Publications by authors named "Alan H Silverman"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Feeding Disorders in Children With Tracheostomy Tubes.

Nutr Clin Pract 2020 Jul 23. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

Medical College of Wisconsin, Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA.

Background: We aimed to describe feeding dysfunction in a group of children with tracheostomy.

Methods: Single-center, retrospective chart review of all children with a tracheostomy who were evaluated by our interdisciplinary feeding program. Demographic and diagnostic data, nutrition variables, acceptance of food consistencies, as well as 2 validated psychometric instruments for assessment of feeding dysfunction were analyzed.

Results: Thirteen tracheostomy-dependent children (5/13; 38% ventilator dependent) were evaluated at a median age of 51 months (interquartile range [IQR], 26-69). The majority of children (8/13; 62%) underwent evaluation after decannulation. Four children (30%) had a history of a cuffed tracheostomy tube. Eleven children (85%) used a speaking valve prior to decannulation, only 2 of whom started before initial discharge with a tracheostomy. Children with a tracheostomy had low-median weight- and height-for-age z-scores (-1.27 and -1.73, respectively), with normal-median body mass index (BMI)-for-age z-score (0.175). Children received 75% of feedings via tube feeding (IQR, 13%-97%). Compared with other children with feeding disorders, children with tracheostomy had delays in initial acceptance of most food textures and general diet, and the Mealtime Behavior Questionnaire showed significantly worse overall scores (P = .01), and the About Your Child's Eating survey showed significantly higher parental perception of resistance to eating (P = .0001).

Conclusion: Requirement of enteral nutrition, poor oral-feeding skills, chronic malnutrition, and worse mealtime behaviors are associated with tracheostomy. A history of ventilator dependence, cuffed tracheostomy, and inpatient speaking valve-use were infrequently associated with interdisciplinary feeding-program evaluation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ncp.10551DOI Listing
July 2020

Swallowing Screening: Purposefully Different From an Assessment Sensitivity and Specificity Related to Clinical Yield, Interprofessional Roles, and Patient Selection.

Am J Speech Lang Pathol 2020 07 10;29(2S):979-991. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Section of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee.

Purpose The purpose of this clinical focus article is to summarize the goal and process by which identification of individuals at risk for having feeding problems or dysphagia is clinically screened across the life span by speech-language pathologists (SLPs). The topic of this clinical focus article was presented at the Charleston Swallowing Conference in Chicago, Illinois, in July 2018. The contents of this clinical focus article offer an expanded summary of information discussed at this meeting with focus on critical considerations to guide clinical decisions by SLPs regarding the optimal feeding and dysphagia screening approach and process. Conclusion Screening is a critical first step in the identification of individuals at risk for feeding problems and dysphagia across the life span. Understanding the difference between screening and assessment objectives as well as having the knowledge, skills, and clinical competency to implement psychometrically sound screening approaches is a recommended clinical practice standard for SLPs working with these clinical populations. This clinical focus article summarizes critical considerations for identifying individuals at risk for feeding problems and dysphagia across the life span to guide clinicians working with dysphagia populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1044/2020_AJSLP-19-00140DOI Listing
July 2020

Psychometric Properties of the Infant and Child Feeding Questionnaire.

J Pediatr 2020 08 4;223:81-86.e2. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Department of Surgery, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT.

Objectives: To report the updated psychometric properties of a child feeding questionnaire and to report the psychometric properties of a screening tool developed from this questionnaire. A secondary objective was to consider if items from a behavior checklist embedded within the Infant and Child Feeding Questionnaire may be useful in making referrals for feeding problems.

Study Design: Caregivers of children younger than the age of 4 years with pediatric feeding disorders (as defined by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, criteria) were recruited from 2 outpatient clinics. A comparison group with no feeding problems was recruited during well child checks from community clinics. Caregivers completed a demographic questionnaire and a child feeding questionnaire. Exploratory and confirmatory analyses identified questionnaire items that differentiated groups. Remaining items were summed and area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity values were calculated to describe the resulting screening tool. ORs of behaviors from the embedded behavior checklist were calculated to determine whether specific behaviors could be useful for referrals.

Results: Responses of 989 caregivers (pediatric feeding disorders, n = 331; no feeding problems, n = 650) were obtained. Six questions of the child feeding questionnaire differentiated groups accounting for 60% of variance. Sensitivity (73%) and specificity (93%) were greater when any 2 or more of these 6 items was endorsed. Three items of the embedded feeding behaviors checklist show promise for referrals to specific provider disciplines.

Conclusions: A pediatric feeding disorders screening tool consisting of 6 questions from a child feeding questionnaire is psychometrically sound. Use of this tool may expedite referrals for treatment. Further study of the embedded behavior checklist may be useful for clinical referrals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.04.040DOI Listing
August 2020

The relationship between chronic paediatric feeding disorders and caregiver stress.

J Child Health Care 2021 Mar 12;25(1):69-80. Epub 2020 Feb 12.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA.

Paediatric feeding disorders (PFDs) are common. Earlier studies have shown an association between PFD and caregiver stress, but these studies have been hampered by insufficient power. This study reports stress for caregivers of children diagnosed with PFD. These caregivers were then compared to community norms of the Parental Stress Index-Short Form. Caregivers also completed the Mealtime Behaviour Questionnaire, Child Behaviour Checklist and Child Development Inventory. Linear regression and hierarchical regression analyses assessed the relationship among the variables. Caregivers of 840 children with PFD responded. Negative child behaviours and lower child developmental function predicted higher levels of total parenting stress, parental distress, parent-child dysfunctional interaction and caregiver perceptions of their child as difficult. Higher rates of child internalizing and externalizing problems and child mealtime aggression were associated with parent perceptions of their child as difficult and contributed to total parental stress. Parents of older children reported higher levels of stress, whereas parents of younger children were more likely to be defensive responders. Overall, parents of children with PFD have more caregiver-related stress. These caregivers may benefit from consultations with mental health professionals to provide the most appropriate care to affected families.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1367493520905381DOI Listing
March 2021

Group Treatment of Fecal Incontinence: A Description of an Interdisciplinary Intervention.

J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2019 09;69(3):e70-e74

Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI.

Introduction: Approximately 5% of children in the United States have chronic fecal incontinence. Unfortunately, standard medical management of fecal incontinence fails in 20% to 60% of cases. A combined medical-behavioral model is often recommended in these cases. The purpose of this pilot study was to describe an interdisciplinary group-based treatment for fecal incontinence in school-aged children, and to present a description of changes in treatment adherence rates that affect clinical effectiveness.

Method: Poop group employed a developmentally appropriate model of care in which caregivers and children participated in separate but simultaneously held therapy groups. This interdisciplinary 6-week protocol is designed to increase appropriate stooling, decrease soiling events, and increase medication adherence pre- to post-treatment. Group sessions focus on the GI system, medication, toilet sitting posture, hydration, fiber, and behavior contracts. In addition, participant families consult with an Advanced Nurse Practitioner privately at each session discussing symptoms and making medication modifications as needed.

Results: Nineteen families completed the 6-week protocol. Appropriate stool frequency was improved (P ≤ 0.01), and soiling was reduced (P ≤ 0.00). Medication adherence was also improved (P ≤ 0.04). Treatment results were maintained at 1-month follow-up.

Discussion: A developmentally targeted intervention and interdisciplinary focus of treatment likely account for treatment successes.

Conclusion: Poop group may be an effective interdisciplinary treatment option for families of children who fail traditional outpatient treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MPG.0000000000002372DOI Listing
September 2019

A clinical description of children with solid organ transplants who present with feeding disorder.

Pediatr Transplant 2019 05 18;23(3):e13389. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

Pediatric solid organ transplant recipients have long-standing malnutrition concerns related to their pretransplant medical status. The targeted nutrition therapy utilized pre-, peri-, and post-transplantation may have the adverse effect of impeding normally developing feeding skills, particularly in very young children. Little is known about the relationship between transplantation and feeding disorders of childhood. The purpose of this study was to describe severity of feeding disorder and parental stress in patients with transplant compared to children followed in a specialty feeding clinic and the general community. Sixty-four children, comprised of 32 children with solid organ transplant ages 2 months to 12 years and 32 matched control patients diagnosed with a feeding disorder without history of solid organ transplant, were reviewed. All children were from the Feeding, Swallowing, and Nutrition Clinic at a single children's hospital. Findings indicate that patients who received a transplant and presented with a feeding problem had worse symptoms of feeding disorder than are typically found in the general community. These feeding problems disrupt mealtime behavior, caregiver and child relationship within a mealtime context, and may result in maladaptive feeding strategies used by families. When transplanted children present with feeding disorders, they are severe and have multiple effects on both the child and the feeding dynamic between the child and the child's caregivers. Further investigation may help us to better understand the relationship between transplantation and symptoms of feeding disorder.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/petr.13389DOI Listing
May 2019

Safety of Appetite Manipulation in Children with Feeding Disorders Admitted to an Inpatient Feeding Program.

J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2018 05;66(5):e127-e130

Feeding, Swallowing and Nutrition Center, Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition, Medical College of Wisconsin.

Objective: Appetite manipulation can be effective in weaning children off gastrostomy tube feeding dependence but can cause dehydration, hypoglycaemia, and ketone body production, which is anorexigenic. As the safety of this approach has not been described, our aim was to describe adverse events observed when weaning children from G-tube dependence using our appetite manipulation protocol.

Methods: This was a retrospective study of prospectively collected data of patients who completed our inpatient tube-weaning protocol. Daily safety parameters included twice-daily urine specific gravities and urine ketones and fasting capillary blood glucose. Graded clinical interventions to manage adverse events were collected.

Results: A total of 143 children with a mean age of 4.8 ± 2.4 years were seen in the inpatient feeding program of which 74 (51.7%) were male. The children were hospitalized 10.1 ± 2.5 days with the vast majority being discharged between days 11 and 14. Overall, 78.2% of patients experienced at least 1 adverse event: urine specific gravity >1.020 was seen in 60.5%, ketonuria in 48.9%, and hypoglycemia (≤60 mg/dL) in 13.4%. Only 2 children had blood glucose levels <40 mg/dL and these were corrected with oral supplementation. Graded clinical interventions to manage adverse events included oral rehydration in 89.9% of children and supplemental tube feeding in 25.2%.

Conclusions: Adverse effects are common when appetite manipulation is used to wean children off G-tube dependence. Anticipating, monitoring, and having a clear intervention plan in a closely monitored setting are necessary to safely use this method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MPG.0000000000001849DOI Listing
May 2018

A Problem That Is Difficult to Swallow.

J Pediatr 2017 02 6;181:7-8. Epub 2016 Dec 6.

Department of Pediatrics Medical College of Wisconsin Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2016.11.052DOI Listing
February 2017

Preliminary Study of a Caregiver-based Infant and Child Feeding and Swallowing Screening Tool.

J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2017 06;64(6):979-983

*University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT †Feeding Matters, Phoenix, AZ ‡California State University, Sacramento, CA §University of California, Davis, Sacramento, CA ||Medical College of Wisconsin ¶Children's Hospital of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI.

Objectives: The Infant and Child Feeding Questionnaire (ICFQ) was created to facilitate early detection of feeding and swallowing problems. This is achieved by promoting effective communication between caregivers and health care providers resulting in referral for evaluation and treatment of feeding and swallowing problems by specialists. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine whether items from the ICFQ could be used to screen for differences between children with known feeding problems (FP) and without known feeding problems (NFP).

Methods: Caregivers of children ages 36 months or younger with FP and NFP were recruited to complete the ICFQ and demographic questions. T tests were completed to compare demographic characteristics of the research groups. Responses to ICFQ items were analyzed using receiver operating characteristic analysis and odds ratios to determine whether questionnaire items distinguished between study groups.

Results: Sixty-four caregivers of children with FP and 57 caregivers of NFP children were recruited. Three participants in the NFP group did not meet inclusion criteria and were excluded from analysis. A combination of 4 ICFQ questions distinguished between groups (receiver operating characteristic = 0.974). Significant odds ratios were also found for 9 feeding behaviors that distinguished between groups.

Conclusions: A subset of items from the ICFQ showed promise for distinguishing FP from NFP groups. Future work will expand the regional representation of the participant samples and obtain equal representation of participants across all age-adjusted questionnaires to determine whether the same combination of ICFQ items continues to distinguish between FP and NFP groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MPG.0000000000001442DOI Listing
June 2017

Empirically Derived Patterns of Pain, Stooling, and Incontinence and Their Relations to Health-Related Quality of Life Among Youth With Chronic Constipation.

J Pediatr Psychol 2017 Apr;42(3):325-334

Department of Gastroenterology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, USA.

Objective: Chronic constipation is associated with pain, stress, and fecal incontinence, which negatively impact health-related quality of life (HRQoL); however, it is unclear if patterns of pain, stool frequency, and incontinence are differentially associated with HRQoL in youth with chronic constipation.

Methods: 410 caregivers completed a demographics and symptoms form, the Parental Opinions of Pediatric Constipation, Pediatric Symptom Checklist, and the Functional Disability Inventory.

Results: Stooling patterns were derived using Latent Variable Mixture Modeling. A three-class model emerged: withholding/avoiding ( WA ), pain , and fecal incontinence ( FI ). The pain class reported the greatest amount of disease burden/distress, greatest impairments in illness-related activity limitations, more psychosocial problems, and, along with the FI class, elevated levels of family conflict. The FI class reported the greatest amount of parental worry of social impact.

Conclusions: Youth with chronic constipation who experience pain or fecal incontinence may be at a greater risk for specific HRQoL problems such as illness-related activity limitations, psychosocial issues, disease burden and worry, and family conflict.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpepsy/jsw068DOI Listing
April 2017

Behavioral Management of Feeding Disorders of Childhood.

Authors:
Alan H Silverman

Ann Nutr Metab 2015 24;66 Suppl 5:33-42. Epub 2015 Jul 24.

Section of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisc., USA.

Feeding disorders, characterized by suboptimal intake and/or lack of age-appropriate eating habits, are common and may be seen in up to 45% of children. Feeding disorders are a significant concern to both the affected families and to the providers who treat them. Fortunately, there are well-established behavioral treatments which have been shown to be highly efficacious. This article provides an overview of behavioral assessment and treatment of pediatric feeding disorders, provides guidance in treatment planning, and provides information which may be useful in considering if additional psychological consultation may be beneficial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000381375DOI Listing
April 2016

A multicenter study on childhood constipation and fecal incontinence: effects on quality of life.

J Pediatr 2015 Jun;166(6):1482-7.e1

Center for Pediatric Neurogastroenterology, Motility, and Autonomic Disorders, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI.

Objective: To describe the effects of childhood functional constipation compared with functional constipation plus fecal incontinence on quality of life, evaluating effects on physical, psychosocial, and family functioning.

Study Design: This prospective, multicenter study collected data from 5 regional children's hospitals. Children meeting Rome III criteria for functional constipation were included. Parents completed the following 5 instruments: Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL), PedsQL-Family Impact Module, Functional Disability Inventory-Parent Version, Pediatric Inventory for Parents (PIP), and Pediatric Symptom Checklist-Parent Report.

Results: Families of 410 children aged 2-18 years (mean [SD], 7.8 [3.5] years; 52% male) were included. Children with functional constipation+fecal incontinence had worse quality of life than children with functional constipation alone (PedsQL Total Score, P ≤ .03). Older children with functional constipation + fecal incontinence had lower quality of life than their younger counterparts (PedsQL Total Score, P ≤ .047). Children with functional constipation+fecal incontinence had worse family functioning (PedsQL-Family Impact Module Total Score, P ≤ .012), greater parental stress (PIP-F Total Score, P ≤ .016; PIP-D Total Score, P ≤ .013), and poorer psychosocial functioning (Pediatric Symptom Checklist Total Score, P ≤ .003). There were no statistically significant between-group differences in physical functioning based on the functional Disability Inventory.

Conclusion: Fecal incontinence significantly decreases quality of life compared with functional constipation alone in children. Older children with functional constipation+fecal incontinence may be at particular risk. Strategies for early identification and treatment of constipation along with diagnosis and treatment of related adjustment difficulties may mitigate the negative impact of this highly prevalent condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2015.03.016DOI Listing
June 2015

Measuring Health-Related Quality of Life With the Parental Opinions of Pediatric Constipation Questionnaire.

J Pediatr Psychol 2015 Sep 2;40(8):814-24. Epub 2015 Apr 2.

Medical College of Wisconsin.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to develop a caregiver-completed constipation condition-specific health-related quality of life (HRQL) instrument.

Methods: 410 caregivers of children aged 2-18 years completed the Parental Opinions of Pediatric Constipation (POOPC), the PedsQL Generic Core Scales, PedQL Family Impact Module, Pediatric Symptom Checklist, the Functional Disability Inventory, the Pediatric Inventory for Parents, and a demographic questionnaire. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to assess the psychometric properties of the POOPC.

Results: Analyses yielded four factors called Parental Burden/Distress, Family Conflict, Difficulties with the Medical Team, and Worry about Social Impact that reflect problems in HRQL secondary to constipation and soiling, which were generally more strongly correlated with similar measures relative to a general measure of youth's psychosocial functioning.

Conclusion: The POOPC is a psychometrically sound measure, which may be useful to clinicians and researchers identifying domains of treatment needs for children and their families.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpepsy/jsv028DOI Listing
September 2015

Systematic review of psychological interventions for pediatric feeding problems.

J Pediatr Psychol 2014 Sep 16;39(8):903-17. Epub 2014 Jun 16.

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Wisconsin.

Objective: To conduct a systematic review of the research evaluating the effect of psychological interventions for pediatric feeding problems.

Methods: A search was conducted to identify studies using psychological interventions for pediatric feeding problems published between 1998 and 2013. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and nonrandomized studies that examined aggregated outcome data were included. Primary outcomes were child mealtime behavior, nutritional status, and caregiver stress. A risk of bias assessment was conducted and the quality of the evidence rated using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation methodology.

Results: 13 studies were identified and a narrative synthesis framework was used to report findings.

Conclusions: The preponderance of evidence suggests positive effects of psychological intervention for the treatment of feeding problems. However, limited data and the paucity of studies using RCT methodologies limit conclusions that can be drawn regarding the efficacy of these interventions. Future studies using more rigorous research methods are needed to enhance understanding of these interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpepsy/jsu040DOI Listing
September 2014

Feeding dysfunction in children with single ventricle following staged palliation.

J Pediatr 2014 Feb 22;164(2):243-6.e1. Epub 2013 Oct 22.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI; Division of Adult Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI.

Objective: To determine the prevalence of feeding dysfunction in children with single ventricle defects and identify associated risk factors.

Study Design: Patients aged 2-6 years with single ventricle physiology presenting for routine cardiology follow-up at the Children's Hospital of Wisconsin were prospectively identified. Parents of the patients completed 2 validated instruments for assessment of feeding dysfunction. Chart review was performed to retrospectively obtain demographic and diagnostic data.

Results: Instruments were completed for 56 patients; median age was 39 months. Overall, 28 (50%) patients had some form of feeding dysfunction. Compared with a normal reference population, patients with single ventricle had statistically significant differences in dysfunctional food manipulation (P < .001), mealtime aggression (P = .002), choking/gagging/vomiting (P < .001), resistance to eating (P < .001), and parental aversion to mealtime (P < .001). Weight and height for age z-scores were significantly lower in subjects with feeding dysfunction (-0.84 vs -0.33; P < .05 and -1.46 vs -0.56; P = .001, respectively). Multivariable analysis identified current gastrostomy tube use (P = .02) and a single parent household (P = .01) as risk factors for feeding dysfunction.

Conclusion: Feeding dysfunction is common in children with single ventricle defects, occurring in 50% of our cohort. Feeding dysfunction is associated with worse growth measures. Current gastrostomy tube use and a single parent household were identified as independent risk factors for feeding dysfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2013.09.030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3946833PMC
February 2014

Nutritional and psychosocial outcomes of gastrostomy tube-dependent children completing an intensive inpatient behavioral treatment program.

J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2013 Nov;57(5):668-72

*Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Medical College of Wisconsin †Division of Pediatric Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine, Children's Hospital of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI ‡Department of Psychology, the University of Memphis, Memphis, TN.

Objectives: Limited published data describe the long-term effects of behavioral strategies to wean children from gastrostomy tube (GT) feeding dependence. This study presents data relating to nutritional and psychosocial outcomes observed during a 1-year period in medically complex GT feeding-dependent patients who completed an inpatient behavioral-based tube weaning protocol.

Methods: This was a retrospective study of prospectively and retrospectively collected data associated with a clinical cohort of 77 children diagnosed as having a feeding disorder, GT feeding dependence (>1 year), and an inability to maintain acceptable growth via oral feeding completing an inpatient tube weaning protocol. Nutritional data (percentage of ideal body weight, and oral energy intake as percent ofenergy goal) and psychosocial data (mealtime behavior problems, quality of caregiver and child interactions, and parenting stress) were assessed pre- and post-hospitalization. Nutritional data were also monitored longitudinally at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postreatment. Data were grouped for retrospective analysis.

Results: Mealtime environment and feeding behaviors significantly improved, and all of the patients demonstrated reductions in tube dependence aside from 1 treatment failure. Fifty-one percent of patients were fully weaned from tube feeding after 2 weeks and an additional 12% completed weaning in the outpatient follow-up clinic within 1 year. Patients maintained nutritional stability at the 1-year posttreatment follow-up appointment.

Conclusions: Inpatient behavioral interventions are highly effective and safe for transitioning long-term tube feeding children to oral feeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MPG.0b013e3182a027a3DOI Listing
November 2013

Interdisciplinary care for feeding problems in children.

Authors:
Alan H Silverman

Nutr Clin Pract 2010 Apr;25(2):160-5

Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53213, USA.

Children with feeding disorders frequently present to primary care practitioners. The causes of these feeding disorders are often a mix of medical, developmental, and behavioral factors. Evaluation and treatment of feeding problems typically require the expertise of physicians, speech and language pathologists, registered dietitians, and psychologists. This article advocates an interdisciplinary, biobehavioral approach for the assessment and treatment of feeding disorders. First, prevalence and causes of feeding problems are discussed. Second, interdisciplinary assessment and treatment strategies are considered, including the specific roles of the interdisciplinary team members. Third, behavioral treatment strategies are described. Fourth, various treatment options are described.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0884533610361609DOI Listing
April 2010

Assessing family-based feeding strategies, strengths, and mealtime structure with the Feeding Strategies Questionnaire.

J Pediatr Psychol 2011 Jun 7;36(5):586-95. Epub 2009 Dec 7.

Ohio University, Department of Psychology, 200 Porter Hall, Athens, OH 45701, USA.

Objective: Develop a questionnaire to assess family-based feeding strategies, strengths, and mealtime structure for use with children with feeding problems; validate this new instrument with caregivers of young children from the community and a specialty feeding-clinic; and examine preliminary evidence for reliability and validity.

Methods: Community caregivers (n = 702) and caregivers seeking services at a pediatric feeding specialty clinic (n = 288) completed the Feeding Strategies Questionnaire (FSQ). A smaller portion of these families also completed an established feeding measure.

Results: Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to develop and validate the FSQ factor structure that resulted in six scales: Mealtime Structure, Consistent Mealtime Schedule, Child Control of Intake, Parent Control of Intake, Between Meal Grazing and Encourages Clean Plate. Evidence of reliability and validity was obtained.

Conclusion: It appears the FSQ can aid the assessment of feeding strategies relevant to the prevention or treatment of pediatric feeding difficulties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpepsy/jsp107DOI Listing
June 2011

Reconceptualizing feeding and feeding disorders in interpersonal context: the case for a relational disorder.

J Fam Psychol 2006 Sep;20(3):409-17

Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, and Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine Center, Children's Hospital of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53201-0413, USA.

The feeding of young children is fundamentally a relational and multisystemic process. Successful treatment of clinically significant feeding problems involves careful assessment of the full range of influences on the feeding relationship and integrated treatment approaches. However, current diagnostic approaches to feeding disorders tend to be reductionistic, exclusively focused on the child as an individual, and overly concerned with exclusionary criteria. Criteria are proposed for "Feeding Disorder Between Parent and Child" that address these limitations and embrace the complexity of feeding problems. A multiaxial diagnosis that describes the child (including medical, developmental, and behavioral characteristics); the parent; the parent-child relationship; and the social and nutritional context of feeding will more accurately speak to treatment planning in this population. The proposed diagnostic criteria were developed and refined on the basis of the available literature and many years of treatment experience across the authors of this article. The proposed diagnosis will support the development and evaluation of treatment packages with components specifically targeted to issues of the child, parent, parent-child interaction, and the broader environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0893-3200.20.3.409DOI Listing
September 2006