Publications by authors named "Albert Oriol"

168 Publications

Health-related quality of life in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma: treatment with daratumumab, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone in the phase 3 POLLUX trial.

Br J Haematol 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Janssen Global Services, Raritan, NJ, USA.

In the phase 3 POLLUX trial, daratumumab in combination with lenalidomide and dexamethasone (D-Rd) significantly improved progression-free survival in patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) compared with lenalidomide and dexamethasone (Rd) alone. Here, we present patient-reported outcomes (PROs) from POLLUX, assessed using the validated European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30-item (EORTC QLQ-C30) and the EuroQol 5-dimensional descriptive system (EQ-5D-5L) questionnaires. Changes from baseline are presented as least-squares mean changes with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) derived from a mixed-effects model. PRO assessment compliance rates were high and similar in both D-Rd and Rd groups through cycle 40 (week 156). In this on-treatment analysis, mean changes from baseline were significantly greater in EORTC QLQ-C30 global health status, physical functioning, and pain scores in the D-Rd group versus the Rd group at multiple time points; however, magnitude of changes was low, suggesting no meaningful impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Subgroup results were similar to those in the overall population. In the POLLUX study, baseline HRQoL was maintained with prolonged D-Rd treatment. These findings complement the sustained and significant improvement in progression-free survival observed with D-Rd and supports its use in patients with RRMM. Clinical trial registration: NCT02076009.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.17435DOI Listing
April 2021

Idecabtagene Vicleucel in Relapsed and Refractory Multiple Myeloma.

N Engl J Med 2021 02;384(8):705-716

From the Jerome Lipper Multiple Myeloma Center, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (N.C.M.), the Veterans Affairs Boston Healthcare System, Harvard Medical School (N.C.M.), and Massachusetts General Hospital (N.R.), Boston, and bluebird bio, Cambridge (F.P., M.M.) - all in Massachusetts; Simmons Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas (L.D.A.); the University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (N.S.); Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York (D.M.); Sarah Cannon Research Institute and Tennessee Oncology, Nashville (J.B.); Emory School of Medicine, Atlanta (S.L.); Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (Y.L.); Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack (D.S.), and Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton (J.N.C., S.K., P.P., L.H., T.B.C., K.H.) - both in New Jersey; Institut Josep Carreras and Institut Catala d'Oncologia, Hospital Germans Trias i Pujol, Badalona (A.O.), and Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Centro de Investigación Médica Aplicada, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Navarra, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Cáncer, Pamplona (J.S.-M.) - both in Spain; Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) de Nantes, Nantes (P.M.), and CHU de Lille, University of Lille, INSERM Unité 1286, Institute for Translational Research in Inflammation, Lille (I.Y.-A.) - both in France; University Hospital Leuven, Leuven, Belgium (M.D.); "Seràgnoli" Institute of Hematology, Bologna University School of Medicine, Bologna (M.C.), the Department of Oncology and Hematology, University of Milan, Milan (A.R.), and Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale Papa Giovanni XXIII, Bergamo (A.R.) - all in Italy; University Hospital of Würzburg, Würzburg (H.E.), University Hospital Heidelberg (H.G.) and the National Center for Tumor Diseases (H.G.), Heidelberg, the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (K.W.), and Universitätsklinikum Tübingen, Tübingen (K.W.) - all in Germany; and Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto (D.R.).

Background: Idecabtagene vicleucel (ide-cel, also called bb2121), a B-cell maturation antigen-directed chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy, has shown clinical activity with expected CAR T-cell toxic effects in patients with relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma.

Methods: In this phase 2 study, we sought to confirm the efficacy and safety of ide-cel in patients with relapsed and refractory myeloma. Patients with disease after at least three previous regimens including a proteasome inhibitor, an immunomodulatory agent, and an anti-CD38 antibody were enrolled. Patients received ide-cel target doses of 150 × 10 to 450 × 10 CAR-positive (CAR+) T cells. The primary end point was an overall response (partial response or better); a key secondary end point was a complete response or better (comprising complete and stringent complete responses).

Results: Of 140 patients enrolled, 128 received ide-cel. At a median follow-up of 13.3 months, 94 of 128 patients (73%) had a response, and 42 of 128 (33%) had a complete response or better. Minimal residual disease (MRD)-negative status (<10 nucleated cells) was confirmed in 33 patients, representing 26% of all 128 patients who were treated and 79% of the 42 patients who had a complete response or better. The median progression-free survival was 8.8 months (95% confidence interval, 5.6 to 11.6). Common toxic effects among the 128 treated patients included neutropenia in 117 patients (91%), anemia in 89 (70%), and thrombocytopenia in 81 (63%). Cytokine release syndrome was reported in 107 patients (84%), including 7 (5%) who had events of grade 3 or higher. Neurotoxic effects developed in 23 patients (18%) and were of grade 3 in 4 patients (3%); no neurotoxic effects higher than grade 3 occurred. Cellular kinetic analysis confirmed CAR+ T cells in 29 of 49 patients (59%) at 6 months and 4 of 11 patients (36%) at 12 months after infusion.

Conclusions: Ide-cel induced responses in a majority of heavily pretreated patients with refractory and relapsed myeloma; MRD-negative status was achieved in 26% of treated patients. Almost all patients had grade 3 or 4 toxic effects, most commonly hematologic toxic effects and cytokine release syndrome. (Funded by bluebird bio and Celgene, a Bristol-Myers Squibb company; KarMMa ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03361748.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2024850DOI Listing
February 2021

Daratumumab With Cetrelimab, an Anti-PD-1 Monoclonal Antibody, in Relapsed/Refractory Multiple Myeloma.

Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk 2021 Jan 22;21(1):46-54.e4. Epub 2020 Aug 22.

Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, GA.

Background: Daratumumab is approved for relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) as monotherapy or in combination regimens. We evaluated daratumumab plus cetrelimab, a programmed death receptor-1 inhibitor, in RRMM.

Patients And Methods: This open-label, multiphase study enrolled adults with RRMM with ≥ 3 prior lines of therapy. Part 1 was a safety run-in phase examining dose-limiting toxicities of daratumumab (16 mg/kg intravenously weekly for cycles 1-2, biweekly for cycles 3-6, and monthly thereafter) plus cetrelimab (240 mg intravenously biweekly, all cycles). In Parts 2 and 3, patients were to be randomized to daratumumab with or without cetrelimab (same schedule as Part 1). Endpoints included safety, overall response rate, pharmacokinetics, and biomarker analyses.

Results: Nine patients received daratumumab plus cetrelimab in the safety run-in, and 1 received daratumumab in Part 2 before administrative study termination following a data monitoring committee's global recommendation to stop any trial including daratumumab combined with inhibitors of programmed death receptor-1 or its ligand (programmed death-ligand 1). The median follow-up times were 6.7 months (safety run-in) and 0.3 months (Part 2). No dose-limiting toxicities occurred. All 10 patients had ≥ 1 treatment-emergent adverse event; 7 patients had grade 3 to 4 treatment-emergent adverse events, and none led to treatment discontinuation or death. In the safety run-in, 7 (77.7%) patients had ≥ 1 infusion-related reaction (most grade 1-2), and 1 had a grade 2 immune-mediated reaction. Among safety run-in patients, the overall response rate was 44.4%.

Conclusions: No new safety concerns were identified for daratumumab plus cetrelimab in RRMM. The short study duration and small population limit complete analysis of this combination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clml.2020.08.008DOI Listing
January 2021

Melflufen and Dexamethasone in Heavily Pretreated Relapsed and Refractory Multiple Myeloma.

J Clin Oncol 2021 Mar 9;39(7):757-767. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Hospital Clínico Universitario de Salamanca/IBSAL/CIC, Salamanca, Spain.

Purpose: Melphalan flufenamide (melflufen) is a first-in-class peptide-drug conjugate that targets aminopeptidases and rapidly and selectively releases alkylating agents into tumor cells. The phase II HORIZON trial evaluated the efficacy of melflufen plus dexamethasone in relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM), a population with an important unmet medical need.

Patients And Methods: Patients with RRMM refractory to pomalidomide and/or an anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody received melflufen 40 mg intravenously on day 1 of each 28-day cycle plus once weekly oral dexamethasone at a dose of 40 mg (20 mg in patients older than 75 years). The primary end point was overall response rate (partial response or better) assessed by the investigator and confirmed by independent review. Secondary end points included duration of response, progression-free survival, overall survival, and safety. The primary analysis is complete with long-term follow-up ongoing.

Results: Of 157 patients (median age 65 years; median five prior lines of therapy) enrolled and treated, 119 patients (76%) had triple-class-refractory disease, 55 (35%) had extramedullary disease, and 92 (59%) were refractory to previous alkylator therapy. The overall response rate was 29% in the all-treated population, with 26% in the triple-class-refractory population. In the all-treated population, median duration of response was 5.5 months, median progression-free survival was 4.2 months, and median overall survival was 11.6 months at a median follow-up of 14 months. Grade ≥ 3 treatment-emergent adverse events occurred in 96% of patients, most commonly neutropenia (79%), thrombocytopenia (76%), and anemia (43%). Pneumonia (10%) was the most common grade 3/4 nonhematologic event. Thrombocytopenia and bleeding (both grade 3/4 but fully reversible) occurred concomitantly in four patients. GI events, reported in 97 patients (62%), were predominantly grade 1/2 (93%); none were grade 4.

Conclusion: Melflufen plus dexamethasone showed clinically meaningful efficacy and a manageable safety profile in patients with heavily pretreated RRMM, including those with triple-class-refractory and extramedullary disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.02259DOI Listing
March 2021

Pembrolizumab as Consolidation Strategy in Patients with Multiple Myeloma: Results of the GEM-Pembresid Clinical Trial.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Dec 3;12(12). Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Hospital Universitario Marqués de Valdecilla (IDIVAL), Universidad de Cantabria, 39008 Santander, Spain.

PD1 expression in CD4 and CD8 T cells is increased after treatment in multiple myeloma patients with persistent disease. The GEM-Pembresid trial analyzed the efficacy and safety of pembrolizumab as consolidation in patients achieving at least very good partial response but with persistent measurable disease after first- or second-line treatment. Moreover, the characteristics of the immune system were investigated to identify potential biomarkers of response to pembrolizumab. One out of the 17 evaluable patients showed a decrease in the amount of M-protein, although a potential late effect of high-dose melphalan could not be ruled out. Fourteen adverse events were considered related to pembrolizumab, two of which (G3 diarrhea and G2 pneumonitis) prompted treatment discontinuation and all resolving without sequelae. Interestingly, pembrolizumab induced a decrease in the percentage of NK cells at cycle 3, due to the reduction of the circulating and adaptive subsets (0.615 vs. 0.43, = 0.007; 1.12 vs. 0.86, = 0.02). In the early progressors, a significantly lower expression of PD1 in CD8 effector memory T cells (MFI 1327 vs. 926, = 0.03) was observed. In conclusion, pembrolizumab used as consolidation monotherapy shows an acceptable toxicity profile but did not improve responses in this MM patient population. The trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov with identifier NCT02636010 and with EUDRACT number 2015-003359-23.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12123615DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7761692PMC
December 2020

Quantitative expression of Ikaros, IRF4, and PSMD10 proteins predicts survival in VRD-treated patients with multiple myeloma.

Blood Adv 2020 12;4(23):6023-6033

Hematology Department, University Hospital of Salamanca, Institute of Biomedical Research of Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain.

The search for biomarkers based on the mechanism of drug action has not been thoroughly addressed in the therapeutic approaches to multiple myeloma (MM), mainly because of the difficulty in analyzing proteins obtained from purified plasma cells. Here, we investigated the prognostic impact of the expression of 12 proteins involved in the mechanism of action of bortezomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone (VRD), quantified by capillary nanoimmunoassay, in CD138-purified samples from 174 patients with newly diagnosed MM treated according to the PETHEMA/GEM2012 study. A high level of expression of 3 out of 5 proteasome components tested (PSMD1, PSMD4, and PSMD10) negatively influenced survival. The 5 analyzed proteins involved in lenalidomide's mode of action were associated with time to progression (TTP); low levels of cereblon and IRF4 protein and high levels of Ikaros, AGO2, and Aiolos were significantly associated with shorter TTP. Although the glucocorticoid receptor (GCR) level by itself had no significant impact on MM prognosis, a high XPO1 (exportin 1)/GCR ratio was associated with shorter TTP and progression-free survival (PFS). The multivariate Cox model identified high levels of PSMD10 (hazard ratio [HR] TTP, 3.49; P = .036; HR PFS, 5.33; P = .004) and Ikaros (HR TTP, 3.01, P = .014; HR PFS, 2.57; P = .028), and low levels of IRF4 protein expression (HR TTP, 0.33; P = .004; HR PFS, 0.35; P = .004) along with high-risk cytogenetics (HR TTP, 3.13; P < .001; HR PFS, 2.69; P = .002), as independently associated with shorter TTP and PFS. These results highlight the value of assessing proteins related to the mechanism of action of drugs used in MM for predicting treatment outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020002711DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7724915PMC
December 2020

Zanubrutinib for the treatment of MYD88 wild-type Waldenström macroglobulinemia: a substudy of the phase 3 ASPEN trial.

Blood Adv 2020 12;4(23):6009-6018

Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Patients with Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) lacking activating mutations in the MYD88 gene (MYD88WT) have demonstrated relatively poor outcomes to ibrutinib monotherapy, with no major responses reported in a phase 2 pivotal study. Zanubrutinib is a novel, selective Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor designed to maximize BTK occupancy and minimize off-target activity. The ASPEN study consisted of a randomized comparison of zanubrutinib and ibrutinib efficacy and safety in patients with WM who have the MYD88 mutation, as well as a separate cohort of patients without MYD88 mutation (MYD88WT) or with unknown mutational status who received zanubrutinib. Results from the latter single-arm cohort are reported herein. Efficacy endpoints included overall, major and complete (CR) or very good partial response (VGPR) rates, progression-free survival (PFS), duration of response (DOR), and overall survival (OS). Twenty-eight patients (23 relapsed/refractory; 5 treatment-naïve) were enrolled, including 26 with centrally confirmed MYD88WT disease and 2 with unknown MYD88 mutational status. At a median follow-up of 17.9 months, 7 of 26 MYD88WT patients (27%) had achieved a VGPR and 50% a major response (partial response or better); there were no CRs. At 18 months, the estimated PFS and OS rates were 68% and 88%, respectively, while the median DOR had not been reached. Two patients discontinued zanubrutinib due to adverse events. Treatment-emergent hypertension, atrial fibrillation, and major hemorrhages were reported in 3, 1 and 2 patients (including 1 concurrent with enoxaparin therapy), respectively. Results of this substudy demonstrate that zanubrutinib monotherapy can induce high quality responses in patients with MYD88WT WM. This trial is registered on www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT #03053440.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020003010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7724905PMC
December 2020

Daratumumab, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone in relapsed/refractory myeloma: a cytogenetic subgroup analysis of POLLUX.

Blood Cancer J 2020 11 3;10(11):111. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Clínica Universidad de Navarra-Centro de Investigación Médica Aplicada, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Navarra, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Cáncer, Pamplona, Spain.

High cytogenetic risk abnormalities confer poor outcomes in multiple myeloma patients. In POLLUX, daratumumab/lenalidomide/dexamethasone (D-Rd) demonstrated significant clinical benefit versus lenalidomide/dexamethasone (Rd) in relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) patients. We report an updated subgroup analysis of POLLUX based on cytogenetic risk. The cytogenetic risk was determined using fluorescence in situ hybridization/karyotyping; patients with high cytogenetic risk had t(4;14), t(14;16), or del17p abnormalities. Minimal residual disease (MRD; 10) was assessed via the clonoSEQ assay V2.0. 569 patients were randomized (D-Rd, n = 286; Rd, n = 283); 35 (12%) patients per group had high cytogenetic risk. After a median follow-up of 44.3 months, D-Rd prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) versus Rd in standard cytogenetic risk (median: not estimable vs 18.6 months; hazard ratio [HR], 0.43; P < 0.0001) and high cytogenetic risk (median: 26.8 vs 8.3 months; HR, 0.34; P = 0.0035) patients. Responses with D-Rd were deep, including higher MRD negativity and sustained MRD-negativity rates versus Rd, regardless of cytogenetic risk. PFS on subsequent line of therapy was improved with D-Rd versus Rd in both cytogenetic risk subgroups. The safety profile of D-Rd by cytogenetic risk was consistent with the overall population. These findings demonstrate the improved efficacy of daratumumab plus standard of care versus standard of care in RRMM, regardless of cytogenetic risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41408-020-00375-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7643179PMC
November 2020

Comparison of next-generation sequencing (NGS) and next-generation flow (NGF) for minimal residual disease (MRD) assessment in multiple myeloma.

Blood Cancer J 2020 10 30;10(10):108. Epub 2020 Oct 30.

Departamento de Hematología, Hospital Universitario de Salamanca (HUSA/IBSAL), CIBERONC, CIC-IBMCC (USAL-CSIC), Salamanca, Spain.

Detecting persistent minimal residual disease (MRD) allows the identification of patients with an increased risk of relapse and death. In this study, we have evaluated MRD 3 months after transplantation in 106 myeloma patients using a commercial next-generation sequencing (NGS) strategy (LymphoTrack®), and compared the results with next-generation flow (NGF, EuroFlow). The use of different marrow pulls and the need of concentrating samples for NGS biased the applicability for MRD evaluation and favored NGF. Despite that, correlation between NGS and NGF was high (R = 0.905). The 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) rates by NGS and NGF were longer for undetectable vs. positive patients (NGS: 88.7% vs. 56.6%; NGF: 91.4% vs. 50%; p < 0.001 for both comparisons), which resulted in a 3-year overall survival (OS) advantage (NGS: 96.2% vs. 77.3%; NGF: 96.6% vs. 74.9%, p < 0.01 for both comparisons). In the Cox regression model, NGS and NGF negativity had similar results but favoring the latter in PFS (HR: 0.20, 95% CI: 0.09-0.45, p < 0.001) and OS (HR: 0.21, 95% CI: 0.06-0.75, p = 0.02). All these results reinforce the role of MRD detection by different strategies in patient prognosis and highlight the use of MRD as an endpoint for multiple myeloma treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41408-020-00377-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7603393PMC
October 2020

Efficacy and safety of weekly carfilzomib (70 mg/m), dexamethasone, and daratumumab (KdD70) is comparable to twice-weekly KdD56 while being a more convenient dosing option: a cross-study comparison of the CANDOR and EQUULEUS studies.

Leuk Lymphoma 2021 02 28;62(2):358-367. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

John Theurer Cancer Center, Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack, NJ, USA.

The regimen of carfilzomib, daratumumab, and dexamethasone (KdD) shows activity in patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma. KdD at the twice-weekly 56 mg/m carfilzomib dose (KdD56) was used in the randomized phase 3 CANDOR study (NCT03158688), whereas KdD at the once-weekly 70 mg/m carfilzomib dose (KdD70) was used in the phase 1 b EQUULEUS study (NCT01998971). We analyzed efficacy data from comparable CANDOR and EQUULEUS patients using inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW)-adjusted models. These weights were calculated from propensity scores derived to balance prespecified baseline covariates. The side-by-side and adjusted comparisons showed similar efficacy for overall response rates and progression-free survival in the two groups, with a series of sensitivity analyses showing consistent findings. Safety data were generally consistent with the known safety profiles of each individual drug. Once-weekly KdD70 is comparable to twice-weekly KdD56 in terms of efficacy and safety while being a more convenient dosing option.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2020.1832672DOI Listing
February 2021

Ixazomib as Postinduction Maintenance for Patients With Newly Diagnosed Multiple Myeloma Not Undergoing Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation: The Phase III TOURMALINE-MM4 Trial.

J Clin Oncol 2020 12 6;38(34):4030-4041. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University, Atlanta, GA.

Purpose: Maintenance therapy prolongs progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM) not undergoing autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) but has generally been limited to immunomodulatory agents. Other options that complement the induction regimen with favorable toxicity are needed.

Patients And Methods: The phase III, double-blind, placebo-controlled TOURMALINE-MM4 study randomly assigned (3:2) patients with NDMM not undergoing ASCT who achieved better than or equal to partial response after 6-12 months of standard induction therapy to receive the oral proteasome inhibitor (PI) ixazomib or placebo on days 1, 8, and 15 of 28-day cycles as maintenance for 24 months. The primary endpoint was PFS since time of randomization.

Results: Patients were randomly assigned to receive ixazomib (n = 425) or placebo (n = 281). TOURMALINE-MM4 met its primary endpoint with a 34.1% reduction in risk of progression or death with ixazomib versus placebo (median PFS since randomization, 17.4 9.4 months; hazard ratio [HR], 0.659; 95% CI, 0.542 to 0.801; < .001; median follow-up, 21.1 months). Ixazomib significantly benefitted patients who achieved complete or very good partial response postinduction (median PFS, 25.6 12.9 months; HR, 0.586; < .001). With ixazomib versus placebo, 36.6% versus 23.2% of patients had grade ≥ 3 treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs); 12.9% versus 8.0% discontinued treatment because of TEAEs. Common any-grade TEAEs included nausea (26.8% 8.0%), vomiting (24.2% 4.3%), and diarrhea (23.2% 12.3%). There was no increase in new primary malignancies (5.2% 6.2%); rates of on-study deaths were 2.6% versus 2.2%.

Conclusion: Ixazomib maintenance prolongs PFS with no unexpected toxicity in patients with NDMM not undergoing ASCT. To our knowledge, this is the first PI demonstrated in a randomized clinical trial to have single-agent efficacy for maintenance and is the first oral PI option in this patient population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.02060DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7768338PMC
December 2020

Impact of response to treatment in health-related quality of life patient-reported outcomes in elderly patients with relapsed multiple myeloma.

Leuk Lymphoma 2021 01 15;62(1):125-135. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

Amyloidosis and Myeloma Unit, Department of Hematology, Hospital Clínic of Barcelona, IDIBAPS, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Multiple myeloma (MM) is a recurrent malignancy with a high impact on quality of life. Improved survival relies on the combination of drugs and extended duration of therapy, raising concerns on its toxicity burden in elderly patients. Health-related quality of life measurements attent to capture health aspects relevant to patients other than efficacy. This prospective study aimed to understand the relationship between MM-related symptomatology and other quality of life dimensions using the EORTC QLQ-MY20 questionnaire in individuals with relapsed or refractory MM. Irrespective of treatment modality, over 50% of patients who responded to treatment had significant omprovements of reported scores in all domains. Conversely, disease progression was associated with score deterioration not only in the MM-related symptoms domain but also in all other domains. HRQoL adds valuable information to the established efficacy endpoints but an adequate interpretation of HRQoL outcomes in randomized trials should require stratification according to response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2020.1817439DOI Listing
January 2021

Melflufen for relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma.

Expert Opin Investig Drugs 2020 Oct 29;29(10):1069-1078. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Jerome Lipper Multiple Myeloma Center, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School , Boston, MA, USA.

Introduction: The overall survival of patients with multiple myeloma has improved with the advent of novel agents; however, multiple myeloma remains incurable. Combinations of standard-of-care agents such as immunomodulators, proteasome inhibitors, and anti-CD38 monoclonal antibodies are increasingly used in earlier lines of therapy. Patients with disease that is refractory to multiple novel agents represent a population with high unmet medical need and for whom therapies with new mechanisms of action could be beneficial. Melphalan flufenamide (melflufen) has demonstrated encouraging activity in patients with relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma.

Areas Covered: This review provides an overview of the mechanism of action of melflufen, a first-in-class peptide-drug conjugate that targets aminopeptidases and rapidly delivers alkylating agents into tumor cells. It reviews key Phase I and II clinical trial data for melflufen in combination with dexamethasone as well as in triplet combinations with daratumumab or bortezomib. The safety profile of melflufen, which is characterized primarily by clinically manageable hematologic adverse events, is described.

Expert Opinion: Melflufen has potential to fill a gap in the myeloma treatment landscape by providing a new mechanism of action with clinically meaningful efficacy and a favorable safety profile in patients refractory to multiple novel agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13543784.2020.1808884DOI Listing
October 2020

Deep MRD profiling defines outcome and unveils different modes of treatment resistance in standard- and high-risk myeloma.

Blood 2021 01;137(1):49-60

Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Centro de Investigación Medica Aplicada (CIMA), Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Navarra (IDISNA), Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red-Cáncer (CIBER-ONC) CB16/12/00369, Pamplona, Spain.

Patients with multiple myeloma (MM) carrying standard- or high-risk cytogenetic abnormalities (CAs) achieve similar complete response (CR) rates, but the later have inferior progression-free survival (PFS). This questions the legitimacy of CR as a treatment endpoint and represents a biological conundrum regarding the nature of tumor reservoirs that persist after therapy in high-risk MM. We used next-generation flow (NGF) cytometry to evaluate measurable residual disease (MRD) in MM patients with standard- vs high-risk CAs (n = 300 and 90, respectively) enrolled in the PETHEMA/GEM2012MENOS65 trial, and to identify mechanisms that determine MRD resistance in both patient subgroups (n = 40). The 36-month PFS rates were higher than 90% in patients with standard- or high-risk CAs achieving undetectable MRD. Persistent MRD resulted in a median PFS of ∼3 and 2 years in patients with standard- and high-risk CAs, respectively. Further use of NGF to isolate MRD, followed by whole-exome sequencing of paired diagnostic and MRD tumor cells, revealed greater clonal selection in patients with standard-risk CAs, higher genomic instability with acquisition of new mutations in high-risk MM, and no unifying genetic event driving MRD resistance. Conversely, RNA sequencing of diagnostic and MRD tumor cells uncovered the selection of MRD clones with singular transcriptional programs and reactive oxygen species-mediated MRD resistance in high-risk MM. Our study supports undetectable MRD as a treatment endpoint for patients with MM who have high-risk CAs and proposes characterizing MRD clones to understand and overcome MRD resistance. This trial is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01916252.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020006731DOI Listing
January 2021

Filanesib in combination with pomalidomide and dexamethasone in refractory MM patients: safety and efficacy, and association with alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AAG) levels. Phase Ib/II Pomdefil clinical trial conducted by the Spanish MM group.

Br J Haematol 2021 Feb 5;192(3):522-530. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Complejo Asistencial Universitario de Salamanca (IBSAL) y Centro de Investigación del Cáncer (IBMCC-CSIC), Universidad de Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain.

This phase I/II trial evaluated the combination of the kinesin spindle protein inhibitor filanesib with pomalidomide and dexamethasone in relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) patients. Forty-seven RRMM patients with a median of three prior lines (2-8) and 94% refractory to lenalidomide were included: 14 in phase I and 33 in phase II. The recommended dose was 1·25 mg/m of filanesib on days 1, 2, 15, 16, with pomalidomide 4 mg on days 1-21 and dexamethasone 40 mg weekly. The defined threshold for success was achieved, with 18 out of 31 patients obtaining at least minor response (MR) in the phase II. In the global population, 51% of patients achieved at least partial response (PR) and 60% ≥MR, resulting in a median progression-free survival (mPFS) of seven months and overall survival (OS) of 19 months. The main toxicity was haematological. Importantly, patients with low serum levels of alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AAG) at baseline (<800 mg/l) had a superior response (overall response rate of 62% vs. 17%; P = 0·04), which also translated into a longer mPFS (9 vs. 2 months; P = 0·014). In summary, filanesib with pomalidomide and dexamethasone is active in RRMM although with significant haematological toxicity. Most importantly, high levels of AAG can identify patients unlikely to respond to this strategy. Trial registration: clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT02384083.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.16788DOI Listing
February 2021

Subcutaneous daratumumab in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma: Part 2 of the open-label, multicenter, dose-escalation phase 1b study (PAVO).

Haematologica 2020 04 30. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Tisch Cancer Institute, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

Intravenous daratumumab is approved for the treatment of multiple myeloma. In Part 1 of the PAVO study, a mix-and-deliver subcutaneous formulation of daratumumab with recombinant human hyaluronidase PH20 (rHuPH20) was well tolerated, with low rates of infusion-related reactions and similar efficacy to intravenous daratumumab. Part 2 of PAVO evaluated a concentrated, pre-mixed co-formulation of daratumumab and rHuPH20 (DARA SC). Patients with ≥2 prior lines of therapy, including a proteasome inhibitor and immunomodulatory drug, received daratumumab (1800 mg) and rHuPH20 (30,000 U) in 15 mL subcutaneously over 3-5 minutes per the approved intravenous monotherapy dosing schedule. Primary endpoints were daratumumab trough concentration at the end of weekly dosing (just prior to the Cycle 3 Day 1 dose) and safety. Twenty-five patients were enrolled in PAVO Part 2. DARA SC achieved daratumumab trough concentrations similar to or greater than intravenous daratumumab 16 mg/kg. The adverse event profile of DARA SC was consistent with intravenous daratumumab, with no new safety concerns and a lower infusion-related reaction rate. At a median follow-up of 14.2 months, the overall response rate was 52%, median duration of response was 15.7 months, and median progression-free survival was 12.0 months. DARA SC 1800 mg was well tolerated in relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma, with a low infusion-related reaction rate and reduced administration time. Daratumumab serum concentrations following DARA SC were consistent with intravenous dosing, and deep and durable responses were observed. Based on these results, ongoing studies are investigating DARA SC in multiple myeloma and other conditions. (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: 02519452).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2019.243790DOI Listing
April 2020

Immunogenomic identification and characterization of granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells in multiple myeloma.

Blood 2020 07;136(2):199-209

Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Centro de Investigacion Medica Aplicada (CIMA), Instituto de Investigacion Sanitaria de Navarra (IDISNA), CIBER-ONC numbers CB16/12/00369, CB16/12/00489, Pamplona, Spain.

Granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (G-MDSCs) promote tumor growth and immunosuppression in multiple myeloma (MM). However, their phenotype is not well established for accurate monitoring or clinical translation. We aimed to provide the phenotypic profile of G-MDSCs based on their prognostic significance in MM, immunosuppressive potential, and molecular program. The preestablished phenotype of G-MDSCs was evaluated in bone marrow samples from controls and MM patients using multidimensional flow cytometry; surprisingly, we found that CD11b+CD14-CD15+CD33+HLADR- cells overlapped with common eosinophils and neutrophils, which were not expanded in MM patients. Therefore, we relied on automated clustering to unbiasedly identify all granulocytic subsets in the tumor microenvironment: basophils, eosinophils, and immature, intermediate, and mature neutrophils. In a series of 267 newly diagnosed MM patients (GEM2012MENOS65 trial), only the frequency of mature neutrophils at diagnosis was significantly associated with patient outcome, and a high mature neutrophil/T-cell ratio resulted in inferior progression-free survival (P < .001). Upon fluorescence-activated cell sorting of each neutrophil subset, T-cell proliferation decreased in the presence of mature neutrophils (0.5-fold; P = .016), and the cytotoxic potential of T cells engaged by a BCMA×CD3-bispecific antibody increased notably with the depletion of mature neutrophils (fourfold; P = .0007). Most interestingly, RNA sequencing of the 3 subsets revealed that G-MDSC-related genes were specifically upregulated in mature neutrophils from MM patients vs controls because of differential chromatin accessibility. Taken together, our results establish a correlation between the clinical significance, immunosuppressive potential, and transcriptional network of well-defined neutrophil subsets, providing for the first time a set of optimal markers (CD11b/CD13/CD16) for accurate monitoring of G-MDSCs in MM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2019004537DOI Listing
July 2020

Biological and clinical significance of dysplastic hematopoiesis in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma.

Blood 2020 06;135(26):2375-2387

Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Centro de Investigacion Medica Aplicada (CIMA), Instituto de Investigacion Sanitaria de Navarra (IDISNA), Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Cáncer (CIBER-ONC), Pamplona, Spain.

Risk of developing myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is significantly increased in both multiple myeloma (MM) and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, suggesting that it is therapy independent. However, the incidence and sequelae of dysplastic hematopoiesis at diagnosis are unknown. Here, we used multidimensional flow cytometry (MFC) to prospectively screen for the presence of MDS-associated phenotypic alterations (MDS-PA) in the bone marrow of 285 patients with MM enrolled in the PETHEMA/GEM2012MENOS65 trial (#NCT01916252). We investigated the clinical significance of monocytic MDS-PA in a larger series of 1252 patients enrolled in 4 PETHEMA/GEM protocols. At diagnosis, 33 (11.6%) of 285 cases displayed MDS-PA. Bulk and single-cell-targeted sequencing of MDS recurrently mutated genes in CD34+ progenitors (and dysplastic lineages) from 67 patients revealed clonal hematopoiesis in 13 (50%) of 26 cases with MDS-PA vs 9 (22%) of 41 without MDS-PA; TET2 and NRAS were the most frequently mutated genes. Dynamics of MDS-PA at diagnosis and after autologous transplant were evaluated in 86 of 285 patients and showed that in most cases (69 of 86 [80%]), MDS-PA either persisted or remained absent in patients with or without MDS-PA at diagnosis, respectively. Noteworthy, MDS-associated mutations infrequently emerged after high-dose therapy. Based on MFC profiling, patients with MDS-PA have altered hematopoiesis and T regulatory cell distribution in the tumor microenvironment. Importantly, the presence of monocytic MDS-PA at diagnosis anticipated greater risk of hematologic toxicity and was independently associated with inferior progression-free survival (hazard ratio, 1.5; P = .02) and overall survival (hazard ratio, 1.7; P = .01). This study reveals the biological and clinical significance of dysplastic hematopoiesis in newly diagnosed MM, which can be screened with moderate sensitivity using cost-effective MFC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2019003382DOI Listing
June 2020

A critical evaluation of pembrolizumab in addition to lenalidomide and dexamethasone for the treatment of multiple myeloma.

Authors:
Albert Oriol

Expert Rev Hematol 2020 05 21;13(5):435-445. Epub 2020 Mar 21.

Josep Carreras Leukemia Research Institute, Hematology Service and Hemato-Oncology Clinical Trial Unit, Institut Català d'Oncologia, Barcelona, Spain.

: Several modalities of immunotherapy have proved successful in multiple myeloma, including immunomodulatory agents, monoclonal antibodies directed to plasma cell surface antigens and chimeric antigen receptor T cells. The PD-1 pathway is implicated in the progression of multiple myeloma. Several properties of lenalidomide are potentially synergistic with PD-1/PD-L1 blockade.: Preclinical data related to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies and the results of early clinical trials of pembrolizumab single-agent and in combination with lenalidomide and dexamethasone are discussed. Despite promising preliminary data, the pivotal phase III trial evaluating lenalidomide and dexamethasone in combination with pembrolizumab in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma presented unexpected safety findings and was discontinued. Differences with previous results and the findings of other trials involving pomalidomide as an immunomodulatory agent or nivolumab as anti-PD-1 antibody are discussed.: Disappointing efficacy outcomes of the combination of checkpoint blockade antibodies and immunomodulating agents in multiple myeloma along with toxicity issues make the combination unattractive in comparison with available alternatives. It is essential to critically review preclinical and clinical datha to understand the pitfalls of lenalidomide with pembrolizumab and similar combinations in multiple myeloma to gain insight on the future role of anti-PD-1 agents in emerging therapeutic scenarios.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17474086.2020.1744432DOI Listing
May 2020

The Immunohistochemical Expression of Programmed Death Ligand 1 (PD-L1) Is Affected by Sample Overfixation.

Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol 2021 01;29(1):76-81

Pathology Department, Germans Trias i Pujol Hospital and Institute, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona.

Humanized antibodies targeting programmed death receptor 1 (PD-1) or its ligand (PD-L1) have been approved for the treatment of different cancers. Some of these antibodies show a correlation between the tissue expression of PD-L1 and response. Evaluation of PD-L1 expression presents multiple challenges, but some preanalytical issues such as tissue fixation have been scarcely evaluated. With the hypothesis that immunohistochemical staining of PD-L1 may be impacted by the time of specimen fixation, we evaluated differences in its expression in tonsil samples exposed to predefined fixation times. Random nontumoral tonsillectomy specimens were blindly evaluated in tissue microarray slides after staining with SP142 and SP263 antibodies. With fixation times ranging from 12 to 72 hours, between 2.8% and 6.1% of the samples were considered to be suboptimally stained, with no differences between the 2 antibodies within these fixation times. A significantly higher proportion of samples exposed to a fixation time of 96 hours presented suboptimal immunostaining (15.6%, P<0.0001). In addition, suboptimally stained spots were 20.8% using SP142 and 10.4% using SP263 after 96 hours of fixation (P=0.046). In conclusion, the quality of staining for PD-L1 in tonsil samples decreased with overfixation of the specimen at times >72 hours. Samples exposed to formaldehyde for longer periods presented suboptimal results for both clones, but the SP142 antibody presented a significantly lower tolerance to formalin overexposure than SP263. These results indicate the relevance of a controlled preanalytical processing of samples and particularly the length of fixation of tumor specimens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAI.0000000000000847DOI Listing
January 2021

Split First Dose Administration of Intravenous Daratumumab for the Treatment of Multiple Myeloma (MM): Clinical and Population Pharmacokinetic Analyses.

Adv Ther 2020 04 20;37(4):1464-1478. Epub 2020 Feb 20.

Janssen Research & Development, LLC, Spring House, PA, USA.

Introduction: Daratumumab, a human immunoglobulin Gκ monoclonal antibody targeting CD38, is approved as monotherapy and in combination with standard-of-care regimens for multiple myeloma. In clinical studies, the median durations of the first, second, and subsequent intravenous infusions of daratumumab were 7.0, 4.3, and 3.4 h, respectively. Splitting the first intravenous infusion of daratumumab over 2 days is an approved alternative dosing regimen to reduce the duration of the first infusion and provide flexibility for patients and healthcare providers.

Methods: The feasibility of splitting the first 16-mg/kg infusion into two separate infusions of 8 mg/kg on Days 1 and 2 of the first treatment cycle was investigated in two cohorts [daratumumab, carfilzomib, and dexamethasone (D-Kd) and daratumumab, carfilzomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone (D-KRd)] of the phase 1b MMY1001 study. Additionally, a population pharmacokinetic (PK) analysis and simulations were used to compare the PK profiles of the split first dose regimen with the recommended single first dose regimens of daratumumab in previously approved indications.

Results: In MMY1001, following administration of the second half of a split first dose on Cycle 1 Day 2, postinfusion median (range) daratumumab concentrations were similar between split first dose [D-Kd, 254.9 (125.8-435.5) µg/ml; D-KRd, 277.2 (164.0-341.8) µg/ml; combined, 256.8 (125.8-435.5) µg/ml] and single first dose [D-Kd, 319.2 (237.5-394.7) µg/ml]. At the end of weekly dosing, median (range) Cycle 3 Day 1 preinfusion daratumumab concentrations were similar between split first dose [D-Kd, 663.9 (57.7-1110.7) µg/ml; D-KRd, 575.1 (237.9-825.5) µg/ml; combined, 639.2 (57.7-1110.7) µg/ml] and single first dose [D-Kd, 463.2 (355.9-792.9) µg/ml]. The population PK simulations demonstrated virtually identical PK profiles after the first day of treatment for all approved indications and recommended dosing schedules of daratumumab.

Conclusion: These data support the use of an alternative split first dose regimen of intravenous daratumumab for the treatment of MM.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01998971.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12325-020-01247-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7140755PMC
April 2020

Molecular profiling of immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene rearrangements unveils new potential prognostic markers for multiple myeloma patients.

Blood Cancer J 2020 02 6;10(2):14. Epub 2020 Feb 6.

Hospital Universitario de Salamanca (HUSAL), IBSAL, IBMCC (USAL-CSIC), CIBERONC, Salamanca, Spain.

Multiple myeloma is a heterogeneous disease whose pathogenesis has not been completely elucidated. Although B-cell receptors play a crucial role in myeloma pathogenesis, the impact of clonal immunoglobulin heavy-chain features in the outcome has not been extensively explored. Here we present the characterization of complete heavy-chain gene rearrangements in 413 myeloma patients treated in Spanish trials, including 113 patients characterized by next-generation sequencing. Compared to the normal B-cell repertoire, gene selection was biased in myeloma, with significant overrepresentation of IGHV3, IGHD2 and IGHD3, as well as IGHJ4 gene groups. Hypermutation was high in our patients (median: 8.8%). Interestingly, regarding patients who are not candidates for transplantation, a high hypermutation rate (≥7%) and the use of IGHD2 and IGHD3 groups were associated with improved prognostic features and longer survival rates in the univariate analyses. Multivariate analysis revealed prolonged progression-free survival rates for patients using IGHD2/IGHD3 groups (HR: 0.552, 95% CI: 0.361-0.845, p = 0.006), as well as prolonged overall survival rates for patients with hypermutation ≥7% (HR: 0.291, 95% CI: 0.137-0.618, p = 0.001). Our results provide new insights into the molecular characterization of multiple myeloma, highlighting the need to evaluate some of these clonal rearrangement characteristics as new potential prognostic markers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41408-020-0283-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7004993PMC
February 2020

A phase 2 study of ibrutinib in combination with bortezomib and dexamethasone in patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma.

Eur J Haematol 2020 May 7;104(5):435-442. Epub 2020 Mar 7.

1st Department of Medicine - Department of Hematology, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University and General Hospital in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic.

Objective: We evaluated ibrutinib, a once-daily inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase, combined with bortezomib and dexamethasone in patients with relapsed or relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma who had received 1-3 prior therapies.

Methods: This was a phase 2, single-arm, open-label, multicentre study (NCT02902965). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS).

Results: Seventy-six patients were enrolled; 74 received ≥1 dose of study treatment. After median follow-up of 19.6 months, median PFS was 8.5 months (95% CI: 6.2-10.8); median overall survival was not reached. Overall response rate was 57% (95% CI: 45-68), and median duration of response was 9.5 months (95% CI: 6.9-10.6). Grade 3/4 AEs occurred in 73% of patients and fatal AEs occurred in 15% of patients. Incidence of major haemorrhage was 5%; one patient died from cerebral haemorrhage. After an observed increased incidence of serious (42%) and fatal (11%) infections, enrolment was suspended to implement risk-minimisation measures. The safety profile was otherwise consistent with known safety profiles of the individual drugs.

Conclusion: Ibrutinib combined with bortezomib and dexamethasone elicited clinical responses. However, efficacy assessments conducted at potential restart of enrolment indicated that the targeted PFS could not be reached with additional patient enrolment, and the study was terminated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejh.13377DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7216833PMC
May 2020

Limited treatment options in refractory multiple myeloma: promising therapeutic developments.

Expert Rev Anticancer Ther 2020 01 3;20(1):31-44. Epub 2020 Jan 3.

Hematology Service and Hemato-Oncology Clinical Trial Unit, Institut Català d'Oncologia, Badalona, Barcelona, Spain.

: Combinations of proteasome inhibitors, immunomodulators, and monoclonal antibodies are highly active against multiple myeloma. Consequently, several combinations have moved from the relapsed to the front-line setting. In the context of lenalidomide and bortezomib being used upfront, salvage options need to be evaluated.: This manuscript reviews available data for the treatment of patients progressing on optimal frontline strategies, with a focus on the role of second-generation proteasome inhibitors and immunomodulators, monoclonal antibodies and immunotherapy.: Remarkable progress has been made in myeloma treatment due to the integration of immunomodulators, proteasome inhibitors and more recently monoclonal antibodies in the front-line setting. However, we work on the assumption that most individuals will eventually relapse. Optimized upfront therapy negatively selects more resistant patients among still relapsing individuals. Bortezomib and lenalidomide-exposed patients are under-represented in trials leading to currently approved combinations. Evidence needs to be reviewed taking into account how the improvement of frontline therapy has modified the characteristics of patients at the time of relapse. Second generation immunomodulatory agents and proteasome inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies and other agents have shown efficacy in this new landscape. Immunotherapeutic agents, including CAR-T cells are promising for patients failing standard combinations, despite current data are still immature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14737140.2020.1708721DOI Listing
January 2020

Measurable Residual Disease by Next-Generation Flow Cytometry in Multiple Myeloma.

J Clin Oncol 2020 03 26;38(8):784-792. Epub 2019 Nov 26.

Hospital 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain.

Purpose: Assessing measurable residual disease (MRD) has become standard with many tumors, but the clinical meaning of MRD in multiple myeloma (MM) remains uncertain, particularly when assessed by next-generation flow (NGF) cytometry. Thus, we aimed to determine the applicability and sensitivity of the flow MRD-negative criterion defined by the International Myeloma Working Group (IMWG).

Patients And Methods: In the PETHEMA/GEM2012MENOS65 trial, 458 patients with newly diagnosed MM had longitudinal assessment of MRD after six induction cycles with bortezomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone (VRD), autologous transplantation, and two consolidation courses with VRD. MRD was assessed in 1,100 bone marrow samples from 397 patients; the 61 patients without MRD data discontinued treatment during induction and were considered MRD positive for intent-to-treat analysis. The median limit of detection achieved by NGF was 2.9 × 10. Patients received maintenance (lenalidomide ± ixazomib) according to the companion PETHEMA/GEM2014MAIN trial.

Results: Overall, 205 (45%) of 458 patients had undetectable MRD after consolidation, and only 14 of them (7%) have experienced progression thus far; seven of these 14 displayed extraosseous plasmacytomas at diagnosis and/or relapse. Using time-dependent analysis, patients with undetectable MRD had an 82% reduction in the risk of progression or death (hazard ratio, 0.18; 95% CI, 0.11 to 0.30; < .001) and an 88% reduction in the risk of death (hazard ratio, 0.12; 95% CI, 0.05 to 0.29; < .001). Timing of undetectable MRD (after induction intensification) had no impact on patient survival. Attaining undetectable MRD overcame poor prognostic features at diagnosis, including high-risk cytogenetics. By contrast, patients with Revised International Staging System III status and positive MRD had dismal progression-free and overall survivals (median, 14 and 17 months, respectively). Maintenance increased the rate of undetectable MRD by 17%.

Conclusion: The IMWG flow MRD-negative response criterion is highly applicable and sensitive to evaluate treatment efficacy in MM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.19.01231DOI Listing
March 2020

Carfilzomib and dexamethasone versus eight cycles of bortezomib and dexamethasone in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma: an indirect comparison using data from the phase 3 ENDEAVOR and CASTOR trials.

Leuk Lymphoma 2020 01 22;61(1):37-46. Epub 2019 Oct 22.

School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Alexandra Hospital, Athens, Greece.

In ENDEAVOR, carfilzomib and dexamethasone (Kd56) demonstrated significant improvement in progression-free survival (PFS) compared with bortezomib and dexamethasone (Vd). Both agents were administered until disease progression; the EU label for Vd, however, stipulates a maximum of eight treatment cycles. Here, matching-adjusted treatment comparison was used to compare efficacy of Kd56 with Vd, if Vd was administered for 8 cycles (Vd-8). Data from ENDEAVOR and CASTOR trials (which compared daratumumab, bortezomib, and dexamethasone with Vd-8) were used. Hazard ratios of PFS were estimated for Vd vs. Vd-8 and Kd vs. Vd-8. For cycles 1-8, risk reduction in PFS for Kd56 vs. Vd-8 was equal to that estimated in ENDEAVOR (HR: 0.53; 95% CI 0.44-0.65). Beyond eight cycles, risk reduction in PFS for Kd56 and Vd-8 was estimated to be 60% (HR: 0.40; 95% CI 0.26-0.63). The analysis suggested that PFS benefit of Kd56 over Vd increases when Vd is given for eight cycles only.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2019.1648806DOI Listing
January 2020

Bortezomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone as induction therapy prior to autologous transplant in multiple myeloma.

Blood 2019 10;134(16):1337-1345

Hospital Clínic, Institut d'investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer, Barcelona, Spain.

Achieving and maintaining a high-quality response is the treatment goal for patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM). The phase 3 PETHEMA/GEM2012 study, in 458 patients aged ≤65 years with NDMM, is evaluating bortezomib (subcutaneous) + lenalidomide + dexamethasone (VRD) for 6 cycles followed by autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) conditioned with IV busulfan + melphalan vs melphalan and posttransplant consolidation with 2 cycles of VRD. We present grouped response analysis of induction, transplant, and consolidation. Responses deepened over time; in patients who initiated cycle 6 of induction (n = 426), the rates of a very good partial response or better were 55.6% by cycle 3, 63.8% by cycle 4, 68.3% by cycle 5, and 70.4% after induction. The complete response rate of 33.4% after induction in the intent-to-treat (ITT) population, which was similar in the 92 patients with high-risk cytogenetics (34.8%), also deepened with further treatment (44.1% after ASCT and 50.2% after consolidation). Rates of undetectable minimal residual disease (median 3 × 10-6 sensitivity) in the ITT population also increased from induction (28.8%) to transplant (42.1%) and consolidation (45.2%). The most common grade ≥3 treatment-emergent adverse events during induction were neutropenia (12.9%) and infection (9.2%). Grade ≥2 peripheral neuropathy (grouped term) during induction was 17.0%, with a low frequency of grade 3 (3.7%) and grade 4 (0.2%) events. VRD is an effective and well-tolerated regimen for induction in NDMM with deepening response throughout induction and over the course of treatment. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01916252 and EudraCT as #2012-005683-10.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2019000241DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6888142PMC
October 2019

Pembrolizumab plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone for patients with treatment-naive multiple myeloma (KEYNOTE-185): a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial.

Lancet Haematol 2019 Sep 18;6(9):e448-e458. Epub 2019 Jul 18.

Clínica Universidad de Navarra, Centro de Investigación Médica Aplicada, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Cáncer, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Navarra, Pamplona, Spain.

Background: Lenalidomide and dexamethasone has been a standard of care in transplant-ineligible patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. The addition of a third drug to the combination is likely to improve treatment efficacy. KEYNOTE-185 assessed the efficacy and safety of lenalidomide and dexamethasone with and without pembrolizumab in patients with previously untreated multiple myeloma. Here, we present the results of an unplanned interim analysis done to assess the benefit-risk of the combination at the request of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

Methods: KEYNOTE-185 was a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial done at 95 medical centres across 15 countries (Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, Russia, South Africa, Spain, UK, and USA). Transplantation-ineligible patients aged 18 years and older with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1, and who were treatment naive were enrolled, and randomly assigned 1:1 to receive either pembrolizumab plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone or lenalidomide and dexamethasone alone using an interactive voice or integrated web response system. Patients received oral lenalidomide 25 mg on days 1-21 and oral dexamethasone 40 mg on days 1, 8, 15, and 22 of repeated 28-day cycles, with or without intravenous pembrolizumab 200 mg every 3 weeks. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival, which was investigator-assessed because of early trial termination. Efficacy was analysed in all randomly assigned patients and safety was analysed in all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02579863, and it is closed for accrual.

Findings: Between Jan 7, 2016, and June 9, 2017, 301 patients were randomly assigned to the pembrolizumab plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone group (n=151) or the lenalidomide and dexamethasone group (n=150). On July 3, 2017, the FDA decided to halt the study because of the imbalance in the proportion of death between groups. At database cutoff (June 2, 2017), with a median follow-up of 6·6 months (IQR 3·4-9·6), 149 patients in the pembrolizumab plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone group and 145 in the lenalidomide and dexamethasone group had received their assigned study drug. Median progression-free survival was not reached in either group; progression-free survival estimates at 6-months were 82·0% (95% CI 73·2-88·1) versus 85·0% (76·8-90·5; hazard ratio [HR] 1·22; 95% CI 0·67-2·22; p=0·75). Serious adverse events were reported in 81 (54%) patients in the pembrolizumab plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone group versus 57 (39%) patients in the lenalidomide and dexamethasone group; the most common serious adverse events were pneumonia (nine [6%]) and pyrexia (seven [5%]) in the pembrolizumab plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone group and pneumonia (eight [6%]) and sepsis (two [1%]) in the lenalidomide and dexamethasone group. Six (4%) treatment-related deaths occurred in the pembrolizumab plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone group (cardiac arrest, cardiac failure, myocarditis, large intestine perforation, pneumonia, and pulmonary embolism) and two (1%) in the lenalidomide and dexamethasone group (upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage and respiratory failure).

Interpretation: The results from this unplanned, FDA-requested, interim analysis showed that the benefit-risk profile of pembrolizumab plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone is unfavourable for patients with newly diagnosed, previously untreated multiple myeloma. Long-term safety and survival follow-up is ongoing.

Funding: Merck Sharp & Dohme, a subsidiary of Merck & Co, Inc (Kenilworth, NJ, USA).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3026(19)30109-7DOI Listing
September 2019

Pembrolizumab plus pomalidomide and dexamethasone for patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (KEYNOTE-183): a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial.

Lancet Haematol 2019 Sep 18;6(9):e459-e469. Epub 2019 Jul 18.

Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Background: Pomalidomide and dexamethasone is a standard of care for patients with multiple myeloma in whom bortezomib and lenalidomide treatment has failed. KEYNOTE-183 assessed efficacy and safety of pomalidomide and dexamethasone with or without pembrolizumab in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. Here, we present the findings of an unplanned, ad-hoc interim analysis at the request of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

Methods: KEYNOTE-183 was a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial done at 97 medical centres across 11 countries (Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Israel, Italy, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, Spain, and USA). Patients aged at least 18 years with multiple myeloma, an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status 0 or 1, previously treated with at least two lines of therapy (excluding pomalidomide) and refractory to the last line were randomly assigned 1:1 to the pembrolizumab plus pomalidomide and dexamethasone group or the pomalidomide and dexamethasone group via an interactive voice response or integrated web response system. Patients received oral pomalidomide 4 mg daily on days 1-21 and oral low-dose dexamethasone 40 mg on days 1, 8, 15, and 22 in 28-day cycles, with or without intravenous pembrolizumab 200 mg every 3 weeks. The dual primary endpoints were progression-free survival and overall survival. Efficacy was assessed in all randomly assigned patients and safety was assessed in patients who received at least one dose of study treatment. The trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02576977, and it is closed for accrual.

Findings: Between Jan 18, 2016, and June 7, 2017, 249 patients were randomly assigned to either the pembrolizumab plus pomalidomide and dexamethasone group (n=125) or the pomalidomide and dexamethasone group (n=124). On July 3, 2017, the FDA established that risks associated with the triple combination outweighed benefits and halted the study. Median follow-up was 8·1 months (IQR 4·5-10·9). Median progression-free survival was 5·6 months (95% CI 3·7-7·5) in the pembrolizumab plus pomalidomide and dexamethasone group versus 8·4 months (5·9-not reached) in the pomalidomide and dexamethasone group; progression-free survival estimates at 6 months were 48% (95% CI 37-58) versus 60% (49-69) at 6 months (hazard ratio [HR] 1·53; 95% CI 1·05-2·22; p=0·98). Median overall survival was not reached (95% CI 12·9-not reached) versus 15·2 months (12·7-not reached; HR 1·61; 95% CI 0·91-2·85; p=0·95); overall survival estimates at 6 months were 82% (95% CI 74-88) versus 90% (82-95). Serious adverse events occurred in 75 (63%) of 120 patients in the pembrolizumab plus pomalidomide and dexamethasone group versus 56 (46%) of 121 patients in the pomalidomide and dexamethasone group. Four (3%) treatment-related deaths occurred in the pembrolizumab plus pomalidomide and dexamethasone group (one each of unknown cause, neutropenic sepsis, myocarditis, and Stevens-Johnson syndrome); myocarditis and Stevens-Johnson syndrome were considered related to pembrolizumab. No treatment-related deaths were reported in the pomalidomide and dexamethasone group.

Interpretation: The results from this unplanned, FDA-requested, interim analysis showed that the benefit-risk profile of pembrolizumab plus pomalidomide and dexamethasone is unfavourable for patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma.

Funding: Merck Sharp & Dohme, a subsidiary of Merck & Co (Kenilworth, NJ, USA).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3026(19)30110-3DOI Listing
September 2019