Publications by authors named "Alan S Waterman"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

"Now what do I do?": Toward a conceptual understanding of the effects of traumatic events on identity functioning.

Authors:
Alan S Waterman

J Adolesc 2020 02 2;79:59-69. Epub 2020 Jan 2.

Department of Psychology, The College of New Jersey, 2000 Pennington Road, Ewing, NJ, 08628, USA. Electronic address:

Introduction: Traumas refer to relatively discrete, negatively valanced, events causing physical, economic, spiritual, and/or psychological harm with life-altering impacts. These impacts include widely varied effects on the identity functioning of adolescents/emerging adults.

Methods: The array of possible impacts of traumatic events was considered with particular attention devoted to the identification of variables that may be predictive of particular identity-related outcomes.

Results: A taxonomy of possible developmental impacts of traumatic events on identity functioning is developed: (a) identity resilience, (b) identity affirmation, (c) identity delay, (d) identity threat, (e) identity loss, (f) identity alteration, (g) identity replacement, (h) trauma-shaped identity, and (i) trauma-centered identity. A series of 11 propositions regarding the predictors of various developmental impacts is advanced. The propositions involve variables related to the nature of the traumatic event, variables related to the effects of trauma (other than identity-related effects), person-related variables, and variables related to the social context in which the person is functioning.

Conclusion: These propositions can serve as a research agenda for furthering our understanding of the range of effects of trauma on identity functioning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2019.11.005DOI Listing
February 2020

Further reflections on the humanistic psychology-positive psychology divide.

Authors:
Alan S Waterman

Am Psychol 2014 Jan;69(1):92-4

College of New Jersey.

Replies to comments by Morley (see record 2014-01475-010), Serlin (see record 2014-01475-011), Friedman (see record 2014-01475-012), Churchill and Mruk (see record 2014-01475-013), and Schneider (see record 2014-01475-014) on the current author's original article "The humanistic psychology-positive psychology divide: Contrasts in philosophical foundations" (see record 2013-12501-001). The article contrasting humanistic psychology and positive psychology with respect to their ontological, epistemological, and practical philosophical foundations has generated commentaries from leading proponents of varying perspectives within humanistic psychology. There is a great deal of material within those commentaries with which the current author is in full accord. It is worth noting at the outset that no one appears to be challenging the observations (a) that published exchanges between proponents of humanistic and positive psychology have been marked by tension and ambivalence, albeit with occasional efforts at reconciliation and rapprochement; (b) that proponents of the two perspectives differ with respect to the philosophers they most frequently cite in their writings; or (c) that such citations reflect the philosophical assumptions serving as foundations for the theoretical, research, and counseling/therapeutic endeavors of psychologists in both groups. The principal points of concurrence in the critiques published here are that the current underestimates the extent to which mutually supportive, collaborative work can be accomplished across the philosophical divide and that the recommendations the current author has made has advanced serious potential negative consequences for the field. The current author will address these points here in the reply, although space does not permit him to address other substantive points raised by individual commentators.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0034966DOI Listing
January 2014

Acculturation and well-being among college students from immigrant families.

J Clin Psychol 2013 Apr;69(4):298-318

Center for Family Studies, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, Florida 33136, UA.

Objective: The present study was designed to ascertain the associations between acculturation and well-being in first-generation and second-generation immigrant college students. Acculturation was operationalized as a multidimensional construct comprised of heritage and American cultural practices, values (individualism and collectivism), and identifications, and well-being was operationalized in terms of subjective, psychological, and eudaimonic components.

Method: Participants were 2,774 first-generation and second-generation immigrant students (70% women), from 6 ethnic groups and from 30 colleges and universities around the United States. Participants completed measures of heritage and American cultural practices, values, and identifications, as well as of subjective, psychological, and eudaimonic well-being.

Results: Findings indicated that individualistic values were positively related to psychological and eudaimonic well-being, and positively, although somewhat less strongly, linked with subjective well-being. American and heritage identifications were both modestly related to psychological and eudaimonic well-being. These findings were consistent across gender, immigrant generation (first versus second), and ethnicity.

Conclusions: Psychological and eudaimonic well-being appear to be inherently individualistic conceptions of happiness, and endorsement of individualistic values appears linked with these forms of well-being. Attachments to a cultural group-the United States, one's country of origin, or both-appear to promote psychological and eudaimonic well-being as well. The present findings suggest that similar strategies can be used to promote well-being for both male and female students, for students from various ethnic backgrounds, and for both first-generation and second-generation immigrant students.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jclp.21847DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7871524PMC
April 2013

The humanistic psychology-positive psychology divide: contrasts in philosophical foundations.

Authors:
Alan S Waterman

Am Psychol 2013 Apr;68(3):124-33

Department of Psychology, The College of New Jersey, USA.

The relationship between the fields of humanistic and positive psychology has been marked by continued tension and ambivalence. This tension can be traced to extensive differences in the philosophical grounding characterizing the two perspectives within psychology. These differences exist with respect to (a) ontology, including the ways in which human nature is conceptualized regarding human potentials and well-being; (b) epistemology, specifically, the choice of research strategies for the empirical study of these concepts; and (c) practical philosophy, particularly the goals and strategies adopted when conducting therapy or undertaking counseling interventions. Because of this philosophical divide, adherents of the two perspectives may best be advised to pursue separately their shared desire to understand and promote human potentials and well-being.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0032168DOI Listing
April 2013

Meaning in Life in Emerging Adulthood: A Person-Oriented Approach.

J Pers 2014 Feb 8;82(1):57-68. Epub 2013 Apr 8.

University of South Dakota.

The present study investigated naturally occurring profiles based on two dimensions of meaning in life: Presence of Meaning and Search for Meaning. Cluster analysis was used to examine meaning-in-life profiles, and subsequent analyses identified different patterns in psychosocial functioning for each profile. A sample of 8,492 American emerging adults (72.5% women) from 30 colleges and universities completed measures on meaning in life, and positive and negative psychosocial functioning. Results provided support for five meaningful yet distinguishable profiles. A strong generalizability of the cluster solution was found across age, and partial generalizability was found across gender and ethnicity. Furthermore, the five profiles showed specific patterns in relation to positive and negative psychosocial functioning. Specifically, respondents with profiles high on Presence of Meaning showed the most adaptive psychosocial functioning, whereas respondents with profiles where meaning was largely absent showed maladaptive psychosocial functioning. The present study provided additional evidence for prior research concerning the complex relationship between Presence of Meaning and Search for Meaning, and their relation with psychosocial functioning. Our results offer a partial clarification of the nature of the Search for Meaning process by distinguishing between adaptive and maladaptive searching for meaning in life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jopy.12033DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7885257PMC
February 2014

In support of labeling psychological traits and processes as positive and negative.

Authors:
Alan S Waterman

Am Psychol 2012 Oct;67(7):575-6; author reply 576-7

The College of New Jersey (Emeritus), NJ, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0029735DOI Listing
October 2012

Acculturation and Well-Being Among College Students From Immigrant Families.

J Clin Psychol 2012 Apr 30. Epub 2012 Apr 30.

University of Miami.

OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to ascertain the associations between acculturation and well-being in first-generation and second-generation immigrant college students. Acculturation was operationalized as a multidimensional construct comprised of heritage and American cultural practices, values (individualism and collectivism), and identifications, and well-being was operationalized in terms of subjective, psychological, and eudaimonic components. METHOD: Participants were 2,774 first-generation and second-generation immigrant students (70% women), from 6 ethnic groups and from 30 colleges and universities around the United States. Participants completed measures of heritage and American cultural practices, values, and identifications, as well as of subjective, psychological, and eudaimonic well-being. RESULTS: Findings indicated that individualistic values were positively related to psychological and eudaimonic well-being, and positively, although somewhat less strongly, linked with subjective well-being. American and heritage identifications were both modestly related to psychological and eudaimonic well-being. These findings were consistent across gender, immigrant generation (first versus second), and ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS: Psychological and eudaimonic well-being appear to be inherently individualistic conceptions of happiness, and endorsement of individualistic values appears linked with these forms of well-being. Attachments to a cultural group-the United States, one's country of origin, or both-appear to promote psychological and eudaimonic well-being as well. The present findings suggest that similar strategies can be used to promote well-being for both male and female students, for students from various ethnic backgrounds, and for both first-generation and second-generation immigrant students. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Clin. Psychol. 00:1-21, 2012.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jclp21847DOI Listing
April 2012

The Association of Well-Being with Health Risk Behaviors in College-Attending Young Adults.

Appl Dev Sci 2011 22;15(1):20-36. Epub 2011 Jan 22.

University of Arkansas.

The present study investigated the associations of well-being with engagement in illicit drug use, sexual risk taking, and impaired driving in a sample of 9,515 students from 30 U.S. colleges and universities. Participants completed measures of subjective well-being, psychological well-being, and eudaimonic well-being, and indicated how many times in the past 30 days that they had engaged in several illicit drug use, sexual risk, and impaired driving behaviors. Findings indicated that well-being was negatively associated with incidence of illicit drug use and some sexual risk behaviors, but not with incidence of drunk/drugged driving or riding with an impaired driver. Well-being was negatively related to frequency of casual sex, sex while drunk/high, drunk/drugged driving, and riding with an impaired driver. Associations of well-being were strongest for more dangerous types of drug use and sexual behavior and for riding with an impaired driver. Results are discussed in terms of implications for research and intervention development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10888691.2011.538617DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7946159PMC
January 2011

Examining the light and dark sides of emerging adults' identity: a study of identity status differences in positive and negative psychosocial functioning.

J Youth Adolesc 2011 Jul 19;40(7):839-59. Epub 2010 Nov 19.

Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL 33136, USA.

Identity is a critical developmental task during the transition to adulthood in Western societies. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate an empirically based, cluster-analytic identity status model, to examine whether all four of Marcia's identity statuses (diffusion, foreclosure, moratorium, and achievement) would emerge empirically, and to identify different patterns of identity formation among American college-attending emerging adults. An ethnically diverse sample of 9,034 emerging-adult students (73% female; mean age 19.73 years) from 30 U.S. universities completed measures of identity exploration (ruminative, in breadth, and in depth) and commitment (commitment making and identification with commitment), identity synthesis and confusion, positive and negative psychosocial functioning, and health-compromising behaviors. The identity status cluster solution that emerged provided an adequate fit to the data and included all four of Marcia's original identity statuses, along with Carefree Diffusion and Undifferentiated statuses. Results provided evidence for concurrent validity, construct validity, and practical applicability of these statuses. Implications for identity research are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10964-010-9606-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7870419PMC
July 2011

On the importance of distinguishing hedonia and eudaimonia when contemplating the hedonic treadmill.

Authors:
Alan S Waterman

Am Psychol 2007 Sep;62(6):612-3

College of New Jersey, Ewing, NJ 08628-0718, USA.

Comments on the article by E. Diener, R. E. Lucas, and C. N. Scollon which provided a revision of the adaptation theory of well-being. The current author suggests that consideration of the emerging distinction between hedonic and eudaimonic well-being was missing from the original article and is worthy of scholarly attention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X62.6.612DOI Listing
September 2007

Predicting the subjective experience of intrinsic motivation: the roles of self-determination, the balance of challenges and skills, and self-realization values.

Pers Soc Psychol Bull 2003 Nov;29(11):1447-58

Department of Psychology, The College of New Jersey, PO Box 7718, Ewing, NJ 08628-0718, USA.

A series of studies was conducted to investigate the contributions of self-determination, perceived competence, and self-realization values to the subjective experience of intrinsic motivation. Using varying sets of instructions in these studies, college undergraduates generated and subsequently evaluated panels of identity-related activities. Three measures of the subjective experience of intrinsic motivation were used as outcome variables: (a) interest, (b) flow experiences, and (c) feelings of personal expressiveness. These subjective experience measures were strongly intercorrelated. Across studies, self-determination was found to be strongly associated with all of the subjective experience measures. In contrast, self-realization values made larger contributions to flow experiences and to personal expressiveness than to interest. Perceived competence, although significantly correlated with all subjective experience measures, played a considerably smaller role in the prediction of intrinsic motivation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0146167203256907DOI Listing
November 2003