Publications by authors named "Alan Anticevic"

119 Publications

Development of thalamocortical structural connectivity in typically developing and psychosis spectrum youth.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2021 Oct 13. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Vanderbilt University Medical Center.

Background: Thalamocortical white matter connectivity is disrupted in psychosis and is hypothesized to play a role in its etiology and associated cognitive impairment. Attenuated cognitive symptoms often begin in adolescence, during a critical phase of white matter and cognitive development. However, little is known about the development of thalamocortical white matter connectivity and its association with cognition.

Methods: The present study characterized effects of age, sex, psychosis symptomatology, and cognition in thalamocortical networks in a large sample of youth (n = 1144, aged 8-22 years, 46% male) from the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort (PNC), which included 316 typically-developing youth, 330 psychosis-spectrum youth, and 498 youth with other psychopathology. Probabilistic tractography was used to quantify percent total connectivity between the thalamus and six cortical regions, and assess microstructural properties (i.e. fractional anisotropy-FA) of thalamocortical white matter tracts.

Results: Overall, percent total connectivity of the thalamus was weakly associated with age and was not associated with psychopathology or cognition. In contrast, FA of all thalamocortical tracts increased significantly with age, was generally higher in males than females, and was lowest in psychosis-spectrum youth. FA of tracts linking the thalamus to prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex was related to better cognitive function across subjects.

Conclusions: By characterizing the pattern of typical development and alterations in those at risk for psychotic disorders, this study provides a foundation for further conceptualization of thalamocortical white matter microstructure as a marker of neurodevelopment supporting cognition and an important risk marker for psychosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2021.09.009DOI Listing
October 2021

Computational Modeling of Electroencephalography and Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Paradigms Indicates a Consistent Loss of Pyramidal Cell Synaptic Gain in Schizophrenia.

Biol Psychiatry 2021 Aug 10. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut.

Background: Diminished synaptic gain-the sensitivity of postsynaptic responses to neural inputs-may be a fundamental synaptic pathology in schizophrenia. Evidence for this is indirect, however. Furthermore, it is unclear whether pyramidal cells or interneurons (or both) are affected, or how these deficits relate to symptoms.

Methods: People with schizophrenia diagnoses (PScz) (n = 108), their relatives (n = 57), and control subjects (n = 107) underwent 3 electroencephalography (EEG) paradigms-resting, mismatch negativity, and 40-Hz auditory steady-state response-and resting functional magnetic resonance imaging. Dynamic causal modeling was used to quantify synaptic connectivity in cortical microcircuits.

Results: Classic group differences in EEG features between PScz and control subjects were replicated, including increased theta and other spectral changes (resting EEG), reduced mismatch negativity, and reduced 40-Hz power. Across all 4 paradigms, characteristic PScz data features were all best explained by models with greater self-inhibition (decreased synaptic gain) in pyramidal cells. Furthermore, disinhibition in auditory areas predicted abnormal auditory perception (and positive symptoms) in PScz in 3 paradigms.

Conclusions: First, characteristic EEG changes in PScz in 3 classic paradigms are all attributable to the same underlying parameter change: greater self-inhibition in pyramidal cells. Second, psychotic symptoms in PScz relate to disinhibition in neural circuits. These findings are more commensurate with the hypothesis that in PScz, a primary loss of synaptic gain on pyramidal cells is then compensated by interneuron downregulation (rather than the converse). They further suggest that psychotic symptoms relate to this secondary downregulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2021.07.024DOI Listing
August 2021

Characterizing effects of age, sex and psychosis symptoms on thalamocortical functional connectivity in youth.

Neuroimage 2021 11 7;243:118562. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, United States.

The thalamus is composed of multiple nuclei densely connected with the cortex in an organized manner, forming parallel thalamocortical networks critical to sensory, motor, and cognitive functioning. Thalamocortical circuit dysfunction has been implicated in multiple neurodevelopmental disorders, including schizophrenia, which also often exhibit sex differences in prevalence, clinical characteristics, and neuropathology. However, very little is known about developmental and sex effects on thalamocortical networks in youth. The present study characterized the effects of age, sex and psychosis symptomatology in anatomically constrained thalamocortical networks in a large community sample of youth (n = 1100, aged 8-21) from the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort (PNC). Cortical functional connectivity of seven anatomically defined thalamic nuclear groups were examined: anterior, mediodorsal, ventral lateral, ventral posterolateral, pulvinar, medial and lateral geniculate nuclear groups. Age and sex effects were characterized using complementary thalamic region-of-interest (ROI) to cortical ROI and voxel-wise analyses. Effects of clinical symptomatology were analyzed by separating youth into three groups based on their clinical symptoms; typically developing youth (n = 298), psychosis spectrum youth (n = 320), and youth with other psychopathologies (n = 482). As an exploratory analysis, association with PRIME scores were used as a dimensional measure of psychopathology. Age effects were broadly characterized by decreasing connectivity with sensory/motor cortical areas, and increasing connectivity with heteromodal prefrontal and parietal cortical areas. This pattern was most pronounced for thalamic motor and sensory nuclei. Females showed greater connectivity between multiple thalamic nuclear groups and the visual cortex compared to males, while males showed greater connectivity with the inferior frontal and orbitofrontal cortices. Youth with psychosis spectrum symptoms showed a subtle decrease in thalamic connectivity with the premotor and prefrontal cortices. Across all youth, greater PRIME scores were associated with lower connectivity between the prefrontal cortex and mediodorsal thalamus. By characterizing typical development in anatomically constrained thalamocortical networks, this study provides an anchor for conceptualizing disruptions to the integrity of these networks observed in neurodevelopmental disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2021.118562DOI Listing
November 2021

Toward Generalizable and Transdiagnostic Tools for Psychosis Prediction: An Independent Validation and Improvement of the NAPLS-2 Risk Calculator in the Multisite PRONIA Cohort.

Biol Psychiatry 2021 11 6;90(9):632-642. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Institute of Mental Health, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom; School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom.

Background: Transition to psychosis is among the most adverse outcomes of clinical high-risk (CHR) syndromes encompassing ultra-high risk (UHR) and basic symptom states. Clinical risk calculators may facilitate an early and individualized interception of psychosis, but their real-world implementation requires thorough validation across diverse risk populations, including young patients with depressive syndromes.

Methods: We validated the previously described NAPLS-2 (North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study 2) calculator in 334 patients (26 with transition to psychosis) with CHR or recent-onset depression (ROD) drawn from the multisite European PRONIA (Personalised Prognostic Tools for Early Psychosis Management) study. Patients were categorized into three risk enrichment levels, ranging from UHR, over CHR, to a broad-risk population comprising patients with CHR or ROD (CHR|ROD). We assessed how risk enrichment and different predictive algorithms influenced prognostic performance using reciprocal external validation.

Results: After calibration, the NAPLS-2 model predicted psychosis with a balanced accuracy (BAC) (sensitivity, specificity) of 68% (73%, 63%) in the PRONIA-UHR cohort, 67% (74%, 60%) in the CHR cohort, and 70% (73%, 66%) in patients with CHR|ROD. Multiple model derivation in PRONIA-CHR|ROD and validation in NAPLS-2-UHR patients confirmed that broader risk definitions produced more accurate risk calculators (CHR|ROD-based vs. UHR-based performance: 67% [68%, 66%] vs. 58% [61%, 56%]). Support vector machines were superior in CHR|ROD (BAC = 71%), while ridge logistic regression and support vector machines performed similarly in CHR (BAC = 67%) and UHR cohorts (BAC = 65%). Attenuated psychotic symptoms predicted psychosis across risk levels, while younger age and reduced processing speed became increasingly relevant for broader risk cohorts.

Conclusions: Clinical-neurocognitive machine learning models operating in young patients with affective and CHR syndromes facilitate a more precise and generalizable prediction of psychosis. Future studies should investigate their therapeutic utility in large-scale clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2021.06.023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8500930PMC
November 2021

Transcranial direct current stimulation targeting the medial prefrontal cortex modulates functional connectivity and enhances safety learning in obsessive-compulsive disorder: Results from two pilot studies.

Depress Anxiety 2021 Aug 31. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.

Background: Exposed-based psychotherapy is a mainstay of treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and anxious psychopathology. The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the default mode network (DMN), which is anchored by the mPFC, promote safety learning. Neuromodulation targeting the mPFC might augment therapeutic safety learning and enhance response to exposure-based therapies.

Methods: To characterize the effects of mPFC neuromodulation on functional connectivity, 17 community volunteers completed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans before and after 20 min of frontopolar anodal multifocal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). To examine the effects of tDCS on therapeutic safety learning, 24 patients with OCD completed a pilot randomized clinical trial; they were randomly assigned (double-blind, 50:50) to receive active or sham frontopolar tDCS before completing an in vivo exposure and response prevention (ERP) challenge. Changes in subjective emotional distress during the ERP challenge were used to index therapeutic safety learning.

Results: In community volunteers, frontal pole functional connectivity with the middle and superior frontal gyri increased, while connectivity with the anterior insula and basal ganglia decreased (ps < .001, corrected) after tDCS; functional connectivity between DMN and salience network also decreased after tDCS (ps < .001, corrected). OCD patients who received active tDCS exhibited more rapid therapeutic safety learning (ps < .05) during the ERP challenge than patients who received sham tDCS.

Conclusions: Frontopolar tDCS may modulate mPFC and DMN functional connectivity and can accelerate therapeutic safety learning. Though limited by small samples, these findings motivate further exploration of the effects of frontopolar tDCS on neural and behavioral targets associated with exposure-based psychotherapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/da.23212DOI Listing
August 2021

Dopamine D1R Receptor Stimulation as a Mechanistic Pro-cognitive Target for Schizophrenia.

Schizophr Bull 2021 Aug 23. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Department of Psychiatry, New York State Psychaitric Institute, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.

Decades of research have highlighted the importance of optimal stimulation of cortical dopaminergic receptors, particularly the D1R receptor (D1R), for prefrontal-mediated cognition. This mechanism is particularly relevant to the cognitive deficits in schizophrenia, given the abnormalities in cortical dopamine (DA) neurotransmission and in the expression of D1R. Despite the critical need for D1R-based therapeutics, many factors have complicated their development and prevented this important therapeutic target from being adequately interrogated. Challenges include determination of the optimal level of D1R stimulation needed to improve cognitive performance, especially when D1R expression levels, affinity states, DA levels, and the resulting D1R occupancy by DA, are not clearly known in schizophrenia, and may display great interindividual and intraindividual variability related to cognitive states and other physiological variables. These directly affect the selection of the level of stimulation necessary to correct the underlying neurobiology. The optimal mechanism for stimulation is also unknown and could include partial or full agonism, biased agonism, or positive allosteric modulation. Furthermore, the development of D1R targeting drugs has been complicated by complexities in extrapolating from in vitro affinity determinations to in vivo use. Prior D1R-targeted drugs have been unsuccessful due to poor bioavailability, pharmacokinetics, and insufficient target engagement at tolerable doses. Newer drugs have recently become available, and these must be tested in the context of carefully designed paradigms that address methodological challenges. In this paper, we discuss how a better understanding of these challenges has shaped our proposed experimental design for testing a new D1R/D5R partial agonist, PF-06412562, renamed CVL-562.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sbab095DOI Listing
August 2021

Mapping brain-behavior space relationships along the psychosis spectrum.

Elife 2021 07 20;10. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, United States.

Difficulties in advancing effective patient-specific therapies for psychiatric disorders highlight a need to develop a stable neurobiologically grounded mapping between neural and symptom variation. This gap is particularly acute for psychosis-spectrum disorders (PSD). Here, in a sample of 436 PSD patients spanning several diagnoses, we derived and replicated a dimensionality-reduced symptom space across hallmark psychopathology symptoms and cognitive deficits. In turn, these symptom axes mapped onto distinct, reproducible brain maps. Critically, we found that multivariate brain-behavior mapping techniques (e.g. canonical correlation analysis) do not produce stable results with current sample sizes. However, we show that a univariate brain-behavioral space (BBS) can resolve stable individualized prediction. Finally, we show a proof-of-principle framework for relating personalized BBS metrics with molecular targets via serotonin and glutamate receptor manipulations and neural gene expression maps derived from the Allen Human Brain Atlas. Collectively, these results highlight a stable and data-driven BBS mapping across PSD, which offers an actionable path that can be iteratively optimized for personalized clinical biomarker endpoints.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.66968DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8315806PMC
July 2021

Transcriptomics-informed large-scale cortical model captures topography of pharmacological neuroimaging effects of LSD.

Elife 2021 07 27;10. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Psychiatry, Yale University, New Haven, United States.

Psychoactive drugs can transiently perturb brain physiology while preserving brain structure. The role of physiological state in shaping neural function can therefore be investigated through neuroimaging of pharmacologically induced effects. Previously, using pharmacological neuroimaging, we found that neural and experiential effects of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) are attributable to agonism of the serotonin-2A receptor (Preller et al., 2018). Here, we integrate brain-wide transcriptomics with biophysically based circuit modeling to simulate acute neuromodulatory effects of LSD on human cortical large-scale spatiotemporal dynamics. Our model captures the inter-areal topography of LSD-induced changes in cortical blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional connectivity. These findings suggest that serotonin-2A-mediated modulation of pyramidal-neuronal gain is a circuit mechanism through which LSD alters cortical functional topography. Individual-subject model fitting captures patterns of individual neural differences in pharmacological response related to altered states of consciousness. This work establishes a framework for linking molecular-level manipulations to systems-level functional alterations, with implications for precision medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.69320DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8315798PMC
July 2021

Activity flow underlying abnormalities in brain activations and cognition in schizophrenia.

Sci Adv 2021 Jul 14;7(29). Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Center for Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ, USA.

Cognitive dysfunction is a core feature of many brain disorders, including schizophrenia (SZ), and has been linked to aberrant brain activations. However, it is unclear how these activation abnormalities emerge. We propose that aberrant flow of brain activity across functional connectivity (FC) pathways leads to altered activations that produce cognitive dysfunction in SZ. We tested this hypothesis using activity flow mapping, an approach that models the movement of task-related activity between brain regions as a function of FC. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging data from SZ individuals and healthy controls during a working memory task, we found that activity flow models accurately predict aberrant cognitive activations across multiple brain networks. Within the same framework, we simulated a connectivity-based clinical intervention, predicting specific treatments that normalized brain activations and behavior in patients. Our results suggest that dysfunctional task-evoked activity flow is a large-scale network mechanism contributing to cognitive dysfunction in SZ.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abf2513DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8279516PMC
July 2021

Individual differences in the associations between risk factors for alcohol use disorder and alcohol use-related outcomes.

Psychol Addict Behav 2021 Aug 10;35(5):501-513. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Psychiatry.

Background: Family history of alcohol use disorder; AUD (FH +) and impulsivity-related traits are known risk factors for problem drinking that have been investigated in predominately White samples. This cross-sectional study examined whether these risk factors vary by sex in the overall, majority White sample and in a Black subsample.

Method: A model building regression procedure was used to investigate the combined effect of FH + and impulsivity-related traits on alcohol quantity, frequency, and problems by sex (overall sample: = 757, 50% female, 73% White, age = 33.74, = 11.60; Black subsample: = 138, 47% female, age = 33.60, = 9.87).

Results: No sex differences were found in the compounding effects of FH + and impulsivity-related traits on alcohol outcomes. Males reported more physical, social, and overall alcohol-related problems than females. FH + was positively associated with all alcohol-related consequences. Poor self-regulation was the only trait associated with all alcohol outcomes. : A three-way interaction suggested a negative association between inhibition and frequency of alcohol use among FH + males only. A two-way interaction also suggested impulse control was associated with more interpersonal alcohol-related problems among males only. Main effects were also found in the expected direction such that higher impulsivity and FH + were associated with poorer alcohol outcomes.

Conclusion: These findings suggest no sex differences in the overall sample in the interactive effects of established risk factors for AUD on alcohol outcomes, and that poor self-regulation may be key for personality-targeted alcohol prevention and intervention programs. Preliminary findings of sex differences in the Black subsample should be replicated. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/adb0000733DOI Listing
August 2021

White matter changes in psychosis risk relate to development and are not impacted by the transition to psychosis.

Mol Psychiatry 2021 May 24. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Psychiatry, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Subtle alterations in white matter microstructure are observed in youth at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis. However, the timing of these changes and their relationships to the emergence of psychosis remain unclear. Here, we track the evolution of white matter abnormalities in a large, longitudinal cohort of CHR individuals comprising the North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study (NAPLS-3). Multi-shell diffusion magnetic resonance imaging data were collected across multiple timepoints (1-5 over 1 year) in 286 subjects (aged 12-32 years): 25 CHR individuals who transitioned to psychosis (CHR-P; 61 scans), 205 CHR subjects with unknown transition outcome after the 1-year follow-up period (CHR-U; 596 scans), and 56 healthy controls (195 scans). Linear mixed effects models were fitted to infer the impact of age and illness-onset on variation in the fractional anisotropy of cellular tissue (FA) and the volume fraction of extracellular free water (FW). Baseline measures of white matter microstructure did not differentiate between HC, CHR-U and CHR-P individuals. However, age trajectories differed between the three groups in line with a developmental effect: CHR-P and CHR-U groups displayed higher FA in adolescence, and 4% lower FA by 30 years of age compared to controls. Furthermore, older CHR-P subjects (20+ years) displayed 4% higher FW in the forceps major (p < 0.05). Prospective analysis in CHR-P did not reveal a significant impact of illness onset on regional FA or FW, suggesting that transition to psychosis is not marked by dramatic change in white matter microstructure. Instead, clinical high risk for psychosis-regardless of transition outcome-is characterized by subtle age-related white matter changes that occur in tandem with development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41380-021-01128-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8611104PMC
May 2021

White matter microstructure and its relation to clinical features of obsessive-compulsive disorder: findings from the ENIGMA OCD Working Group.

Transl Psychiatry 2021 03 17;11(1):173. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Psychiatry, Oxford University, Oxford, UK.

Microstructural alterations in cortico-subcortical connections are thought to be present in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, prior studies have yielded inconsistent findings, perhaps because small sample sizes provided insufficient power to detect subtle abnormalities. Here we investigated microstructural white matter alterations and their relation to clinical features in the largest dataset of adult and pediatric OCD to date. We analyzed diffusion tensor imaging metrics from 700 adult patients and 645 adult controls, as well as 174 pediatric patients and 144 pediatric controls across 19 sites participating in the ENIGMA OCD Working Group, in a cross-sectional case-control magnetic resonance study. We extracted measures of fractional anisotropy (FA) as main outcome, and mean diffusivity, radial diffusivity, and axial diffusivity as secondary outcomes for 25 white matter regions. We meta-analyzed patient-control group differences (Cohen's d) across sites, after adjusting for age and sex, and investigated associations with clinical characteristics. Adult OCD patients showed significant FA reduction in the sagittal stratum (d = -0.21, z = -3.21, p = 0.001) and posterior thalamic radiation (d = -0.26, z = -4.57, p < 0.0001). In the sagittal stratum, lower FA was associated with a younger age of onset (z = 2.71, p = 0.006), longer duration of illness (z = -2.086, p = 0.036), and a higher percentage of medicated patients in the cohorts studied (z = -1.98, p = 0.047). No significant association with symptom severity was found. Pediatric OCD patients did not show any detectable microstructural abnormalities compared to controls. Our findings of microstructural alterations in projection and association fibers to posterior brain regions in OCD are consistent with models emphasizing deficits in connectivity as an important feature of this disorder.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41398-021-01276-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7969744PMC
March 2021

Thalamic dysconnectivity in the psychosis risk syndrome and early illness schizophrenia.

Psychol Med 2021 Mar 15:1-9. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Background: Schizophrenia (SZ) is associated with thalamic dysconnectivity. Compared to healthy controls (HCs), individuals with SZ have hyperconnectivity with sensory regions, and hypoconnectivity with cerebellar, thalamic, and prefrontal regions. Despite replication of this pattern in chronically ill individuals, less is known about when these abnormalities emerge in the illness course and if they are present prior to illness onset.

Methods: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected from psychosis risk syndrome (PRS) youth (n = 45), early illness SZ (ESZ) (n = 74) patients, and HCs (n = 85). Age-adjusted functional connectivity, seeded from the thalamus, was compared among the groups.

Results: Significant effects of group were observed in left and right middle temporal regions, left and right superior temporal regions, left cerebellum, and bilateral thalamus. Compared to HCs, ESZ demonstrated hyperconnectivity to all temporal lobe regions and reduced connectivity with cerebellar, anterior cingulate, and thalamic regions. Compared to HCs, PRS demonstrated hyperconnectivity with the left and right middle temporal regions, and hypoconnectivity with the cerebellar and other thalamic regions. Compared to PRS participants, ESZ participants were hyperconnected to temporal regions, but did not differ from PRS in hypoconnectivity with cerebellar and thalamic regions. Thalamic dysconnectivity was unrelated to positive symptom severity in ESZ or PRS groups.

Conclusions: PRS individuals demonstrated an intermediate level of thalamic dysconnectivity, whereas ESZ showed a pattern consistent with prior observations in chronic samples. These cross-sectional findings suggest that thalamic dysconnectivity may occur prior to illness onset and become more pronounced in early illness stages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291720004882DOI Listing
March 2021

Mapping data-driven individualized neurobehavioral phenotypes in heavy alcohol drinkers.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2021 04 16;45(4):841-853. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Psychiatry, Yale Medical School, New Haven, CT, USA.

Objective: Recent studies have examined the factor structure and associated correlates of three neurofunctional domains, executive function, incentive salience, and negative emotionality in the development and maintenance of alcohol use disorders in clinical samples. The current study sought to replicate and extend prior work by testing this 3-factor model, utilizing both exact and similar phenotypic measures, as well as novel measures, in a non-treatment-seeking sample.

Methods: Self-report measures of alcohol addiction, impulsivity, behavior, and exposure to early-life stress were collected as part of baseline assessments for alcohol imaging and pharmacotherapy studies in 335 individuals. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to examine model structure and fit. A multiple indicators, multiple causes (MIMIC) model identified predictors of latent factors identified by CFA.

Results: Results supported an intercorrelated model with three factors: executive function, incentive salience, and emotionality. All factors were associated with current AUD, and incentive salience was uniquely associated with past 30-day drinking frequency. MIMIC results identified multiple significant predictors of these latent factors, including history of alcohol use disorder, positive family history of alcohol dependence, earlier age of first drink, and a history of childhood emotional abuse and physical neglect.

Conclusions: Our results support an intercorrelated 3-factor model of neurofunctional domains in alcohol use models, consistent with published findings. Because childhood physical neglect was a significant predictor of all latent factors, these results also highlight the significant negative impact of childhood neglect on later addiction development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14580DOI Listing
April 2021

Ketamine Normalizes the Structural Alterations of Inferior Frontal Gyrus in Depression.

Chronic Stress (Thousand Oaks) 2020 Jan-Dec;4:2470547020980681. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut.

Background: Ketamine is a novel fast-acting antidepressant. Acute ketamine treatment can reverse microstructure deficits and normalize functional alterations in the brain, but little is known about the impacts of ketamine on brain volumes in individuals with depression.

Methods: We used 3 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and tensorbased morphological methods to investigate the regional volume differences for 29 healthy control (HC) subjects and 21 subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD), including 10 subjects with comorbid post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). All the subjects participated in MRI scanning before and 24 h post intravenous ketamine infusion. The effects of acute ketamine administration on HC, MDD, and MDD/PTSD groups were examined separately by whole-brain voxel-wise t-tests.

Results: Our data showed smaller volume of inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, opercular part) in MDD and MDD/PTSD subjects compared to HC, and a significant correlation between opercular IFG volume and depressive severity in MDD subjects only. Ketamine administration normalized the structural alterations of opercular IFG in both MDD and MDD/PTSD groups, and significantly improved depressive and PTSD symptoms. Twenty-four hours after a single ketamine infusion, there were two clusters of voxels with volume changes in MDD subjects, including significantly increased volumes of opercular IFG. No significant structural alterations were found in the MDD/PTSD or HC groups.

Conclusion: These findings provide direct evidence that acute ketamine administration can normalize structural alterations associated with depression and highlight the importance of IFG in the guidance of future therapeutic targets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2470547020980681DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7758564PMC
December 2020

Greater male than female variability in regional brain structure across the lifespan.

Hum Brain Mapp 2020 Oct 12. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

FIDMAG Germanes Hospitalàries Research Foundation, Barcelona, Spain.

For many traits, males show greater variability than females, with possible implications for understanding sex differences in health and disease. Here, the ENIGMA (Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis) Consortium presents the largest-ever mega-analysis of sex differences in variability of brain structure, based on international data spanning nine decades of life. Subcortical volumes, cortical surface area and cortical thickness were assessed in MRI data of 16,683 healthy individuals 1-90 years old (47% females). We observed significant patterns of greater male than female between-subject variance for all subcortical volumetric measures, all cortical surface area measures, and 60% of cortical thickness measures. This pattern was stable across the lifespan for 50% of the subcortical structures, 70% of the regional area measures, and nearly all regions for thickness. Our findings that these sex differences are present in childhood implicate early life genetic or gene-environment interaction mechanisms. The findings highlight the importance of individual differences within the sexes, that may underpin sex-specific vulnerability to disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.25204DOI Listing
October 2020

Structural neuroimaging biomarkers for obsessive-compulsive disorder in the ENIGMA-OCD consortium: medication matters.

Transl Psychiatry 2020 10 8;10(1):342. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, 06510, USA.

No diagnostic biomarkers are available for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Here, we aimed to identify magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) biomarkers for OCD, using 46 data sets with 2304 OCD patients and 2068 healthy controls from the ENIGMA consortium. We performed machine learning analysis of regional measures of cortical thickness, surface area and subcortical volume and tested classification performance using cross-validation. Classification performance for OCD vs. controls using the complete sample with different classifiers and cross-validation strategies was poor. When models were validated on data from other sites, model performance did not exceed chance-level. In contrast, fair classification performance was achieved when patients were grouped according to their medication status. These results indicate that medication use is associated with substantial differences in brain anatomy that are widely distributed, and indicate that clinical heterogeneity contributes to the poor performance of structural MRI as a disease marker.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41398-020-01013-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7598942PMC
October 2020

Thalamic Nuclei Volumes in Psychotic Disorders and in Youths With Psychosis Spectrum Symptoms.

Am J Psychiatry 2020 12 11;177(12):1159-1167. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (Huang, Sheffield, Blackford, Heckers, Woodward); Vanderbilt University Institute of Imaging Sciences, Nashville (Rogers); Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh (Jalbrzikowski); Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Conn. (Anticevic); Research and Development, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Nashville (Blackford).

Objective: Thalamus models of psychosis implicate association nuclei in the pathogenesis of psychosis and mechanisms of cognitive impairment. Studies to date have provided conflicting findings for structural deficits specific to these nuclei. The authors sought to characterize thalamic structural abnormalities in psychosis and a neurodevelopmental cohort, and to determine whether nuclear volumes were associated with cognitive function.

Methods: Thalamic nuclei volumes were tested in a cross-sectional sample of 472 adults (293 with psychosis) and the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort (PNC), consisting of 1,393 youths (398 with psychosis spectrum symptoms and 609 with other psychopathologies), using a recently developed, validated method for segmenting thalamic nuclei and complementary voxel-based morphometry. Cognitive function was measured with the Screen for Cognitive Impairment in Psychiatry in the psychosis cohort and the Penn Computerized Neurocognitive Battery in the PNC.

Results: The psychosis group had smaller pulvinar, mediodorsal, and, to a lesser extent, ventrolateral nuclei volumes compared with the healthy control group. Youths with psychosis spectrum symptoms also had smaller pulvinar volumes, compared with both typically developing youths and youths with other psychopathologies. Pulvinar volumes were positively correlated with general cognitive function.

Conclusions: The study findings demonstrate that smaller thalamic association nuclei represent a neurodevelopmental abnormality associated with psychosis, risk for psychosis in youths, and cognitive impairment. Identifying specific thalamic nuclei abnormalities in psychosis has implications for early detection of psychosis risk and treatment of cognitive impairment in psychosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2020.19101099DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7708443PMC
December 2020

A Whole-Brain and Cross-Diagnostic Perspective on Functional Brain Network Dysfunction.

Cereb Cortex 2021 01;31(1):547-561

Center for Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ 07102, USA.

A wide variety of mental disorders have been associated with resting-state functional network alterations, which are thought to contribute to the cognitive changes underlying mental illness. These observations appear to support theories postulating large-scale disruptions of brain systems in mental illness. However, existing approaches isolate differences in network organization without putting those differences in a broad, whole-brain perspective. Using a graph distance approach-connectome-wide similarity-we found that whole-brain resting-state functional network organization is highly similar across groups of individuals with and without a variety of mental diseases. This similarity was observed across autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and schizophrenia. Nonetheless, subtle differences in network graph distance were predictive of diagnosis, suggesting that while functional connectomes differ little across health and disease, those differences are informative. These results suggest a need to reevaluate neurocognitive theories of mental illness, with a role for subtle functional brain network changes in the production of an array of mental diseases. Such small network alterations suggest the possibility that small, well-targeted alterations to brain network organization may provide meaningful improvements for a variety of mental disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhaa242DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7947178PMC
January 2021

Virtual Histology of Cortical Thickness and Shared Neurobiology in 6 Psychiatric Disorders.

JAMA Psychiatry 2021 Jan;78(1):47-63

Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, School of Mental Health and Neuroscience, Maastricht University, the Netherlands.

Importance: Large-scale neuroimaging studies have revealed group differences in cortical thickness across many psychiatric disorders. The underlying neurobiology behind these differences is not well understood.

Objective: To determine neurobiologic correlates of group differences in cortical thickness between cases and controls in 6 disorders: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder (MDD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and schizophrenia.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Profiles of group differences in cortical thickness between cases and controls were generated using T1-weighted magnetic resonance images. Similarity between interregional profiles of cell-specific gene expression and those in the group differences in cortical thickness were investigated in each disorder. Next, principal component analysis was used to reveal a shared profile of group difference in thickness across the disorders. Analysis for gene coexpression, clustering, and enrichment for genes associated with these disorders were conducted. Data analysis was conducted between June and December 2019. The analysis included 145 cohorts across 6 psychiatric disorders drawn from the ENIGMA consortium. The numbers of cases and controls in each of the 6 disorders were as follows: ADHD: 1814 and 1602; ASD: 1748 and 1770; BD: 1547 and 3405; MDD: 2658 and 3572; OCD: 2266 and 2007; and schizophrenia: 2688 and 3244.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Interregional profiles of group difference in cortical thickness between cases and controls.

Results: A total of 12 721 cases and 15 600 controls, ranging from ages 2 to 89 years, were included in this study. Interregional profiles of group differences in cortical thickness for each of the 6 psychiatric disorders were associated with profiles of gene expression specific to pyramidal (CA1) cells, astrocytes (except for BD), and microglia (except for OCD); collectively, gene-expression profiles of the 3 cell types explain between 25% and 54% of variance in interregional profiles of group differences in cortical thickness. Principal component analysis revealed a shared profile of difference in cortical thickness across the 6 disorders (48% variance explained); interregional profile of this principal component 1 was associated with that of the pyramidal-cell gene expression (explaining 56% of interregional variation). Coexpression analyses of these genes revealed 2 clusters: (1) a prenatal cluster enriched with genes involved in neurodevelopmental (axon guidance) processes and (2) a postnatal cluster enriched with genes involved in synaptic activity and plasticity-related processes. These clusters were enriched with genes associated with all 6 psychiatric disorders.

Conclusions And Relevance: In this study, shared neurobiologic processes were associated with differences in cortical thickness across multiple psychiatric disorders. These processes implicate a common role of prenatal development and postnatal functioning of the cerebral cortex in these disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2020.2694DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7450410PMC
January 2021

Refining the Empirical Constraints on Computational Models of Spatial Working Memory in Schizophrenia.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2020 09 19;5(9):913-922. Epub 2020 May 19.

Center for Mind & Brain and Department of Psychology, University of California, Davis, Davis, California.

Background: Impairments in spatial working memory (sWM) have been well documented in schizophrenia. Here we provide a comprehensive test of a microcircuit model of WM performance in schizophrenia that predicts enhanced effects of increasing delay duration and distractors based on a hypothesized imbalance of excitatory and inhibitory processes.

Methods: Model predictions were tested in 41 people with schizophrenia (PSZ) and 32 healthy control subjects (HCS) performing an sWM task. In one condition, a single target location was followed by delays of 0, 2, 4, or 8 seconds. In a second condition, distractors were presented during the 4-second delay interval at 20°, 30°, 40°, 50°, or 90° from the original target location.

Results: PSZ showed less precise sWM representations than HCS, and the rate of memory drift over time was greater in PSZ than in HCS. Relative to HCS, the spatial recall responses of PSZ were more repelled by distractors presented close to the target location and more attracted by distractors presented far from the target location. The degree of attraction to distant distractors was correlated with the rate of memory drift in the absence of distractors.

Conclusions: Consistent with the microcircuit model, PSZ exhibited both a greater rate of drift and greater attraction to distant distractors relative to HCS. These two effects were correlated, consistent with the proposal that they arise from a single underlying mechanism. However, the repulsion effects produced by nearby distractors were not predicted by the model and thus require an updated modeling framework.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2020.05.003DOI Listing
September 2020

Transcriptomics Inform Hierarchical Neuroimaging Features Relevant for Psychosis Spectrum Symptoms.

Biol Psychiatry 2020 08;88(3):212-214

Department of Psychiatry, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut; Department of Psychology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2020.05.016DOI Listing
August 2020

Autism Spectrum Disorder and Schizophrenia Are Better Differentiated by Positive Symptoms Than Negative Symptoms.

Front Psychiatry 2020 11;11:548. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

Child Study Center, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, United States.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia (SZ) are heterogenous neurodevelopmental disorders that overlap in symptom presentation. The purpose of this study was to specify overlapping symptom domains and to identify symptoms that can reliably differentiate adults with ASD (n = 53), SZ (n = 39), and typical development (TD; n = 40). All participants regardless of diagnosis were administered gold-standard diagnostic assessments of ASD and SZ characteristics including the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS-2) and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Sensitivity and specificity of the ADOS were assessed using diagnostic cut-off scores. The degree of symptom overlap on these measures between participant groups was analyzed using Analyses of Variance (ANOVAs), Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) Curves, and Analyses of Covariance (ANCOVAs) to control for group differences in IQ and sex distributions. The ADOS reliably discriminated ASD and TD adults, but there was a high rate of "false positives" in SZ patients who did not meet the DSM-5 criteria for ASD. To identify the reasons for low specificity in the SZ sample, we categorized ASD and SZ symptoms into 'positive' (presence of atypical behaviors) and 'negative' (absence of typical behaviors) symptoms. ASD and SZ groups overlapped on negative symptoms largely related to the absence of typical social and communicative behaviors, whereas disorder-specific positive symptoms differentiated ASD and SZ. For example, those with ASD scored higher on restricted and repetitive behaviors and stereotyped language, whereas those with SZ scored higher on psychotic symptoms such as delusions and hallucinations. These results suggest that, when making a differential diagnosis between ASD and SZ, clinicians may benefit from focusing on the presence or absence of positive ASD and SZ symptoms. Standardized measures to classify ASD symptoms into positive and negative symptoms have not yet been developed but represent a potentially viable clinical tool.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00548DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7301837PMC
June 2020

Generative modeling of brain maps with spatial autocorrelation.

Neuroimage 2020 10 22;220:117038. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Yale University, Department of Physics, USA; Yale University, Department of Psychiatry, USA; Yale University, Interdepartmental Neuroscience Program, USA. Electronic address:

Studies of large-scale brain organization have revealed interesting relationships between spatial gradients in brain maps across multiple modalities. Evaluating the significance of these findings requires establishing statistical expectations under a null hypothesis of interest. Through generative modeling of synthetic data that instantiate a specific null hypothesis, quantitative benchmarks can be derived for arbitrarily complex statistical measures. Here, we present a generative null model, provided as an open-access software platform, that generates surrogate maps with spatial autocorrelation (SA) matched to SA of a target brain map. SA is a prominent and ubiquitous property of brain maps that violates assumptions of independence in conventional statistical tests. Our method can simulate surrogate brain maps, constrained by empirical data, that preserve the SA of cortical, subcortical, parcellated, and dense brain maps. We characterize how SA impacts p-values in pairwise brain map comparisons. Furthermore, we demonstrate how SA-preserving surrogate maps can be used in gene set enrichment analyses to test hypotheses of interest related to brain map topography. Our findings demonstrate the utility of SA-preserving surrogate maps for hypothesis testing in complex statistical analyses, and underscore the need to disambiguate meaningful relationships from chance associations in studies of large-scale brain organization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2020.117038DOI Listing
October 2020

Subcortical Brain Volume, Regional Cortical Thickness, and Cortical Surface Area Across Disorders: Findings From the ENIGMA ADHD, ASD, and OCD Working Groups.

Am J Psychiatry 2020 09 16;177(9):834-843. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

The full list of authors in the ENIGMA working groups, author affiliations, author disclosures, and acknowledgments are provided in online supplements.

Objective: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are common neurodevelopmental disorders that frequently co-occur. The authors sought to directly compare these disorders using structural brain imaging data from ENIGMA consortium data.

Methods: Structural T-weighted whole-brain MRI data from healthy control subjects (N=5,827) and from patients with ADHD (N=2,271), ASD (N=1,777), and OCD (N=2,323) from 151 cohorts worldwide were analyzed using standardized processing protocols. The authors examined subcortical volume, cortical thickness, and cortical surface area differences within a mega-analytical framework, pooling measures extracted from each cohort. Analyses were performed separately for children, adolescents, and adults, using linear mixed-effects models adjusting for age, sex, and site (and intracranial volume for subcortical and surface area measures).

Results: No shared differences were found among all three disorders, and shared differences between any two disorders did not survive correction for multiple comparisons. Children with ADHD compared with those with OCD had smaller hippocampal volumes, possibly influenced by IQ. Children and adolescents with ADHD also had smaller intracranial volume than control subjects and those with OCD or ASD. Adults with ASD showed thicker frontal cortices compared with adult control subjects and other clinical groups. No OCD-specific differences were observed across different age groups and surface area differences among all disorders in childhood and adulthood.

Conclusions: The study findings suggest robust but subtle differences across different age groups among ADHD, ASD, and OCD. ADHD-specific intracranial volume and hippocampal differences in children and adolescents, and ASD-specific cortical thickness differences in the frontal cortex in adults, support previous work emphasizing structural brain differences in these disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2020.19030331DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8296070PMC
September 2020

Counterpoint. Early intervention for psychosis risk syndromes: Minimizing risk and maximizing benefit.

Schizophr Res 2021 01 10;227:10-17. Epub 2020 May 10.

Department of Psychiatry, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.

Background: Malhi et al. in this issue critique the clinical high risk (CHR) syndrome for psychosis.

Method: Response to points of critique.

Results: We agree that inconsistency in CHR nomenclature should be minimized. We respectfully disagree on other points. In our view: a) individuals with CHR and their families need help, using existing interventions, even though we do not yet fully understand disease mechanisms; b) substantial progress has been made in identification of biomarkers; c) symptoms used to identify CHR are specific to psychotic illnesses; d) CHR diagnosis is not "extremely difficult"; e) the pattern of progression, although heterogenous, is discernible; f) "psychosis-like symptoms" are common but are not used to identify CHR; and g) on the point described as 'the real risk,' CHR diagnosis does not frequently cause harmful stigma.

Discussion: Malhi et al.'s arguments do not fairly characterize progress in the CHR field nor efforts to minimize stigma. That said, much work remains in areas of consistent nomenclature, mechanisms of disease, dissecting heterogeneity, and biomarkers. With regard to what the authors term the "real risk" of stigma associated with a CHR "label," however, our view is that avoiding words like "risk" and "psychosis" reinforces the stigma that both they and we mean to oppose. Moreover, patients and their families benefit from being given a term that describes what is happening to them.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2020.04.020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8218020PMC
January 2021

Cross-paradigm connectivity: reliability, stability, and utility.

Brain Imaging Behav 2021 Apr;15(2):614-629

Department of Psychology, Yale University, 2 Hillhouse Avenue, New Haven, CT, USA.

While functional neuroimaging studies typically focus on a particular paradigm to investigate network connectivity, the human brain appears to possess an intrinsic "trait" architecture that is independent of any given paradigm. We have previously proposed the use of "cross-paradigm connectivity (CPC)" to quantify shared connectivity patterns across multiple paradigms and have demonstrated the utility of such measures in clinical studies. Here, using generalizability theory and connectome fingerprinting, we examined the reliability, stability, and individual identifiability of CPC in a group of highly-sampled healthy traveling subjects who received fMRI scans with a battery of five paradigms across multiple sites and days. Compared with single-paradigm connectivity matrices, the CPC matrices showed higher reliability in connectivity diversity, lower reliability in connectivity strength, higher stability, and higher individual identification accuracy. All of these assessments increased as a function of number of paradigms included in the CPC analysis. In comparisons involving different paradigm combinations and different brain atlases, we observed significantly higher reliability, stability, and identifiability for CPC matrices constructed from task-only data (versus those from both task and rest data), and higher identifiability but lower stability for CPC matrices constructed from the Power atlas (versus those from the AAL atlas). Moreover, we showed that multi-paradigm CPC matrices likely reflect the brain's "trait" structure that cannot be fully achieved from single-paradigm data, even with multiple runs. The present results provide evidence for the feasibility and utility of CPC in the study of functional "trait" networks and offer some methodological implications for future CPC studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11682-020-00272-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8378905PMC
April 2021

Psilocybin Induces Time-Dependent Changes in Global Functional Connectivity.

Biol Psychiatry 2020 07 13;88(2):197-207. Epub 2020 Jan 13.

Neuropsychopharmacology and Brain Imaging Unit, University Hospital for Psychiatry Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Background: The use of psilocybin in scientific and experimental clinical contexts has triggered renewed interest in the mechanism of action of psychedelics. However, its time-dependent systems-level neurobiology remains sparsely investigated in humans.

Methods: We conducted a double-blind, randomized, counterbalanced, crossover study comprising 23 healthy human participants who received placebo and 0.2 mg/kg of psilocybin orally on 2 different test days. Participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging at 3 time points between administration and peak effects: 20 minutes, 40 minutes, and 70 minutes after administration. Resting-state functional connectivity was quantified via a data-driven global brain connectivity method and compared with cortical gene expression maps.

Results: Psilocybin reduced associative, but concurrently increased sensory, brain-wide connectivity. This pattern emerged over time from administration to peak effects. Furthermore, we showed that baseline connectivity is associated with the extent of psilocybin-induced changes in functional connectivity. Lastly, psilocybin-induced changes correlated in a time-dependent manner with spatial gene expression patterns of the 5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine 2A) and 5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine 1A) receptors.

Conclusions: These results suggest that the integration of functional connectivity in sensory regions and the disintegration in associative regions may underlie the psychedelic state and pinpoint the critical role of the serotonin 2A and 1A receptor systems. Furthermore, baseline connectivity may represent a predictive marker of the magnitude of changes induced by psilocybin and may therefore contribute to a personalized medicine approach within the potential framework of psychedelic treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2019.12.027DOI Listing
July 2020

Brain structural covariance networks in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a graph analysis from the ENIGMA Consortium.

Brain 2020 02;143(2):684-700

Department of Psychology, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Brain structural covariance networks reflect covariation in morphology of different brain areas and are thought to reflect common trajectories in brain development and maturation. Large-scale investigation of structural covariance networks in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) may provide clues to the pathophysiology of this neurodevelopmental disorder. Using T1-weighted MRI scans acquired from 1616 individuals with OCD and 1463 healthy controls across 37 datasets participating in the ENIGMA-OCD Working Group, we calculated intra-individual brain structural covariance networks (using the bilaterally-averaged values of 33 cortical surface areas, 33 cortical thickness values, and six subcortical volumes), in which edge weights were proportional to the similarity between two brain morphological features in terms of deviation from healthy controls (i.e. z-score transformed). Global networks were characterized using measures of network segregation (clustering and modularity), network integration (global efficiency), and their balance (small-worldness), and their community membership was assessed. Hub profiling of regional networks was undertaken using measures of betweenness, closeness, and eigenvector centrality. Individually calculated network measures were integrated across the 37 datasets using a meta-analytical approach. These network measures were summated across the network density range of K = 0.10-0.25 per participant, and were integrated across the 37 datasets using a meta-analytical approach. Compared with healthy controls, at a global level, the structural covariance networks of OCD showed lower clustering (P < 0.0001), lower modularity (P < 0.0001), and lower small-worldness (P = 0.017). Detection of community membership emphasized lower network segregation in OCD compared to healthy controls. At the regional level, there were lower (rank-transformed) centrality values in OCD for volume of caudate nucleus and thalamus, and surface area of paracentral cortex, indicative of altered distribution of brain hubs. Centrality of cingulate and orbito-frontal as well as other brain areas was associated with OCD illness duration, suggesting greater involvement of these brain areas with illness chronicity. In summary, the findings of this study, the largest brain structural covariance study of OCD to date, point to a less segregated organization of structural covariance networks in OCD, and reorganization of brain hubs. The segregation findings suggest a possible signature of altered brain morphometry in OCD, while the hub findings point to OCD-related alterations in trajectories of brain development and maturation, particularly in cingulate and orbitofrontal regions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awaa001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7009583PMC
February 2020
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