. The median time to HCC recurrence (time from the date of curative treatment to the diagnosis of recurrence) was not different (20 vs. 18 months) (P=0.73) between the two groups. There was no difference between the 2 groups in the overall survival and/or transplantation-free survival (P=0.71) and for the mRECIST time to progression (P=0.25).

Conclusion: This blinded analysis of HCC recurrence after HCC treatment does not support any negative impact of DAA therapy on the severity or progression of recurrent HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinre.2020.04.022DOI Listing
January 2021

No association between binge eating disorder and severity of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in severely obese patients.

JGH Open 2020 Jun 1;4(3):525-531. Epub 2020 Mar 1.

Cote d'Azur University, Nice Hospital, INSERM, U1065, C3M Nice France.

Background And Aim: The main aim of this study was to evaluate if the binge eating disorders (BEDs) related to obesity were associated with the severity of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

Methods: Severely obese patients who had been referred for bariatric surgery were included in this study at the Nice University Hospital. All patients underwent a liver biopsy at the time of surgery. Between 2008 and 2015, 388 patients had an assessable Bulimia Test (BULIT) self-questionnaire at the time of surgery. A subgroup ( = 183), between 2011 and 2015, also responded to a Beck Depression Inventory, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and a Fatigue Impact Scale autoquestionnaire. A control group of 29 healthy people matched by age and gender was included.

Results: Among the 388 obese patients (median age 40 years, body mass index 41.7 kg/m, 81% women), 14 patients had a "probable diagnosis" of BED, and 47 patients had a "high risk" of developing a BED according to the BULIT. Obese patients had significantly more severe BED, depression, anxiety, and fatigue compared to controls. Steatosis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, or fibrosis was not associated with BED. Similarly, the severity of NAFLD was not associated with depression, anxiety, or fatigue.

Conclusions: Severely obese patients had more severe BED, depression, anxiety, and fatigue than lean subjects independent of the severity of NAFLD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jgh3.12309DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7273712PMC
June 2020

Obesity and COVID-19: ACE 2, the Missing Tile.

Obes Surg 2020 11;30(11):4615-4617

Thoracic Surgery Department, University Hospital of Paris, Cochin Hospital, APHP Centre, Paris, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11695-020-04734-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7246964PMC
November 2020

Sofosbuvir-Daclatasvir is suboptimal in patients with genotype 2 chronic hepatitis C infection: real-life experience from the HEPATHER ANRS CO22 cohort.

J Viral Hepat 2020 10 21;27(10):964-973. Epub 2020 May 21.

Hepatology Unit, APHP Cochin, Paris, France.

Sofosbuvir plus daclatasvir with or without ribavirin has demonstrated a high efficacy and an acceptable safety profile in clinical trials of patients infected with genotype 2 hepatitis Cvirus (HCV); however, there are currently no real-world data available for this regimen. To evaluate the real-life safety and efficacy of sofosbuvir/daclatasvir with or without ribavirin in genotype 2 HCV patients in the French cohort ANRS CO22 HEPATHER(NCT01953458). In this ongoing, national, multicentre, prospective, observational study, we observed patients with HCV genotype 2 infection who initiated treatment with sofosbuvir (400 mg/d) plus daclatasvir with or without ribavirin (1-1.2 g/d). Patients were divided into two treatment groups: sofosbuvir/daclatasvir with or without ribavirin (12 weeks/24 weeks). The primary end point was a sustained virological response at week 12 following the end of therapy. Overall, 88% and 91% of patients achieved a sustained virological response following 12 and 24 weeks of treatment with sofosbuvir/daclatasvir with or without ribavirin, respectively. The most common adverse events were asthenia (29%), headache (15%) and fatigue (20%), and ribavirin addition was associated with a higher rate of adverse events and treatment discontinuation. Sofosbuvir/daclatasvir with or without ribavirin was associated with lower rates of sustained virological response in the real-life setting compared with the clinical setting and demonstrated suboptimal efficacy for the treatment of patients with genotype 2 chronic HCV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvh.13321DOI Listing
October 2020

Phase 3, Multicenter Open-Label study to investigate the efficacy of elbasvir and grazoprevir fixed-dose combination for 8 weeks in treatment-naïve, HCV GT1b-infected patients, with non-severe fibrosis.

Liver Int 2020 08 1;40(8):1853-1859. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Service de médecine digestive et hépato-biliaire CHU Estaing, Clermont-Ferrand, France.

Background: Genotype 1b is the most common HCV genotype worldwide, accounting for the largest proportion of infections in Europe, Russia, Latin America and Asia. Reducing treatment duration can improve adherence, reduce drug exposure and cost. Accordingly, we evaluated the efficacy of 8 weeks fixed-dose combination of grazoprevir-elbasvir in treatment-naïve patients, with non-severe fibrosis.

Methods: HCV mono-infected and treatment naïve patients with non-severe fibrosis (Fibroscan <9.5 kPa and Fibrotest  < 0.59) were enrolled in a study which included 117 patients. Genotyping by sequencing identified five patients with non-1b genotype (two GT1a, one GT1h, one GT1e and one GT1l). Thus, we included in the final analysis 112 GT1b patients. The primary end point was the proportion of patients with HCVRNA below the lower limit of quantification 12 weeks after treatment (SVR12).

Findings: Mean age was 54 ± 13 years, 31% were men and viral load was higher than 800.000 IU/mL in 70 of 112 patients (63%). Using Fibroscan , 100 had F0-1 fibrosis score. FIB-4 lower than 1.45 and APRI less than 1 was found in 74/112 (66%) and 107/112 (95%) patients respectively. Relapse occurred in three patients by week 12. These three patients had a viral load higher than 6 million IU/mL and NS5A Y93H RAS (resistance-associated substitution). Then, modified intention-to-treat SVR12 for patients with genotype 1b was 109/112 (97%). By week 24; five relapses were observed and all had the Y93H RAS at relapse. SVR12 was achieved in 100% of patients with a baseline viral load below 6 million and decreased to 98% (98/100) by follow-up week 24.

Interpretation: Naïve patients with genotype 1b and non-severe fibrosis can achieve an SVR12 of 97% and an SVR24 of 95%. Then, these patients can be treated with grazoprevir-elbasvir for 8 weeks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/liv.14502DOI Listing
August 2020

REDD1 deficiency protects against nonalcoholic hepatic steatosis induced by high-fat diet.

FASEB J 2020 04 11;34(4):5046-5060. Epub 2020 Feb 11.

Université Côte d'Azur, Inserm, C3M, Team "Cellular and Molecular Physiopathology of Obesity", France.

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is a chronic liver disease which is associated with obesity and insulin resistance. We investigated the implication of REDD1 (Regulated in development and DNA damage response-1), a stress-induced protein in the development of hepatic steatosis. REDD1 expression was increased in the liver of obese mice and morbidly obese patients, and its expression correlated with hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance in obese patients. REDD1 deficiency protected mice from the development of hepatic steatosis induced by high-fat diet (HFD) without affecting body weight gain and glucose intolerance. This protection was associated with a decrease in the expression of lipogenic genes, SREBP1c, FASN, and SCD-1 in liver of HFD-fed REDD1-KO mice. Healthy mitochondria are crucial for the adequate control of lipid metabolism and failure to remove damaged mitochondria is correlated with liver steatosis. Expression of markers of autophagy and mitophagy, Beclin, LC3-II, Parkin, BNIP3L, was enhanced in liver of HFD-fed REDD1-KO mice. The number of mitochondria showing colocalization between LAMP2 and AIF was increased in liver of HFD-fed REDD1-KO mice. Moreover, mitochondria in liver of REDD1-KO mice were smaller than in WT. These results are correlated with an increase in PGC-1α and CPT-1 expression, involved in fatty acid oxidation. In conclusion, loss of REDD1 protects mice from the development of hepatic steatosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.201901799RRDOI Listing
April 2020

The mid-infrared spectroscopy: A novel non-invasive diagnostic tool for NASH diagnosis in severe obesity.

JHEP Rep 2019 Nov 23;1(5):361-368. Epub 2019 Oct 23.

Université Côte d'Azur, CHU, INSERM, U1065, C3M, France.

There is an urgent medical need to develop non-invasive tests for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). This study evaluates the diagnostic performance of an innovative model based on mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy for the diagnosis of NASH.

Methods: Severely obese patients who underwent a bariatric procedure at the University Hospital of Nice, France (n = 395) were prospectively recruited. The clinico-biological characteristics were measured prior to surgery. Liver biopsies were collected during the surgical procedure and assessed by a pathologist. A training group (316 patients, NASH: 16.8%) and a validation group (79 patients, NASH: 16.5%) were randomly defined. MIR spectra were acquired by fiber evanescent wave spectroscopy, using chalcogenide glass fiber optic sensors and a spectrometer. This absorption spectroscopic technique delivers a spectrum that identifies the molecular composition of a sample, defining a patient's metabolic fingerprint.

Results: The areas under the receiver operating curve (AUROC) for the diagnosis of NASH were 0.82 and 0.77 in the training and validation groups, respectively. The best threshold was 0.15, which was associated with a sensitivity of 0.75 and 0.69, and a specificity of 0.72 and 0.76. Negative predictive values of 0.94 and 0.93 and positive predictive values of 0.35 and 0.36, as well as correctly classified patient rates of 72% and 75% were obtained in the training and validation groups, respectively. A composite model using aspartate aminotransferase level, triglyceride level and waist circumference alongside the MIR spectra led to an increase in AUROC (0.88 and 0.84 for the training and validations groups, respectively).

Conclusions: MIR spectroscopy provides good sensitivity and negative predictive values for NASH screening in patients with severe obesity.

Lay Summary: There is an urgent need for tools to non-invasively diagnose and monitor non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). This study evaluates the performance of a new tool for fast NASH diagnosis based on mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy. Using serum samples from severely obese patients who underwent a bariatric procedure, which enabled a concomitant liver biopsy to be performed, the MIR spectroscopy model performed well in screening patients for NASH compared to a traditional, histological diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhepr.2019.09.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7005664PMC
November 2019

Hepatic FNDC5 is a potential local protective factor against Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis 2020 05 27;1866(5):165705. Epub 2020 Jan 27.

Université Côte d'Azur, INSERM, U1065, C3M, Nice, France. Electronic address:

The proteolytic cleavage of Fibronectin type III domain-containing 5 (FNDC5) generates soluble irisin. Initially described as being mainly produced in muscle during physical exercise, irisin mediates adipose tissue thermogenesis and also regulates carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hepatic expression of FNDC5 and its role in hepatocytes in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver (NAFL). Here we report that hepatic expression of FNDC5 increased with hepatic steatosis and liver injury without impacting the systemic level of irisin in mouse models of NAFLD (HFD and MCDD) and in obese patients. The increased Fndc5 expression in fatty liver resulted from its upregulation in hepatocytes and non-parenchymal cells in mice. The local production of Fndc5 in hepatocytes was influenced by genotoxic stress and p53-dependent pathways. The down-regulation of FNDC5 in human HepG2 cells and in primary mouse hepatocytes increased the expression of PEPCK, a key enzyme involved in gluconeogenesis associated with a decrease in the expression of master genes involved in the VLDL synthesis (CIDEB and APOB). These alterations in FNDC5-silenced cells resulted to increased steatosis and insulin resistance in response to oleic acid and N-acetyl glucosamine, respectively. The downregulation of Fndc5 also sensitized primary hepatocytes to apoptosis in response to TNFα, which has been associated with decreased hepatoprotective autophagic flux. In conclusion, our human and experimental data strongly suggest that the hepatic expression of FNDC5 increased with hepatic steatosis and its upregulation in hepatocytes could dampen the development of NAFLD by negatively regulating steatogenesis and hepatocyte death.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbadis.2020.165705DOI Listing
May 2020

Efficacy and safety of elbasvir/grazoprevir for 8 or 12 weeks for hepatitis C virus genotype 4 infection: A randomized study.

Liver Int 2020 05 22;40(5):1042-1051. Epub 2020 Mar 22.

Department of Hepatology, Hôpital de Hautepierre, Universitaires de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.

Background & Aims: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype (GT) 4 infection is prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa and the Middle East, particularly in Egypt. This study evaluated the safety and efficacy of elbasvir/grazoprevir administered for 8 and 12 weeks in participants with HCV GT4 infection.

Methods: In this partially randomized, open-label multicentre study conducted in France (NCT03111108; Protocol MK5172-096), treatment-naive participants with GT4 infection and F0-F2 fibrosis were randomized 2:1 to elbasvir (50 mg)/grazoprevir (100 mg) for 8 or 12 weeks. Treatment-naive participants with F3-F4 fibrosis and all treatment-experienced participants (F0-F4) were assigned to elbasvir/grazoprevir for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was sustained virologic response (SVR) 12 weeks after the end of therapy.

Results: One hundred and seventeen participants were enrolled. Among treatment-naive participants with F0-F2 fibrosis, SVR was achieved by 94% (50/53) and 96% (26/27) of those receiving elbasvir/grazoprevir for 8 or 12 weeks, respectively, and four participants relapsed. In the 12-week arm, 95% (35/37) achieved SVR and two participants relapsed. NS5A resistance-associated substitutions were present at baseline and virologic failure in five of the participants with relapse. Drug-related adverse events occurred in 42% (n = 22) and 50% (n = 32) of participants receiving 8 and 12 weeks of treatment, respectively. No participant discontinued treatment owing to an adverse event.

Conclusion: These data confirm the efficacy of elbasvir/grazoprevir administered for 12 weeks in treatment-experienced individuals with HCV GT4 infection and those with advanced fibrosis. Treatment-naive individuals with mild fibrosis can be treated effectively with an 8-week regimen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/liv.14313DOI Listing
May 2020

The Differential Expression of Cide Family Members is Associated with Nafld Progression from Steatosis to Steatohepatitis.

Sci Rep 2019 05 16;9(1):7501. Epub 2019 May 16.

Université Côte d'Azur, INSERM, U1065, C3M, Nice, France.

Improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms responsible for the progression from a "non-pathogenic" steatotic state to Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis is an important clinical requirement. The cell death-inducing DFF45 like effector (CIDE) family members (A, B and FSP27) regulate hepatic lipid homeostasis by controlling lipid droplet growth and/or VLDL production. However, CIDE proteins, particularly FSP27, have a dual role in that they also regulate cell death. We here report that the hepatic expression of CIDEA and FSP27 (α/β) was similarly upregulated in a dietary mouse model of obesity-mediated hepatic steatosis. In contrast, CIDEA expression decreased, but FSP27-β expression strongly increased in a dietary mouse model of steatohepatitis. The inverse expression pattern of CIDEA and FSP27β was amplified with the increasing severity of the liver inflammation and injury. In obese patients, the hepatic CIDEC2 (human homologue of mouse FSP27β) expression strongly correlated with the NAFLD activity score and liver injury. The hepatic expression of CIDEA tended to increase with obesity, but decreased with NAFLD severity. In hepatic cell lines, the downregulation of FSP27β resulted in the fractionation of lipid droplets, whereas its overexpression decreased the expression of the anti-apoptotic BCL2 marker. This, in turn, sensitized cells to apoptosis in response to TNF α and saturated fatty acid. Considered together, our animal, human and in vitro studies indicate that differential expression of FSP27β/CIDEC2 and CIDEA is related to NAFLD progression and liver injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-43928-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6522528PMC
May 2019

Doxorubicin-loaded nanoparticles for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma after sorafenib treatment failure (RELIVE): a phase 3 randomised controlled trial.

Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019 06 4;4(6):454-465. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Onxeo, Paris, France.

Background: Cytotoxic chemotherapy is generally ineffective in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. We assessed the intravenous perfusion of doxorubicin-loaded nanoparticles in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma in whom previous sorafenib therapy had failed.

Methods: We did a multicentre, open-label, randomised, controlled phase 3 trial at 70 sites in 11 countries. Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma with one or more previous systemic therapies, including sorafenib, were randomly assigned to receive 30 mg/m doxorubicin-loaded nanoparticles (30 mg/m group), 20 mg/m doxorubicin-loaded nanoparticles (20 mg/m group), or standard care using a computer-generated randomisation list prepared by the funder and stratified by geographic region. Patients in the experimental groups received perfusion of the drug every 4 weeks and those in the control group received any systemic anticancer therapy (except sorafenib) as per investigator decision. The primary endpoint was overall survival in the intention-to-treat population. Safety was assessed in the population of patients who received at least one dose of their assigned treatment. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01655693.

Findings: Between June 15, 2012, and Jan 27, 2017, 541 patients were screened, of whom 144 were excluded and 397 were randomly assigned to one of the groups (133 to the 30 mg/m group; 130 to the 20 mg/m group; and 134 to the control group). Median follow-up was 22·7 months (IQR 11·2-34·9). After pooling the doxorubicin groups for the efficacy analysis, median overall survival was 9·1 months (95% CI 8·1-10·4) in the pooled doxorubicin-loaded nanoparticles group and 9·0 months (7·1-11·8) in the control group (HR 1·00 [95% CI 0·78-1·28], two-sided p=0·99). 227 (94%) of 242 patients who received doxorubicin-loaded nanoparticles and 100 (75%) of 134 patients in the control group had at least one treatment-emergent adverse event. The most common drug-related grade 3 or 4 treatment-emergent adverse events were neutropenia (25 [10%] of 242 treated with doxorubicin-loaded nanoparticles and eight [6%] of 134 in the control group), asthenia (six [2%] and four [3%]), and thrombocytopenia (three [1%] and ten [7%]). Six (2%) patients treated with doxorubicin-loaded nanoparticles and one (1%) of those in the control group were deemed by investigators to have had a drug-related death. Serious adverse events occurred in 74 (31%) patients who received doxorubicin-loaded nanoparticles and 48 (36%) in the control group.

Interpretation: Doxorubicin-loaded nanoparticles did not improve overall survival for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma in whom previous sorafenib treatment had failed.

Funding: Onxeo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2468-1253(19)30040-8DOI Listing
June 2019

Safety and efficacy of the combination simeprevir-sofosbuvir in HCV genotype 1- and 4-mono-infected patients from the French ANRS CO22 hepather cohort.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Apr 2;19(1):300. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Sorbonne Université, INSERM, Institut Pierre Louis d'épidémiologie et de Santé Publique, F75012, Paris, France.

Background: Although real-life results of sofosbuvir/simeprevir have been extensively reported from the United States, data from other geographical areas are limited. In the French observational cohort, ANRS CO22 HEPATHER, 9432 patients were given the new oral antivirals from December 2013 to June 30, 2018. We report the results of sofosbuvir/simeprevir in genotypes 1- and 4-infected patients.

Methods: Demographics and history of liver disease were collected at entry in the cohort. Clinical, adverse events, and virological data were collected throughout treatment and post-treatment follow-up. The choice of treatment duration or addition of ribavirin was left up to the physician.

Results: Five hundred ninety-nine HCV (467 genotype 1 and 132 genotype 4) mono-infected, naïve for all oral-DAAs regimen patients were given sofosbuvir/simeprevir with (n = 63) or without ribavirin (n = 536) for 12 or 24 weeks; 56% had cirrhosis (4% decompensated) and 71% had prior treatment failure to interferon-based regimen. 7 patients (1.16%) were lost to follow-up. The overall SVR12 rate was 92.6%. The SVR12 was 90% in GT1a, 94.2% in GT1b and 91.6% in GT4 with no significant difference for genotype, treatment duration or ribavirin addition. Severity of liver disease was not associated with a lower SVR12 rate on multivariate analysis but was associated with a higher rate of severe side effects. Early treatment discontinuations were rare; no new safety signals were reported.

Conclusion: In this real life, observational, prospective cohort study, the 12-week sofosbuvir/simeprevir+/-ribavirin combination appears to be efficient and safe.

Trial Registration: Trial registration with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01953458 .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3923-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6446259PMC
April 2019

Safety and Pharmacokinetics of Glecaprevir/Pibrentasvir in Adults With Chronic Genotype 1-6 Hepatitis C Virus Infections and Compensated Liver Disease.

Clin Infect Dis 2019 10;69(10):1657-1664

AbbVie Inc., North Chicago, Illinois.

Background: Untreated, chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection may lead to progressive liver damage, which can be mitigated by successful treatment. This integrated analysis reports the safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics (PK) of the ribavirin-free, direct-acting, antiviral, fixed-dose combination of glecaprevir/pibrentasvir (G/P) in patients with chronic HCV genotype 1-6 infections and compensated liver disease, including patients with chronic kidney disease stages 4 or 5 (CKD 4/5).

Methods: Data from 9 Phase II and III clinical trials, assessing the efficacy and safety of G/P treatment for 8-16 weeks, were included. The presence of cirrhosis was determined at screening using a liver biopsy, transient elastography, or serum biomarkers. The objectives were to evaluate safety, the rate of sustained virologic response at post-treatment week 12 (SVR12), and steady-state PK by cirrhosis status.

Results: Among 2369 patients, 308 (13%) were Child-Pugh Class A, including 20 with CKD 4/5. Overall, <1% of patients experienced an adverse event (AE) that led to G/P discontinuation or G/P-related serious AEs (SAEs). The most common AEs were headache and fatigue, occurring at similar frequencies with and without cirrhosis. SAEs were more common in patients with CKD 4/5, but all were unrelated to G/P. There were no cases of drug-induced liver injury or clinically relevant hepatic decompensation. SVR12 rates were 96.4% (297/308) with compensated cirrhosis and 97.5% (2010/2061) without cirrhosis. PK analysis demonstrated a 2.2-fold increase in glecaprevir exposure, but not pibrentasvir exposure, in patients with compensated cirrhosis.

Conclusions: G/P was safe and efficacious in patients with compensated liver disease, including those with CKD 4/5.

Clinical Trials Registration: NCT02243280, NCT02243293, NCT02604017, NCT02640482, NCT02640157, NCT02636595, NCT02642432, NCT02651194, and NCT02446717.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6821220PMC
October 2019

Ombitasvir, Paritaprevir, Ritonavir, and Dasabuvir With or Without Ribavirin in Patients With Kidney Disease.

Kidney Int Rep 2019 Feb 16;4(2):245-256. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

Mount Sinai Beth Israel, New York, New York, USA.

Introduction: Patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are a high-priority population for treatment.

Methods: We performed a pooled efficacy and safety analysis that included HCV genotype 1-infected patients with compensated liver disease and CKD stages 1 to 3 who received the all-oral 3-direct-acting antiviral regimen of ombitasvir, paritaprevir, ritonavir, and dasabuvir ± ribavirin (OBV/PTV/r + DSV ± RBV) in 11 phase 3 clinical trials. Sustained virologic response rates at posttreatment week 12 (SVR12) and treatment-related adverse events (AEs), serious AEs, and renal-associated AEs are reported. Mean changes from baseline in serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were calculated to assess changes in renal function. Factors associated with improved eGFR were assessed by stepwise logistic regression analysis of data from 7 trials in which baseline urinalysis was collected.

Results: SVR12 rates in patients with stage 1, 2, and 3 CKD were 97% (439/453), 98% (536/547), and 97% (32/33), respectively, with OBV/PTV/r + DSV; and, 96% (1172/1221), 96% (1208/1254), and 93% (55/59), respectively, with OBV/PTV/r + DSV + RBV. Overall rates of serious AEs and renal AEs were 3% (95/3567) and 2% (56/3567), respectively. Factors associated with an eGFR increase of ≥10 ml/min per 1.73 m were baseline proteinuria, body mass index, nonblack race, and history of diabetes.

Conclusion: OBV/PTV/r + DSV ± RBV achieved high SVR rates and was generally well tolerated irrespective of CKD stage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ekir.2018.10.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6365509PMC
February 2019

Validation of Baveno VI Criteria for Screening and Surveillance of Esophageal Varices in Patients With Compensated Cirrhosis and a Sustained Response to Antiviral Therapy.

Gastroenterology 2019 03 13;156(4):997-1009.e5. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Hôpital Trousseau, Unité d'Hépatologie, CHRU de Tours.

Background & Aims: Management of patients with cirrhosis includes endoscopic screening and surveillance to detect esophageal varices (EV) and prevent bleeding. However, the Baveno VI guidelines recommend avoiding endoscopies for patients with liver stiffness measurements below 20 kPa and platelet counts above 150,000 (favorable Baveno VI status) and endoscopic assessment of patients with higher levels of liver stiffness and platelet counts (unfavorable Baveno VI status). We aimed to validate the Baveno VI guidelines, evaluating outcomes of patients in the ANRS-CO12 CirVir cohort with compensated cirrhosis associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, with or without a sustained response to antiviral therapy.

Methods: We performed an ancillary study using data from 891 patients in the ANRS CO12 CirVir cohort, treated at 35 centers in France, with HCV or HBV infection and biopsy-proven cirrhosis, Child-Pugh A scores, no previous complications, and no hepatocellular carcinoma who underwent an endoscopic procedure and had interpretable liver stiffness measurements and platelet counts. Progression of portal hypertension (PHT) was defined as the onset of varices needing treatment (VNT) or PHT-related bleeding. An sustained response to antiviral therapy was defined as undetectable level of HCV RNA by polymerase chain reaction assay (<50 IU/mL) 12 weeks after the end of treatment (SVR) or an undetectable level of HBV DNA. The primary aims were to validate the Baveno VI guidelines for screening and surveillance of EV in patients with compensated cirrhosis and to study the effects of an SVR on the progression of PHT.

Results: A total of 200 patients achieved an SVR (22.4%) (94 patients with HCV infection, 98 patients with HBV infection, and 8 patients with both); 80 of these patients had favorable Baveno VI status and none had VNT. Progression of PHT was studied in 548 patients; during a follow-up period of 61.2 months (interquartile range, 39.5-80.6 months), 105 of these patients (19.1%) had progression of PHT. Lack of an SVR and grade 1 EV were independently associated with progression of PHT. At the time of PHT progression, all patients had unfavorable Baveno VI status. Achieving favorable Baveno VI status after an SVR was associated with the absence of PHT progression. Favorable Baveno VI status and SVR were independently associated with survival.

Conclusions: In an analysis of data from a large cohort of patients with HBV- or HCV-associated cirrhosis in France, we validated the Baveno VI guidelines on screening and surveillance of PHT, even for patients who achieved a sustained response to antiviral therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2018.11.053DOI Listing
March 2019

Clinical outcomes in patients with chronic hepatitis C after direct-acting antiviral treatment: a prospective cohort study.

Lancet 2019 Apr 11;393(10179):1453-1464. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Unit of Hepatology, Hépatogastroentérologie, CHU Trousseau, Tours, France.

Background: Although direct-acting antivirals have been used extensively to treat patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, their clinical effectiveness has not been well reported. We compared the incidence of death, hepatocellular carcinoma, and decompensated cirrhosis between patients treated with direct-acting antivirals and those untreated, in the French ANRS CO22 Hepather cohort.

Methods: We did a prospective study in adult patients with chronic HCV infection enrolled from 32 expert hepatology centres in France. We excluded patients with chronic hepatitis B, those with a history of decompensated cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, or liver transplantation, and patients who were treated with interferon-ribavirin with or without first-generation protease inhibitors. Co-primary study outcomes were incidence of all-cause mortality, hepatocellular carcinoma, and decompensated cirrhosis. The association between direct-acting antivirals and these outcomes was quantified using time-dependent Cox proportional hazards models. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01953458.

Findings: Between Aug 6, 2012, and Dec 31, 2015, 10 166 patients were eligible for the study. 9895 (97%) patients had available follow-up information and were included in analyses. Median follow-up was 33·4 months (IQR 24·0-40·7). Treatment with direct-acting antivirals was initiated during follow-up in 7344 patients, and 2551 patients remained untreated at the final follow-up visit. During follow-up, 218 patients died (129 treated, 89 untreated), 258 reported hepatocellular carcinoma (187 treated, 71 untreated), and 106 had decompensated cirrhosis (74 treated, 32 untreated). Exposure to direct-acting antivirals was associated with increased risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR] 2·77, 95% CI 2·07-3·71) and decompensated cirrhosis (3·83, 2·29-6·42). After adjustment for variables (age, sex, body-mass index, geographical origin, infection route, fibrosis score, HCV treatment-naive, HCV genotype, alcohol consumption, diabetes, arterial hypertension, biological variables, and model for end-stage liver disease score in patients with cirrhosis), exposure to direct-acting antivirals was associated with a decrease in all-cause mortality (adjusted HR 0·48, 95% CI 0·33-0·70) and hepatocellular carcinoma (0·66, 0·46-0·93), and was not associated with decompensated cirrhosis (1·14, 0·57-2·27).

Interpretation: Treatment with direct-acting antivirals is associated with reduced risk for mortality and hepatocellular carcinoma and should be considered in all patients with chronic HCV infection.

Funding: INSERM-ANRS (France Recherche Nord & Sud Sida-HIV Hépatites), ANR (Agence Nationale de la Recherche), DGS (Direction Générale de la Santé), MSD, Janssen, Gilead, AbbVie, Bristol-Myers Squibb, and Roche.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(18)32111-1DOI Listing
April 2019

Lusutrombopag for the Treatment of Thrombocytopenia in Patients With Chronic Liver Disease Undergoing Invasive Procedures (L-PLUS 2).

Hepatology 2019 10 15;70(4):1336-1348. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

Thrombocytopenia may be associated with increased bleeding risk impacting timing and outcome of invasive procedures in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD). Lusutrombopag, a small-molecule, thrombopoietin (TPO) receptor agonist, was evaluated as a treatment to raise platelet counts (PCs) in patients with thrombocytopenia and CLD undergoing invasive procedures. L-PLUS 2 was a global, phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Adults with CLD and baseline PCs < 50 × 10 /L were randomized to receive once-daily lusutrombopag 3 mg or placebo ≤ 7 days before an invasive procedure scheduled 2-7 days after the last dose. The primary endpoint was avoidance of preprocedure platelet transfusion and avoidance of rescue therapy for bleeding. A key secondary endpoint was number of days PCs were ≥ 50 × 10 /L throughout the study. Safety analysis was performed on patients who received at least one dose of study drug. This study occurred between June 15, 2015, and April 19, 2017, with a total of 215 randomized patients (lusutrombopag, 108; placebo, 107); 64.8% (70/108) of patients in the lusutrombopag group versus 29.0% (31/107) in the placebo group met the primary endpoint (P < 0.0001; difference of proportion 95% confidence interval [CI], 36.7 [24.9, 48.5]). The median duration of PCs ≥ 50 × 10 /L was 19.2 days with lusutrombopag (without platelet transfusion) compared with 0.0 in the placebo group (with platelet transfusion) (P = 0.0001). Most adverse events were mild or moderate in severity, and rates were similar in the lusutrombopag and placebo groups (47.7% and 48.6%, respectively). Conclusion: Lusutrombopag was superior to placebo for reducing the need for platelet transfusions and achieved durable PC response in patients with thrombocytopenia and CLD undergoing invasive procedures, with a safety profile similar to placebo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.30561DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6849531PMC
October 2019

Non-virological factors are drivers of hepatocellular carcinoma in virosuppressed hepatitis B cirrhosis: Results of ANRS CO12 CirVir cohort.

J Viral Hepat 2019 03 16;26(3):384-396. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

AP-HP, Hôpital Saint-Antoine, Hépatologie, Paris, France.

Worldwide, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) occurs mainly in Asian patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. This study aimed to decipher the environmental and virological factors associated with HCC occurrence and validate risk scoring systems in a French multicentre prospective cohort of HBV cirrhotic patients. Patients with biopsy-proven Child-Pugh A viral cirrhosis included in the ANRS CO12 CirVir cohort who were HBsAg(+) without hepatitis C coinfection were selected for: (a) interview through a standardized questionnaire reporting coffee consumption and HCC familial history; (b) HBsAg quantification using baseline and sequential 2-year frozen sera; (c) baseline HBV genotype determination; and (d) assessment of risk factors and applicability of HCC risk scores (Kaplan-Meier analysis, Cox models). Among 317 patients studied (261 men, median age 53 years, past or ongoing antiviral treatment 93.3% and baseline detectable HBV DNA in 88 patients), the baseline and 2-year median HBsAg levels were 810 and 463 IU/mL, respectively. After a median follow-up of 65.2 months, 27 HCC cases were diagnosed (annual incidence: 1.6%). Three factors were independently associated with HCC occurrence: age > 50 years, platelets ≤ 150 × 10 /mm and body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m . Two out of five risk scores were validated, and the most accurate was PAGE-B at 1 year. Moreover, HCC in patients without maintained virological suppression seems more aggressive and less accessible to curative treatment. In conclusion, in French patients with HBV cirrhosis mostly virally suppressed, independent HCC risk factors were host-related (age, obesity) or linked to the severity of cirrhosis (thrombopenia), and the European PAGE-B score was the most accurate risk score.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvh.13029DOI Listing
March 2019

Estimate of hepatocellular carcinoma incidence in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis.

J Hepatol 2018 12 6;69(6):1274-1283. Epub 2018 Aug 6.

SBIM, APHP, Hôpital Saint-Louis, Paris, Inserm, UMR-1153, ECSTRA Team, Paris, France.

Background & Aims: More than 90% of cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) occur in patients with cirrhosis, of which alcohol is a major cause. The CIRRAL cohort aimed to assess the burden of complications in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis, particularly the occurrence of HCC.

Methods: Patients with biopsy-proven compensated alcoholic cirrhosis were included then prospectively followed. The main endpoint was the incidence of HCC. Secondary outcomes were incidence of hepatic focal lesions, overall survival (OS), liver-related mortality and event-free survival (EFS).

Results: From October 2010 to April 2016, 652 patients were included in 22 French and Belgian centers. During follow-up (median 29 months), HCC was diagnosed in 43 patients. With the limitation derived from the uncertainty of consecutive patients' inclusion and from a sizable proportion of dropouts (153/652), the incidence of HCC was 2.9 per 100 patient-years, and one- and two-year cumulative incidences of 1.8% and 5.2%, respectively. Although HCC fulfilled the Milan criteria in 33 cases (77%), only 24 patients (56%) underwent curative treatment. An explorative prognostic analysis showed that age, male gender, baseline alpha-fetoprotein, bilirubin and prothrombin were significantly associated with the risk of HCC occurrence. Among 73 deaths, 61 had a recorded cause and 27 were directly attributable to liver disease. At two years, OS, EFS and cumulative incidences of liver-related deaths were 93% (95% CI 90.5-95.4), 80.3% (95% CI 76.9-83.9), and 3.2% (95% CI 1.6-4.8) respectively.

Conclusion: This large prospective cohort incompletely representative of the whole population with alcoholic cirrhosis showed: a) an annual incidence of HCC of up to 2.9 per 100 patient-years, suggesting that surveillance might be cost effective in these patients; b) a high proportion of HCC detected within the Milan criteria, but only one-half of detected HCC cases were referred for curative treatments; c) a two-year mortality rate of up to 7%.

Lay Summary: Cirrhosis is a risk factor for primary liver cancer, leading to recommendations for periodic screening. However, for alcohol-related liver disease the rational of periodic screening for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is controversial, as registry and databased studies have suggested a low incidence of HCC in these patients and highly competitive mortality rates. In this study, a large cohort of patients with biopsy-proven alcoholic cirrhosis prospectively screened for HCC demonstrated a high annual incidence of HCC (2.9%) and a high percentage of small cancers theoretically eligible for curative treatment. This suggests that patients with liver disease related to alcohol should not be ruled out of screening.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2018.07.022DOI Listing
December 2018
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