Publications by authors named "Alan D Richardson"

5 Publications

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The puzzle of bond length variation in substituted cyclobutenes. A new example: molecular structure and conformations of 1,2-dimethoxy-3,3,4,4-tetrafluorocyclobut-1-ene.

J Phys Chem A 2010 Apr;114(16):5358-64

Department of Chemistry, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331-4003, USA.

The structure and composition of 1,2-dimethoxy-3,3,4,4-tetrafluorocyclobut-1-ene (DMCB) have been measured by electron diffraction from the gas at a temperature of 370 K with the help of auxiliary data from molecular orbital and normal coordinate calculations, the former at several levels of theory and basis-set size, most importantly B3LYP/cc-pVTZ. The compound was found to exist primarily as a rotamer of C(s) symmetry (ca. 98%; 2sigma = 11%) with the remainder one of C(2v) symmetry; theory predicts about 88% C(s). Values for some of the more important parameters (r(g)/A; angle(alpha)/deg) of the C(s) form are r(C=C) = 1.337(21), r(C1-C4) = 1.496(8), r(C2-C3) = 1.501(8), r(C3-C4) = 1.567(12), r(C1-O) = 1.318(12), r(C2-O) = 1.340(12), r(C3-F) = 1.375(4), r(C4-F) = 1.368(4), angle(ave)(C=C-C) = 94.4(4), angle(ave)(C=C-O) = 133.5(12), angle(ave)(C-O-C) = 119.6(13), and angle(ave)(F-C-F) = 104.4(7). Surprisingly, although electron-diffraction values for the fluorinated C3-C4 bond in other cyclobutenes are greater than that for cyclobutene itself, that is not the case for DMCB where it is found to be about the same. Details of the DMCB structure, together with possible reasons for the observed variations in the length of the C3-C4 bond in fluorinated cyclobutene-like molecules, are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jp911185zDOI Listing
April 2010

Molecular structure and conformation of chloronitromethane as determined by gas-phase electron diffraction and theoretical calculations.

J Phys Chem A 2006 Jun;110(23):7491-5

Department of Chemistry, 13 Oak Drive, Colgate University, Hamilton, New York 13346, USA.

The molecular structure of chloronitromethane was studied in the gas phase at a nozzle-tip temperature of 373 K. The experimental data were interpreted using a dynamic model where the molecules are undergoing torsional motion governed by a potential function: V = V2/2x(1 - cos 2tau) + V4/2x(1 - cos 4tau) with V2 = 0.81(30) and V4 = 0.12(40) kcal/mol (tau is the dihedral angle between the C-Cl and N-O bond). The conformer with a zero degree dihedral angle is the most stable conformer. Comparison with results from HF/MP2/B3LYP 6-311G(d,p) calculations were made. The important geometrical parameter values (for the eclipsed form) obtained from least-squares refinements are the following: r(C-H) = 1.061(18)A, r(C-N) = 1.509 (5)A, r(N-O) = 1.223(1)A, r(C-Cl) = 1.742(2)A, angleClCN = 115.2(7) degrees, angleO4NC = 118.9(10) degrees, angleO5NC = 114.9(16) degrees, and angleClCH 115(4) degrees.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jp061100fDOI Listing
June 2006

Molecular structures and compositions of trans-1,2-dichlorocyclohexane and trans-1,2-difluorocyclohexane in the gas phase: an electron-diffraction investigation.

J Phys Chem A 2006 Feb;110(5):2053-9

Department of Chemistry, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269, USA.

The structures and compositions of gaseous trans-1,2-dichloro- (DCCH) and trans-1,2-difluorocyclohexane (DFCH), each of which may exist with the halogen atoms in a diaxial (aa) or diequatorial (ee) conformation, have been investigated by electron diffraction. The analysis was aided by rotational constants from microwave spectroscopy for the ee form of DFCH and by ab initio and density functional theory molecular orbital calculations for all species. The skeletons of the molecules have similar parameter values, but for the Cl-C-C-Cl and F-C-C-F fragments there are significant differences between the corresponding C-C-X bond angles and the X-C-C-X torsion angles in the two systems. There are also significant differences between the values of these parameters in the aa and ee forms of the same system. The composition of DCCH at 100 degrees C was measured to be 60(4)% aa, and that of DFCH at 70 degrees C was 42(7)% aa; the uncertainties are estimated 2sigma. From the preferred B3LYP/aug-cc-pVTZ calculations, the predicted theoretical composition is 51.2% aa for DCCH and 40.8% aa for DFCH. (Calculations at the levels B3LYP/6-31G(d) and MP2/6-31G(d) give similar results for DCCH, but both predict more aa than ee for DFCH.) Values (r(g)/A and angle(alpha)/degree) for some of the more important parameters of the aa/ee forms of DCCH are = 1.525(4)/1.525(6), C-Cl = 1.806(2)/1.787(2), angleC2-C1-Cl = 107.3(3)/111.5(3), angleC1-C2-C3 = 113.9(5)/111.6(5), angleC2-C3-C4 = 111.3(12)/109.9(12), and Cl-C2-C3-Cl = 165.3(9)/-59.4(9); and for DFCH C-C = 1.525(6)/1.520(9), C-F = 1.398(2)/1.390(2), angleC2-C1-F = 106.5(6)/109.2(6), angleC1-C2-C3 = 111.4(9)/110.9(9), angleC2-C3-C4 = 113.1(10)/113.1(10), and F-C2-C3-F = 171.1(37)/-67.2(37). The structures and compositions are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jp055476pDOI Listing
February 2006

1,2-Dibromoethyl-trichlorosilane (CH2BrCHBrSiCl3): conformational structure and vibrational properties by gas-phase electron diffraction, infrared and Raman spectroscopy, and ab initio molecular orbital and density functional theory calculations.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2005 May;61(7):1307-19

Department of Chemistry, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NTNU, Hoegskoleringen 5, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway.

The molecular structure and conformational properties of 1,2-dibromoethyl-trichlorosilane (CH2BrCHBrSiCl3) have been investigated using gas-phase electron diffraction (GED) data recorded at a temperature of 100 degrees C, together with ab initio molecular orbital (MO) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations, infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopy in the liquid and solid phases, and normal coordinate analysis (NCA). The molecule exists in the gas- and liquid phases as a mixture of three conformers, gauche(-) [G(-)], with a refined torsion angle phi(BrCCBr)=-71(6) degrees, anti [A], with a torsion angle phi(BrCCBr) approximately -170 degrees , and gauche(+) [G(+)], with a torsion angle phi(BrCCBr) approximately +70 degrees . The second torsion angle of importance, the rotation about the CSi bond, has been refined to a value of +175(13) degrees . Torsion angles were only refined for the more abundant G(-) conformer. In the solid phase, only the G(-) conformer was observed. The temperature-dependent Raman spectra have provided an estimate of the relative conformational entropies, DeltaS. The obtained composition from GED refinements was (%) G(-)/A/G(+)=64(27)/23(13)/13(18) (values with estimated 2sigma uncertainties), giving a conformational stability order in agreement with both the Raman enthalpy measurements and the ab initio MO and DFT calculations using the 6-311G(d) basis set and scaled zero-point energies. Relevant structural parameter values obtained from the GED refinements (with the ab initio HF values used as constraints) were as follows (G(-) values with estimated 2sigma uncertainties): bond lengths (r(g)):r(C-C)=1.501(18)A, r(SiC)=1.865(15)A, r(CBr)=1.965(8)A (average), r(SiCl)=2.028(3)A (average). Bond angles ( anglealpha):angleCCSi=114.1(33) degrees , angleC1C2Br=114.0(21) degrees , angleCSiCl=109.6(7) degrees (average). Experimental IR/Raman and obtained vibrational wavenumbers based on both the unscaled, fixed-scaled as well as the scale-refined quantum-mechanical force fields [HF/6-311G(d)] are presented. The results are discussed and compared with some similar molecules from the literature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2004.08.003DOI Listing
May 2005

Chalcogenide-halides of niobium (V). 1. Gas-phase structures of NbOBr(3), NbSBr(3), and NbSCl(3). 2. Matrix infrared spectra and vibrational force fields of NbOBr(3), NbSBr(3), NbSCl(3), and NbOCl(3).

Inorg Chem 2003 Feb;42(4):1296-305

Department of Chemistry, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6AD, U.K.

The molecular structures of NbOBr(3), NbSCl(3), and NbSBr(3) have been determined by gas-phase electron diffraction (GED) at nozzle-tip temperatures of 250 degrees C, taking into account the possible presence of NbOCl(3) as a contaminant in the NbSCl(3) sample and NbOBr(3) in the NbSBr(3) sample. The experimental data are consistent with trigonal-pyramidal molecules having C(3)(v)() symmetry. Infrared spectra of molecules trapped in argon or nitrogen matrices were recorded and exhibit the characteristic fundamental stretching modes for C(3)(v)() species. Well resolved isotopic fine structure ((35)Cl and (37)Cl) was observed for NbSCl(3), and for NbOCl(3) which occurred as an impurity in the NbSCl(3) spectra. Quantum mechanical calculations of the structures and vibrational frequencies of the four YNbX(3) molecules (Y = O, S; X = Cl, Br) were carried out at several levels of theory, most importantly B3LYP DFT with either the Stuttgart RSC ECP or Hay-Wadt (n + 1) ECP VDZ basis set for Nb and the 6-311G basis set for the nonmetal atoms. Theoretical values for the bond lengths are 0.01-0.04 A longer than the experimental ones of type r(a), in accord with general experience, but the bond angles with theoretical minus experimental differences of only 1.0-1.5 degrees are notably accurate. Symmetrized force fields were also calculated. The experimental bond lengths (r(g)/A) and angles ( 90 degree angle (alpha)()/deg) with estimated 2sigma uncertainties from GED are as follows. NbOBr(3): r(Nb=O) = 1.694(7), r(Nb-Br) = 2.429(2), 90 degree angle (O=Nb-Br) = 107.3(5), 90 degree angle (Br-Nb-Br) = 111.5(5). NbSBr(3): r(Nb=S) = 2.134(10), r(Nb-Br) = 2.408(4), 90 degree angle (S=Nb-Br) = 106.6(7), 90 degree angle (Br-Nb-Br) = 112.2(6). NbSCl(3): r(Nb=S) = 2.120(10),r(Nb-Cl) = 2.271(6), 90 degree angle (S=Nb-Cl) = 107.8(12), 90 degree angle (Cl-Nb-Cl) = 111.1(11).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ic020405fDOI Listing
February 2003
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