Publications by authors named "Alan Paton"

21 Publications

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Differences in diterpenoid diversity reveal new evidence for separating the genus from .

Nat Prod Rep 2021 10 20;38(10):1720-1728. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey, TW9 3DS, UK.

Covering: up to 2019The large and medicinally important tropical plant genus (Lamiaceae) was recently split into three separate genera on the basis of molecular and morphological evidence; , and . We found striking differences between the diterpenoids which strongly support this taxonomic split. is characterised by abietanes oxygenated at C-14 such as royleanones, spirocoleons and acylhydroquinones, which could be useful chemotaxonomic markers to distinguish this genus from In contrast, the abietanes in lack C-14 oxygenation, but are often acylated with unusual acids. species do not seem to produce diterpenoids. The structures of the nearly 240 abietanes so far reported from and and their distribution are presented. The aim of this Highlight is to provide an overview of the differences in diterpenoid diversity between these newly defined genera, which are relevant to predict which previously understudied species could hold untapped potential for their medicinal and other economic uses, and to underpin future research on how these plants have evolved to synthesise distinct abietane types.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0np00081gDOI Listing
October 2021

The World Checklist of Vascular Plants, a continuously updated resource for exploring global plant diversity.

Sci Data 2021 08 13;8(1):215. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, UK.

The World Checklist of Vascular Plants (WCVP) is a comprehensive list of scientifically described plant species, compiled over four decades, from peer-reviewed literature, authoritative scientific databases, herbaria and observations, then reviewed by experts. It is a vital tool to facilitate plant diversity research, conservation and effective management, including sustainable use and equitable sharing of benefits. To maximise utility, such lists should be accessible, explicitly evidence-based, transparent, expert-reviewed, and regularly updated, incorporating new evidence and emerging scientific consensus. WCVP largely meets these criteria, being continuously updated and freely available online. Users can browse, search, or download a user-defined subset of accepted species with corresponding synonyms and bibliographic details, or a date-stamped full dataset. To facilitate appropriate data reuse by individual researchers and global initiatives including Global Biodiversity Information Facility, Catalogue of Life and World Flora Online, we document data collation and review processes, the underlying data structure, and the international data standards and technical validation that ensure data quality and integrity. We also address the questions most frequently received from users.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41597-021-00997-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8363670PMC
August 2021

Assessing the evolution of wheat grain traits during the last 166 years using archived samples.

Sci Rep 2020 12 11;10(1):21828. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Spanish National Research Council (CSIC)-Government of Navarre, AgroBiotechnology Institute (IdAB), Av. Pamplona 123, 31006, Mutilva, Spain.

The current study focuses on yield and nutritional quality changes of wheat grain over the last 166 years. It is based on wheat grain quality analyses carried out on samples collected between 1850 and 2016. Samples were obtained from the Broadbalk Continuous Wheat Experiment (UK) and from herbaria from 16 different countries around the world. Our study showed that, together with an increase in carbohydrate content, an impoverishment of mineral composition and protein content occurred. The imbalance in carbohydrate/protein content was specially marked after the 1960's, coinciding with strong increases in ambient [CO] and temperature and the introduction of progressively shorter straw varieties. The implications of altered crop physiology are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-78504-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7733497PMC
December 2020

(Lamiaceae, Nepetoideae), a new species from the Sino-Vietnamese border.

PhytoKeys 2020 10;145:131-138. Epub 2020 Apr 10.

CAS Key Laboratory for Plant Diversity and Biogeography of East Asia, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, 650201, China Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences Kunming China.

is a genus of eight herbaceous species previously thought to be endemic to southern China. However, , a new species described here from China and Vietnam, differs from all other species of by its subshrubby habit. It is also distinct in its shallowly bicrenate laminae and densely purplish glandular puberulent inflorescences. The morphological description, illustrations, and distribution of the new species are presented. A key to all species of is also provided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/phytokeys.145.49995DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7165191PMC
April 2020

Nomenclatural changes in and (Lamiaceae): a tale of more than two genera.

PhytoKeys 2019 23;129:1-158. Epub 2019 Aug 23.

School of Biological Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, UK University of Reading Reading United Kingdom.

A synopsis of the genera Lour, A.J.Paton, Mwany. & Culham and L'Hér. (Lamiaceae, Tribe Ocimeae, Subtribe Plecranthinae) is presented. Generic delimitation follows a recently published molecular phylogeny which identified as the sister of the remaining genera of Subtribe Plectranthinae; as sister to Benth. and N.E.Br., and a separate phylogenetically distinct genus comprising species previously placed in . In this treatment, 294 species of , 42 of , and 72 of are recognized. All but one of the combinations in are new as only the genus and type species have been previously published. Two-hundred and twelve names are changed to combinations in from , Hook. and Benth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/phytokeys.129.34988DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6717120PMC
August 2019

Records of Wenchengia (Lamiaceae) from Vietnam.

Biodivers Data J 2016 3(4):e9596. Epub 2016 Aug 3.

The Forest Herbarium, Department of National Parks, Wildlife and Plant Conservation, Bangkok, Thailand.

Background: The monotypic genus Wenchengia (Lamiaceae) has been thought to be endemic to Hainan, China. This paper reports on historic records of Wenchengia alternifolia collected from Vietnam. The recent recuration and modernisation of the Paris herbarium greatly facilitated this discovery.

New Information: During preparatory work supporting the account for the Lamiaceae of the Flora of Thailand, three specimens of Wenchengia from central Vietnam were found in the Herbarium of the Musuem National d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris (P), and subsequently two duplicates were found in the Herbarium at Kew (K, abbreviations following Thiers 2016). The specimens were collected in and before 1927 and it is not known if the species is still extant in Vietnam. Searches for extant populations should focus in the Ba Na Hills or Bach Ma National Park, central Vietnam.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.4.e9596DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5018103PMC
September 2016

A common registration-to-publication automated pipeline for nomenclatural acts for higher plants (International Plant Names Index, IPNI), fungi (Index Fungorum, MycoBank) and animals (ZooBank).

Zookeys 2016 7(550):233-46. Epub 2016 Jan 7.

Pensoft Publishers, Sofia, Bulgaria; National Museum of Natural History, Sofia, Bulgaria.

Collaborative effort among four lead indexes of taxon names and nomenclatural acts (International Plant Name Index (IPNI), Index Fungorum, MycoBank and ZooBank) and the journals PhytoKeys, MycoKeys and ZooKeys to create an automated, pre-publication, registration workflow, based on a server-to-server, XML request/response model. The registration model for ZooBank uses the TaxPub schema, which is an extension to the Journal Tag Publishing Suite (JATS) of the National Library of Medicine (NLM). The indexing or registration model of IPNI and Index Fungorum will use the Taxonomic Concept Transfer Schema (TCS) as a basic standard for the workflow. Other journals and publishers who intend to implement automated, pre-publication, registration of taxon names and nomenclatural acts can also use the open sample XML formats and links to schemas and relevant information published in the paper.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.550.9551DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4741224PMC
February 2016

PESI - a taxonomic backbone for Europe.

Biodivers Data J 2015 28(3):e5848. Epub 2015 Sep 28.

Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Département Systématique & Evolution, UMR 7205 MNHN-CNRS-UPMC-EPHE, (ISyEB), Paris, France.

Background: Reliable taxonomy underpins communication in all of biology, not least nature conservation and sustainable use of ecosystem resources. The flexibility of taxonomic interpretations, however, presents a serious challenge for end-users of taxonomic concepts. Users need standardised and continuously harmonised taxonomic reference systems, as well as high-quality and complete taxonomic data sets, but these are generally lacking for non-specialists. The solution is in dynamic, expertly curated web-based taxonomic tools. The Pan-European Species-directories Infrastructure (PESI) worked to solve this key issue by providing a taxonomic e-infrastructure for Europe. It strengthened the relevant social (expertise) and information (standards, data and technical) capacities of five major community networks on taxonomic indexing in Europe, which is essential for proper biodiversity assessment and monitoring activities. The key objectives of PESI were: 1) standardisation in taxonomic reference systems, 2) enhancement of the quality and completeness of taxonomic data sets and 3) creation of integrated access to taxonomic information.

New Information: This paper describes the results of PESI and its future prospects, including the involvement in major European biodiversity informatics initiatives and programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.3.e5848DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4609752PMC
October 2015

A new species of Orthosiphon (Lamiaceae) from Angola.

Authors:
Alan Paton

Biodivers Data J 2014 30(2):e1162. Epub 2014 Jul 30.

Herbarium, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London, United Kingdom.

A new species of Orthosiphon (Lamiaceae), Orthosiphoncinereus A.J.Paton, sp. nov. from Angola is described and the eight species of Orthosiphon in Angola listed with reference to previous accounts. Orthosiphonnewtonii Briq. is reduced to the synonymy of Endostemontubulascens (Briq.) M.Ashby.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.2.e1162DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4152831PMC
September 2014

Phylogeny and historical biogeography of Isodon (Lamiaceae): rapid radiation in south-west China and Miocene overland dispersal into Africa.

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2014 Aug 30;77:183-94. Epub 2014 Apr 30.

Laboratory of Plant Phylogenetics and Conservation, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan 650223, PR China; Center for Integrative Conservation, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Menglun, Yunnan 666303, PR China. Electronic address:

Rapid organismal radiations occurring on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) and the mechanisms underlying Asia-Africa intercontinental disjunctions have both attracted much attention from evolutionary biologists. Here we use the genus Isodon (Lamiaceae), a primarily East Asian lineage with disjunct species in central and southern Africa, as a case study to shed light upon these processes. The molecular phylogeny and biogeographic history of Isodon were reconstructed using sequences of three plastid markers, the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (nrITS), and a low-copy nuclear gene (LEAFY intron II). The evolution of chromosome numbers in this genus was also investigated using probabilistic models. Our results support a monophyletic Isodon that includes the two disjunct African species, both of which likely formed through allopolyploidy. An overland migration from Asia to Africa through Arabia during the early Miocene is proposed as the most likely explanation for the present disjunct distribution of Isodon. The opening of the Red Sea in the middle Miocene may appear to have had a major role in disrupting floristic exchange between Asia and Africa. In addition, a rapid radiation of Isodon was suggested to occur in the late Miocene. It corresponds with one of the major uplifts of the QTP and subsequent aridification events. Our results support the hypothesis that geological and climatic events play important roles in driving biological diversification of organisms distributed in the QTP area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2014.04.017DOI Listing
August 2014

A decadal view of biodiversity informatics: challenges and priorities.

BMC Ecol 2013 Apr 15;13:16. Epub 2013 Apr 15.

School of Computer Science and Informatics, Cardiff University, Queens Buildings, 5 The Parade, Cardiff, CF24 3AA, UK.

Biodiversity informatics plays a central enabling role in the research community's efforts to address scientific conservation and sustainability issues. Great strides have been made in the past decade establishing a framework for sharing data, where taxonomy and systematics has been perceived as the most prominent discipline involved. To some extent this is inevitable, given the use of species names as the pivot around which information is organised. To address the urgent questions around conservation, land-use, environmental change, sustainability, food security and ecosystem services that are facing Governments worldwide, we need to understand how the ecosystem works. So, we need a systems approach to understanding biodiversity that moves significantly beyond taxonomy and species observations. Such an approach needs to look at the whole system to address species interactions, both with their environment and with other species.It is clear that some barriers to progress are sociological, basically persuading people to use the technological solutions that are already available. This is best addressed by developing more effective systems that deliver immediate benefit to the user, hiding the majority of the technology behind simple user interfaces. An infrastructure should be a space in which activities take place and, as such, should be effectively invisible.This community consultation paper positions the role of biodiversity informatics, for the next decade, presenting the actions needed to link the various biodiversity infrastructures invisibly and to facilitate understanding that can support both business and policy-makers. The community considers the goal in biodiversity informatics to be full integration of the biodiversity research community, including citizens' science, through a commonly-shared, sustainable e-infrastructure across all sub-disciplines that reliably serves science and society alike.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-6785-13-16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3843378PMC
April 2013

Biodiversity informatics and the plant conservation baseline.

Authors:
Alan Paton

Trends Plant Sci 2009 Nov 25;14(11):629-37. Epub 2009 Sep 25.

Herbarium, Library, Art and Archives, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey, TW9 3AB, UK.

Primary baseline data on taxonomy and species distribution, and its integration with environmental variables, has a valuable role to play in achieving internationally recognised targets for plant diversity conservation, such as the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation. The importance of primary baseline data and the role of biodiversity informatics in linking these data to other environmental variables are discussed. The need to maintain digital resources and make them widely accessible is an additional requirement of institutions who already collect and maintain this baseline data. The lack of resources in many species-rich areas to gather these data and make them widely accessible needs to be addressed if the full benefit of biodiversity informatics on plant conservation is to be realised.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tplants.2009.08.007DOI Listing
November 2009

Antibacterial diterpenes from Plectranthus ernstii.

J Nat Prod 2009 Jun;72(6):1191-4

Centre for Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy, The School of Pharmacy, University of London, London, UK.

Three new diterpenoids including two pimaranes (1 and 2) and a labdane (3) were isolated from the whole herb of Plectranthus ernstii. The structures of these compounds were determined as rel-15(zeta),16-epoxy-7alpha-hydroxypimar-8,14-ene (1) and rel-15(zeta),16-epoxy-7-oxopimar-8,14-ene (2), and compound 3 was elucidated as 1R,11S-dihydroxy-8R,13R-epoxylabd-14-ene on the basis of single-crystal X-ray structural analysis. Compound 1 exhibited moderate antistaphylococcal activity against a range of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and methicillin-resistant (MRSA) strains of Staphylococcus aureus with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 32 microg/mL. All three diterpenes exhibited antimycobacterial activity against three strains of rapidly growing mycobacteria with MIC values ranging from 8 to 128 microg/mL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/np800581sDOI Listing
June 2009

Taxonomic inflation, species concepts and global species lists.

Trends Ecol Evol 2005 Jan 11;20(1):7-8; author reply 8-9. Epub 2004 Nov 11.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2004.11.001DOI Listing
January 2005

Plectranthus: a review of ethnobotanical uses.

J Ethnopharmacol 2006 Jan 9;103(1):1-24. Epub 2005 Nov 9.

University of Nairobi, Department of Botany, Kenya.

Plectranthus is a large and widespread genus with a diversity of ethnobotanical uses. The genus is plagued with numerous nomenclatural disharmonies that make it difficult to collate accurate data on the uses. The aim of this review is to gather together all ethnobotanical information on Plectranthus and to map the data onto the most up-to-date phylogenetic classification in order to see if there are similar uses among related species and hence provide a framework for the prediction and exploration of new uses of species. The uses of 62 species of Plectranthus were mapped onto a current phylogeny based on DNA sequence data. The phylogeny reveals two major Clades, 1 and 2. The members of Clade 1 (corresponding to the formally recognized genus Coleus) were richer in number and diversity of uses than members of Clade 2 (comprising the remaining species of Plectranthus). The high incidence of synonymy can lead to problems in uncovering a species' ethnobotanical profile. About 30% of all citations of Plectranthus use a synonym and most of the synonyms are attributed to 10 of the most used species, 9 of which are in Clade 1. Members of the 'Coleus' Clade are the most studied group both taxonomically and economically. The higher incidence of study may be as a result of the higher diversity of uses and the fact that species in Clade 1, such as Plectranthus barbatus, Plectranthus amboinicus and Plectranthus mollis, are geographically more widespread than those in Clade 2. Plectranthus species in Clade 1 are frequently used as medicines and are used to treat a range of ailments, particularly digestive, skin, infective and respiratory problems. Plectranthus used as foods, flavours, fodder and materials are also mostly found in Clade 1. Monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, diterpenoids and phenolics have been reported in species of Plectranthus. The abietane diterpenoids are the most diverse of the diterpenoids isolated from species of Plectranthus. The labdane diterpenoid, forskolin, occurs in Plectranthus barbatus and could explain some of the traditional uses of this species. This review highlights the fact that not enough is known about the chemistry of other species of Plectranthus to explain their traditional uses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2005.09.011DOI Listing
January 2006

Phylogeny and evolution of basils and allies (Ocimeae, Labiatae) based on three plastid DNA regions.

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2004 Apr;31(1):277-99

The Herbarium, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond TW9 3AB, UK.

A phylogeny of basils and allies (Lamiaceae, tribe Ocimeae) based on sequences of the trnL intron, trnL-trnF intergene spacer and rps 16 intron of the plastid genome is presented. Several methods were used to reconstruct phylogenies and to assess statistical support for clades: maximum parsimony with equally and successively weighted characters, bootstrap resampling, and Bayesian inference. The phylogeny is used to investigate the distribution of morphological, pericarp anatomy, chemical, and pollen characters as well as the geographical distribution of the clades. Tribe Ocimeae is monophyletic and easily diagnosable with morphological synapomorphies. There are monophyletic clades within Ocimeae that broadly correspond to currently recognised subtribes: Lavandulinae, Hyptidinae, Ociminae, and Plectranthinae. Only Lavandulinae has clear non-molecular synapomorphies. Several currently recognised genera are not monophyletic. Floral morphology consistent with sternotribic pollination is most common in Ocimeae, but there are independent departures from this model. Buzz pollination is likely in some species, the only postulated occurrence of this within Lamiaceae. Quinone diterpenoids and flavones in the leaf exudates differ in their distributions across the phylogeny and this could contribute to differences in the recorded medicinal as well as pesticidal uses of the species in the different clades. Mapping geographic distribution on to an ultrametric phylogenetic tree produced using non-parametric rate smoothing supports an Asiatic origin for Ocimeae. There are several secondary occurrences in Asia arising from the African Ociminae and Plectranthinae clades. Colonisation of Madagascar occurred at least five times, and New World colonisation occurred at least three times.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2003.08.002DOI Listing
April 2004

The chemotaxonomic significance of two bioactive caffeic acid esters, nepetoidins A and B, in the Lamiaceae.

Phytochemistry 2003 Sep;64(2):519-28

Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 3AB, UK.

A survey of leaf surface constituents in the family Lamiaceae using HPLC with diode array detection revealed the presence of two characteristic phenolic compounds in many species. The distribution of these phenolics in the Lamiaceae was found to be of taxonomic significance, as they were present in the great majority of species investigated for the subfamily Nepetoideae, including representatives of the well-known genera of culinary herbs, mint, rosemary, sage, thyme and basil. In contrast, they were absent from species of the other subfamilies of Lamiaceae studied and from the related families Verbenaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Acanthaceae and Buddlejaceae. The compounds were isolated from Plectranthus crassus and identified by NMR spectroscopy as the known caffeic acid esters (Z,E)-[2-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)ethenyl] 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-propenoate and (Z,E)-[2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethenyl] 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-propenoate, for which the trivial names nepetoidins A and B are proposed. The presence of this pair of caffeic acid esters adds another character to the chemical, palynological and embryological features distinguishing the Nepetoideae from the other subfamilies of Lamiaceae and related families, and supports the view that the Nepetoideae are a specialised and monophyletic group within the family. Nepetoidin B was shown to have a greater antioxidant activity than gallic, rosmarinic and caffeic acids, and showed activity as an insect phagostimulant. Both compounds were antifungal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0031-9422(03)00192-4DOI Listing
September 2003

Chemical profiling of Ocimum americanum using external flavonoids.

Phytochemistry 2003 Jul;63(5):555-67

Embrapa, Cenargen, Caixa Postal 02372, Brasilia, DF 70770-900, Brazil.

A HPLC survey was undertaken of the external flavonoids in 111 herbarium specimens of Ocimum americanum L. (O. canum Sims), which were largely collected from their natural habitats throughout Africa and Asia. The purpose of this study was to establish the flavonoid profiles of this species over the full range of its geographic distribution in order to use these for authentication purposes. Six different external flavonoid chemotypes were found. The major chemotype, present in circa 80% of the specimens of both var. americanum and var. pilosum collected throughout the distribution area of the species, was characterised by very high levels of nevadensin, slightly lower levels of salvigenin and much lower levels of up to 15 other external flavones. Of the remaining five chemotypes, two were found in var. americanum and three in var. pilosum. All specimens belonging to these chemotypes were collected in South or East Africa and represented by only a few specimens. These samples contained much smaller levels of flavones than present in the major chemotype of O. americanum and all lacked nevadensin. Xanthomicrol, a compound absent from the main chemotype, was the dominant flavone in two of the minor chemotypes. The external flavonoid profiles found in the six chemotypes of O. americanum were compared with those of O. x citriodorum (11 herbarium specimens studied) and seven other closely related species of Ocimum. The main nevadensin/salvigenin pattern present in O. americanum was also found in O. x citriodorum, O. basilicum and some specimens of O. minimum, but there were strong quantitative differences in external flavonoids among these taxa. The other chemotypes of O. americanum showed some similarities in their external flavone profiles to those found in the closely related East African species O. fischeri, O. forskolei, O. kenyense and O. kilimandscharicum, which occur in the same geographic areas. This suggests that the uncommon chemotypes of O. americanum may have originated by an exchange of genes with other Ocimum species, e.g. by introgressive hybridisation. Despite some similarities in profiles, chemical differences were also found among the species, so that it should be possible to authenticate a large proportion of leaf samples of O. americanum on the basis of external flavonoid profiles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0031-9422(03)00143-2DOI Listing
July 2003

Scutellarein 4'-methyl ether glycosides as taxonomic markers in Teucridium and Tripora (Lamiaceae, Ajugoideae).

Phytochemistry 2002 Aug;60(7):727-31

Jodrell Laboratory, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, TW9 3DS, Surrey, UK.

The flavonoid profiles of two monotypic genera, Teucridium and Tripora, have been studied by analytical methods. These genera were formerly placed in the Verbenaceae, but are now classified in the Lamiaceae, subfamily Ajugoideae. The major flavonoids of both genera were identified as glycosides of scutellarein 4'-methyl ether (5,6,7-trihydroxy-4'methoxyflavone) and acacetin (5,7-dihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavone). The new flavone glycoside, scutellarein 4'-methyl ether 7-O-rutinoside, was isolated from Teucridium parvifolium and the rare scutellarein 4'-methyl ether 7-O-glucuronide from Tripora divaricata. The latter compound has only been reported previously in the related genus Clerodendron. The potential of these flavonoids as taxonomic markers for the tribe Ajugoideae is discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0031-9422(02)00192-9DOI Listing
August 2002
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