Publications by authors named "Alan D Brooks"

17 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Small-Molecule Natural Product Physachenolide C Potentiates Immunotherapy Efficacy by Targeting BET Proteins.

Cancer Res 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Basic Science Program, Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research.

Screening for sensitizers of cancer cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis identified a natural product (NP) of the 17β-hydroxywithanolide (17-BHW) class, physachenolide C (PCC), as a promising hit. In this study, we show that PCC was also able to sensitize melanoma and renal carcinoma cells to apoptosis in response not only to TRAIL, but also to the synthetic polynucleotide poly I:C, a viral mimetic and immune activator, by reducing levels of anti-apoptotic proteins cFLIP and Livin. Both death receptor and TLR3 signaling elicited subsequent increased assembly of a pro-apoptotic ripoptosome signaling complex. Administration of a combination of PCC and poly I:C in human M14 melanoma xenograft and a syngeneic B16 melanoma model provided significant therapeutic benefit as compared to individual agents. Additionally, PCC enhanced melanoma cell death in response to activated human T cells in vitro and in vivo in a death ligand-dependent manner. Biochemical mechanism of action studies established bromo and extraterminal domain (BET) proteins as major cellular targets of PCC. Thus, by targeting of BET proteins to reduce anti-apoptotic proteins and enhance caspase 8-dependent apoptosis of cancer cells, PCC represents a unique agent that can potentially be used in combination with various immunotherapeutic approaches to promote tumor regression and improve outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-20-2634DOI Listing
April 2021

Cytotoxic and other withanolides from aeroponically grown Physalis philadelphica.

Phytochemistry 2018 Aug 21;152:174-181. Epub 2018 May 21.

Natural Products Center, School of Natural Resources and the Environment, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, The University of Arizona, 250 E. Valencia Road, Tucson, AZ 85706, United States. Electronic address:

Eleven withanolides including six previously undescribed compounds, 16β-hydroxyixocarpanolide, 24,25-dihydroexodeconolide C, 16,17-dehydro-24-epi-dioscorolide A, 17-epi-philadelphicalactone A, 16-deoxyphiladelphicalactone C, and 4-deoxyixocarpalactone A were isolated from aeroponically grown Physalis philadelphica. Structures of these withanolides were elucidated by the analysis of their spectroscopic (HRMS, 1D and 2D NMR, ECD) data and comparison with published data for related withanolides. Cytotoxic activity of all isolated compounds was evaluated against a panel of five human tumor cell lines (LNCaP, ACHN, UO-31, M14 and SK-MEL-28), and normal (HFF) cells. Of these, 17-epi-philadelphicalactone A, withaphysacarpin, philadelphicalactone C, and ixocarpalactone A exhibited cytotoxicity against ACHN, UO-31, M14 and SK-MEL-28, but showed no toxicity to HFF cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2018.04.018DOI Listing
August 2018

Withanolides from Aeroponically Grown Physalis peruviana and Their Selective Cytotoxicity to Prostate Cancer and Renal Carcinoma Cells.

J Nat Prod 2017 07 15;80(7):1981-1991. Epub 2017 Jun 15.

Natural Products Center, School of Natural Resources and the Environment, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona , 250 E. Valencia Road, Tucson, Arizona 85706, United States.

Investigation of aeroponically grown Physalis peruviana resulted in the isolation of 11 new withanolides, including perulactones I-L (1-4), 17-deoxy-23β-hydroxywithanolide E (5), 23β-hydroxywithanolide E (6), 4-deoxyphyperunolide A (7), 7β-hydroxywithanolide F (8), 7β-hydroxy-17-epi-withanolide K (9), 24,25-dihydro-23β,28-dihydroxywithanolide G (10), and 24,25-dihydrowithanolide E (11), together with 14 known withanolides (12-25). The structures of 1-11 were elucidated by the analysis of their spectroscopic data, and 12-25 were identified by comparison of their spectroscopic data with those reported. All withanolides were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against a panel of tumor cell lines including LNCaP (androgen-sensitive human prostate adenocarcinoma), 22Rv1 (androgen-resistant human prostate adenocarcinoma), ACHN (human renal adenocarcinoma), M14 (human melanoma), SK-MEL-28 (human melanoma), and normal human foreskin fibroblast cells. Of these, the 17β-hydroxywithanolides (17-BHWs) 6, 8, 9, 11-13, 15, and 19-22 showed selective cytotoxic activity against the two prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP and 22Rv1, whereas 13 and 20 exhibited selective toxicity for the ACHN renal carcinoma cell line. These cytotoxicity data provide additional structure-activity relationship information for the 17-BHWs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jnatprod.6b01129DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6993142PMC
July 2017

17β-Hydroxywithanolides as Sensitizers of Renal Carcinoma Cells to Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Related Apoptosis Inducing Ligand (TRAIL) Mediated Apoptosis: Structure-Activity Relationships.

J Med Chem 2017 04 21;60(7):3039-3051. Epub 2017 Mar 21.

Natural Products Center, School of Natural Resources and the Environment, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona , 250 E. Valencia Road, Tucson, Arizona 85706, United States.

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a cancer with poor prognosis, and the 5-year survival rate of patients with metastatic RCC is 5-10%. Consequently, treatment of metastatic RCC represents an unmet clinical need. Screening of a 50 000-member library of natural and synthetic compounds for sensitizers of RCC cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis led to identification of the 17β-hydroxywithanolide (17-BHW), withanolide E (1), as a promising lead. To explore structure-activity relationships, we obtained natural and semisynthetic withanolides 1, 2a, 2c, and 3-36 and compared their ability to sensitize TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in a panel of renal carcinoma cells. Our findings revealed that 17-BHWs with a α-oriented side chain are superior to known TRAIL-sensitizing withanolides belonging to withaferin A class with a β-oriented side chain and demonstrated that the 17-BHW scaffold can be modified to enhance sensitization of RCCs to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis, thereby assisting development of natural-product-inspired drugs to treat metastatic RCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.7b00069DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6986374PMC
April 2017

Bortezomib Improves Adoptive T-cell Therapy by Sensitizing Cancer Cells to FasL Cytotoxicity.

Cancer Res 2015 Dec 22;75(24):5260-72. Epub 2015 Oct 22.

Cancer and Inflammation Program, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, Maryland. Basic Sciences Program, Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc., Frederick, Maryland.

Cancer immunotherapy shows great promise but many patients fail to show objective responses, including in cancers that can respond well, such as melanoma and renal adenocarcinoma. The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib sensitizes solid tumors to apoptosis in response to TNF-family death ligands. Because T cells provide multiple death ligands at the tumor site, we investigated the effects of bortezomib on T-cell responses in immunotherapy models involving low-avidity antigens. Bortezomib did not affect lymphocyte or tissue-resident CD11c(+)CD8(+) dendritic cell counts in tumor-bearing mice, did not inhibit dendritic cell expression of costimulatory molecules, and did not decrease MHC class I/II-associated antigen presentation to cognate T cells. Rather, bortezomib activated NF-κB p65 in CD8(+) T cells, stabilizing expression of T-cell receptor CD3ζ and IL2 receptor-α, while maintaining IFNγ secretion to improve FasL-mediated tumor lysis. Notably, bortezomib increased tumor cell surface expression of Fas in mice as well as human melanoma tissue from a responsive patient. In renal tumor-bearing immunodeficient Rag2(-/-) mice, bortezomib treatment after adoptive T-cell immunotherapy reduced lung metastases and enhanced host survival. Our findings highlight the potential of proteasome inhibitors to enhance antitumor T-cell function in the context of cancer immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-15-0794DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4681610PMC
December 2015

Increased secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) production by highly metastatic mouse breast cancer cells.

PLoS One 2014 11;9(8):e104223. Epub 2014 Aug 11.

Cancer Research Technology Program, Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc., Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, Frederick, Maryland, United States of America.

The precise molecular mechanisms enabling cancer cells to metastasize from the primary tumor to different tissue locations are still largely unknown. Secretion of some proteins by metastatic cells could facilitate metastasis formation. The comparison of secreted proteins from cancer cells with different metastatic capabilities in vivo might provide insight into proteins involved in the metastatic process. Comparison of the secreted proteins from the mouse breast cancer cell line 4T1 and its highly metastatic 4T1.2 clone revealed a prominent differentially secreted protein which was identified as SLPI (secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor). Western blotting indicated higher levels of the protein in both conditioned media and whole cell lysates of 4T1.2 cells. Additionally higher levels of SLPI were also observed in 4T1.2 breast tumors in vivo following immunohistochemical staining. A comparison of SLPI mRNA levels by gene profiling using microarrays and RT-PCR did not detect major differences in SLPI gene expression between the 4T1 and 4T1.2 cells indicating that SLPI secretion is regulated at the protein level. Our results demonstrate that secretion of SLPI is drastically increased in highly metastatic cells, suggesting a possible role for SLPI in enhancing the metastatic behavior of breast cancer cell line 4T1.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0104223PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4128660PMC
April 2015

Effects of cucurbitacins on cell morphology are associated with sensitization of renal carcinoma cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis.

Apoptosis 2012 Jan;17(1):79-89

Molecular Targets Laboratory, NCI-Frederick, Frederick, MD, USA.

Cucurbitacins B and D were among the compounds identified as sensitizers of cancer cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in a high-throughput screen. Therefore a series of cucurbitacins was further investigated for TRAIL sensitization and possible mechanisms of action. A total of six cucurbitacins promoted TRAIL-induced apoptosis (B, I, E, C, D, and K) and one (P) was inactive. Sensitization of renal adenocarcinoma cells to TRAIL was apparent after as little as 1-4 h pretreatment and did not require continued presence of cucurbitacin. Active cucurbitacins induced caspase-8 activation only after subsequent TRAIL addition and caspase activation was required for apoptosis suggesting amplified proximal signaling from TRAIL death receptors. Cucurbitacin-sensitized TRAIL-induced cytotoxicity was inhibited by N-acetyl cysteine. Structure-activity relationship analysis in comparison to published studies suggests that TRAIL-sensitizing and general cytotoxic activities of cucurbitacins may be decoupled. Cucurbitacins are reported to be inhibitors of STAT3 activation. However, their TRAIL-sensitizing activity is STAT3-independent. Treatment of renal carcinoma cells with active cucurbitacins produced rapid and dramatic changes in cell morphology and cytoskeletal organization (also prevented by NAC). Therefore, cucurbitacins may be useful as tools for investigating the molecular mechanism(s) of action of TRAIL sensitizers, particularly with regard to temporal aspects of sensitization and modulation of TRAIL signaling by cell morphology, and could form the basis for future therapeutic development in combination with TRAIL death receptor agonists.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10495-011-0652-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3345813PMC
January 2012

Bortezomib sensitizes human renal cell carcinomas to TRAIL apoptosis through increased activation of caspase-8 in the death-inducing signaling complex.

Mol Cancer Res 2010 May 4;8(5):729-38. Epub 2010 May 4.

Science Applications International Corporation-Frederick, Inc., MD, USA.

Bortezomib (VELCADE) could sensitize certain human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) lines to the apoptotic effects of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). Analysis of seven human RCC showed a clear increase in the sensitivity of four of the RCC to TRAIL cytotoxicity following bortezomib (5-20 nmol/L) treatment, whereas the remaining three remained resistant. Tumor cell death following sensitization had all the features of apoptosis. The enhanced antitumor activity of the bortezomib and TRAIL combination was confirmed in long-term (6 days) cancer cell outgrowth assays. The extent of proteasome inhibition by bortezomib in the various RCC was equivalent. Following bortezomib treatment, neither changes in the intracellular protein levels of various Bcl-2 and IAP family members, nor minor changes in expression of TRAIL receptors (DR4, DR5), correlated well with the sensitization or resistance of RCC to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. However, enhanced procaspase-8 activation following bortezomib pretreatment and subsequent TRAIL exposure was only observed in the sensitized RCC in both cell extracts and death-inducing signaling complex immunoprecipitates. These data suggest that the molecular basis for bortezomib sensitization of RCC to TRAIL primarily involves early amplification of caspase-8 activity. In the absence of this increased caspase-8 activation, other bortezomib-induced changes are not sufficient to sensitize RCC to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-10-0022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2873082PMC
May 2010

Antigen presented by tumors in vivo determines the nature of CD8+ T-cell cytotoxicity.

Cancer Res 2009 Aug 4;69(16):6615-23. Epub 2009 Aug 4.

Laboratory of Experimental Immunology, Cancer and Inflammation Program, National Cancer Institute-Frederick, Maryland 21702, USA.

The biological relevance of the perforin and Fas ligand (FasL) cytolytic pathways of CD8(+) T lymphocytes (CTL) for cancer immunotherapy is controversial. We investigated the importance of these pathways in a murine renal cell carcinoma expressing influenza viral hemagglutinin as a defined surrogate antigen (Renca-HA). Following Renca-HA injection, all FasL-dysfunctional FasL(gld/gld) mice (n = 54) died from Renca-HA tumors by day 62. By contrast, perforin(-/-) (51%; n = 45) and Fas(lpr/lpr) (55%; n = 51) mice remained tumor-free at day 360. Blocking FasL in vivo inhibited tumor rejection in these mice. Moreover, established Renca-HA tumors were cleared more efficiently by adoptively transferred HA(518-526)-specific T-cell receptor-transgenic CTL using FasL rather than perforin. Strikingly, a range of mouse tumor cells presenting low concentrations of immunogenic peptide were all preferentially lysed by the FasL but not the Pfp-mediated effector pathway of CTL, whereas at higher peptide concentrations, the preference in effector pathway usage by CTL was lost. Interestingly, a number of human renal cancer lines were also susceptible to FasL-mediated cytotoxicity. Therefore, the FasL cytolytic pathway may be particularly important for eradicating Fas-sensitive tumors presenting low levels of MHC class I-associated antigens following adoptive T-cell therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-09-0685DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2727577PMC
August 2009

Immunologic and therapeutic synergy of IL-27 and IL-2: enhancement of T cell sensitization, tumor-specific CTL reactivity and complete regression of disseminated neuroblastoma metastases in the liver and bone marrow.

J Immunol 2009 Apr;182(7):4328-38

Science Applications International Corporation, National Cancer Institute-Frederick, MD 21702, USA.

IL-27 exerts antitumor activity in murine orthotopic neuroblastoma, but only partial antitumor effect in disseminated disease. This study demonstrates that combined treatment with IL-2 and IL-27 induces potent antitumor activity in disseminated neuroblastoma metastasis. Complete durable tumor regression was achieved in 90% of mice bearing metastatic TBJ-IL-27 tumors treated with IL-2 compared with only 40% of mice bearing TBJ-IL-27 tumors alone and 0% of mice bearing TBJ-FLAG tumors with or without IL-2 treatment. Comparable antitumor effects were achieved by IL-27 protein produced upon hydrodynamic IL-27 plasmid DNA delivery when combined with IL-2. Although delivery of IL-27 alone, or in combination with IL-2, mediated pronounced regression of neuroblastoma metastases in the liver, combined delivery of IL-27 and IL-2 was far more effective than IL-27 alone against bone marrow metastases. Combined exposure to IL-27 produced by tumor and IL-2 synergistically enhances the generation of tumor-specific CTL reactivity. Potentiation of CTL reactivity by IL-27 occurs via mechanisms that appear to be engaged during both the initial sensitization and effector phase. Potent immunologic memory responses are generated in mice cured of their disseminated disease by combined delivery of IL-27 and IL-2, and depletion of CD8(+) ablates the antitumor efficacy of this combination. Moreover, IL-27 delivery can inhibit the expansion of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory and IL-17-expressing CD4(+) cells that are otherwise observed among tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes from mice treated with IL-2. These studies demonstrate that IL-27 and IL-2 synergistically induce complete tumor regression and long-term survival in mice bearing widely metastatic neuroblastoma tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.0800471DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2730673PMC
April 2009

A cell-based high-throughput screen to identify synergistic TRAIL sensitizers.

Cancer Immunol Immunother 2009 Aug 17;58(8):1229-44. Epub 2008 Dec 17.

Molecular Targets Development Program, Center for Cancer Research, NCI-Frederick, Frederick, MD 21702, USA.

We have developed a high-throughput screen (HTS) to search for novel molecules that can synergize with TRAIL, thus promoting apoptosis of ACHN renal tumor cells in a combinatorial fashion. The HTS detects synthetic compounds and pure natural products that can pre-sensitize the cancer cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis, yet have limited toxicity on their own. We have taken into account the individual effects of the single agents, versus the combination, and have identified hits that are synergistic, synergistic-toxic, or additive when combined with TRAIL in promoting tumor cell death. Preliminary mechanistic studies indicate that a subset of the synergistic TRAIL sensitizers act very rapidly to promote cleavage and activation of caspase-8 following TRAIL binding. Caspase-8 is an apical enzyme that initiates programmed cell death via the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. Thus, these TRAIL sensitizers may potentially reduce resistance of tumor cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. Two representative sensitizers were found to increase levels of p53 but did not inhibit the proteasome, suggesting that early DNA damage-sensing pathways may be involved in their mechanisms of action.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00262-008-0637-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3168559PMC
August 2009

NK cells use NKG2D to recognize a mouse renal cancer (Renca), yet require intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression on the tumor cells for optimal perforin-dependent effector function.

J Immunol 2006 Aug;177(4):2575-83

Laboratory of Experimental Immunology, National Cancer Institute-Frederick, Building 560, Frederick, MD 21702, USA.

The NKG2D receptor on NK cells can recognize a variety of ligands on the tumor cell surface. Using a mouse renal cancer (Renca), we show that NKG2D recognition by NK cells was crucial for their ability to limit tumor metastases in vivo in both liver and lungs using perforin-dependent effector mechanisms. However, for the R331 cell line established from Renca, NKG2D recognition and perforin-dependent lysis played no role in controlling liver metastases. R331 cells were also more resistant to perforin-dependent lysis by NK cells in vitro. We therefore used these phenotypic differences between Renca and R331 to further investigate the crucial receptor:ligand interactions required for triggering lytic effector functions of NK cells. Reconstitution of R331 cells with ICAM-1, but not Rae-1gamma, restored NKG2D-mediated, perforin-dependent lysis. Interestingly, R331 cells were efficiently lysed by NK cells using death ligand-mediated apoptosis. This death ligand-mediated killing did not depend on NKG2D recognition of its ligands on tumor cells. This result suggests that the intracellular signaling in NK cells required for perforin and death ligand-mediated lysis of tumor target cell are quite distinct, and activation of both of these antitumor lytic effector functions of NK cells could improve therapeutic benefits for certain tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.177.4.2575DOI Listing
August 2006

The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (Velcade) sensitizes some human tumor cells to Apo2L/TRAIL-mediated apoptosis.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2005 Nov;1059:160-7

Basic Research Program, SAIC-Frederick Inc., MD 21702-1201, USA.

On testing a panel of different human cancer cell lines, we observed that the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib could dramatically sensitize some lines to the apoptotic effects of Apo2L/TRAIL. Certain renal, colon, or breast tumor cell lines were dramatically sensitized, whereas other tumor lines from the same tissue of origin remained resistant. This sensitization did not correlate with either the p53 status of the individual tumor cell lines or their intrinsic sensitivity to Apo2L/TRAIL. Colon cancer cell lines lacking p53 or Bax were sensitized by bortezomib, suggesting that neither p53 nor Bax levels were crucial for sensitization. Although the molecular basis of bortezomib sensitization of tumor cells to Apo2L/TRAIL remains to be determined, this combination can have an enhanced apoptotic effect over either agent alone for certain human cancer cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1196/annals.1339.042DOI Listing
November 2005

Reduction of the antiapoptotic protein cFLIP enhances the susceptibility of human renal cancer cells to TRAIL apoptosis.

Cancer Immunol Immunother 2005 May 22;54(5):499-505. Epub 2004 Dec 22.

SAIC-Frederick, National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Bldg. 560, Rm. 31-67, Frederick, MD 21702-1201, USA.

Human renal carcinoma cells (RCCs) were sensitized to the apoptotic effects of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), by treatment with cycloheximide (CHX). In contrast to a previous study, a rapid and dramatic decrease in levels of cellular FLICE (Fas-associated death domain-like IL-1beta-converting enzyme) inhibitory protein (cFLIP) following cycloheximide treatment was observed in all RCCs studied. The unambiguous detection of this decrease in cFLIP was dependent on the quality of the particular antibody preparation used to detect cFLIP. Cycloheximide treatment caused no major change in levels of pro-caspase-8 or cell surface expression of TRAIL receptors. Therefore, cycloheximide treatment resulted in an increase in the pro-caspase-8 to cFLIP ratio, which correlated with sensitization to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. Furthermore, treatment of human RCCs with small interfering oligoribonucleotides (siRNA) for cFLIP caused a reduction of cFLIP protein and sensitized cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. We concluded that in the presence of an intact TRAIL signaling pathway, a significant reduction of cFLIP alone is sufficient to sensitize human RCCs to TRAIL apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00262-004-0595-8DOI Listing
May 2005

The proteasome inhibitor PS-341 sensitizes neoplastic cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis by reducing levels of c-FLIP.

Blood 2003 Jul 13;102(1):303-10. Epub 2003 Mar 13.

Basic Sciences Program, SAIC-Frederick, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute/NIH, Bldg 560, Rm 31-30, Frederick, MD 21702-1201, USA.

Because of the pivotal role the proteasome plays in apoptosis, inhibitors of this enzyme, such as PS-341, provide a great opportunity for exploring synergy between proteasome inhibition and other apoptosis-inducing agents. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) can selectively induce apoptosis in tumor cells. In overnight assays, combinations of PS-341 and TRAIL were much more effective than either agent alone in promoting apoptosis of a murine myeloid leukemia, C1498, and a murine renal cancer, Renca. For C1498 cells, apoptosis sensitization by PS-341 affected neither the activity of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) nor the levels of most antiapoptotic proteins. However, reductions in the antiapoptotic protein c-FLIP in response to PS-341 were observed in both C1498 and Renca cells. Treatment of normal bone marrow mixed with C1498 tumor cells for 18 hours with a combination of PS-341 and TRAIL resulted in a specific depletion of the tumor cells. Upon transfer to irradiated syngeneic recipient mice, mixtures treated with the PS-341 plus TRAIL combination resulted in enhanced long-term tumor-free survival of mice. These data therefore support the targeting of apoptotic pathways in tumor cells, using combinations of agents such as PS-341 and TRAIL that interact synergistically to preferentially promote tumor cell apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2002-09-2975DOI Listing
July 2003

Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-mediated apoptosis is an important endogenous mechanism for resistance to liver metastases in murine renal cancer.

Cancer Res 2003 Jan;63(1):207-13

Laboratory of Experimental Immunology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Frederick, Maryland 21702-1201, USA.

Recent reports have suggested that the death ligand tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) may partially limit the formation of hepatic metastases of a variety of mouse tumors, and the major source of TRAIL in the liver was shown to be local natural killer cells. We isolated a clone (R331) of the murine renal cancer cell line Renca that was strikingly more sensitive to both Fas and TRAIL death receptor-mediated apoptosis in vitro. R331 grew in tissue culture in vitro at a rate similar to that of the parental Renca cell line but formed larger and more numerous colonies than parental Renca in soft agar. After s.c. implantation, R331 tumors progressed more rapidly than parental Renca tumors. However, R331 formed far fewer lung and liver metastases in wild-type (WT) BALB/c mice. Administration of antibodies that neutralized TRAIL dramatically increased the number of R331 liver metastases. Furthermore, numbers of R331 liver metastases were much greater in TRAIL(-/-) than in WT BALB/c mice. In contrast, no difference was seen in numbers of lung metastases when comparing TRAIL(-/-) and WT mice, suggesting that the antitumor effects of TRAIL in vivo were compartment specific. Transfection of cellular Fas-associated death domain-like interleukin-1beta-converting enzyme inhibitory protein into R331 increased the numbers of liver metastases in BALB/c mice by up to 10-fold, indicating that local TRAIL in the liver was directly mediating tumor cell apoptosis. These organ-specific differences in the endogenous levels of death ligands may apply different selective pressures on the development of liver or lung metastases. Consequently, the efficacy of TRAIL therapy may vary depending on the location of the tumor metastases.
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January 2003

Tumor-specific CTL kill murine renal cancer cells using both perforin and Fas ligand-mediated lysis in vitro, but cause tumor regression in vivo in the absence of perforin.

J Immunol 2002 Apr;168(7):3484-92

Laboratory of Experimental Immunology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD 21702, USA.

Kidney cancer is a devastating disease; however, biological therapies have achieved some limited success. The murine renal cancer Renca has been used as a model for developing new preclinical approaches to the treatment of renal cell carcinoma. Successful cytokine-based approaches require CD8(+) T cells, but the exact mechanisms by which T cells mediate therapeutic benefit have not been completely identified. After successful biological therapy of Renca in BALB/c mice, we generated CTLs in vitro using mixed lymphocyte tumor cultures. These CTL mediated tumor-specific H-2K(d)-restricted lysis and production of IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, and Fas ligand (FasL) in response to Renca. CTL used both granule- and FasL-mediated mechanisms to lyse Renca, although granule-mediated killing was the predominant lytic mechanism in vitro. The cytokines IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha increased the sensitivity of Renca cells to CTL lysis by both granule- and FasL-mediated death pathways. Adoptive transfer of these anti-Renca CTL into tumor-bearing mice cured most mice of established experimental pulmonary metastases, and successfully treated mice were immune to tumor rechallenge. Interestingly, we were able to establish Renca-specific CTL from mice gene targeted for perforin (pfp(-/-)) mice. Although these pfp(-/-) CTL showed reduced cytotoxic activity against Renca, their IFN-gamma production in the presence of Renca targets was equivalent to that of wild-type CTL, and adoptive transfer of pfp(-/-) CTL was as efficient as wild-type CTL in causing regression of established Renca pulmonary metastases. Therefore, although granule-mediated killing is of paramount importance for CTL-mediated lysis in vitro, some major in vivo effector mechanisms clearly are independent of perforin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.168.7.3484DOI Listing
April 2002