Publications by authors named "Alain M Schoepfer"

114 Publications

Systematic Review of Outcome Measures Used in Observational Studies of Adults with Eosinophilic Esophagitis.

Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2021 Sep 20:1-25. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

Background: Over the last 20 years, diverse outcome measures have been used to evaluate the effectiveness of therapies for eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). This systematic review aims to identify the readouts used in observational studies of topical corticosteroids, diet, and dilation in adult EoE patients.

Methods: We searched MEDLINE and Embase for prospective and retrospective studies (cohorts/case series, randomized open-label, and case-control) evaluating the use of diets, dilation, and topical corticosteroids in adults with EoE. Two authors independently assessed the articles and extracted information about histologic, endoscopic, and patient-reported outcomes and tools used to assess treatment effects.

Results: We included 69 studies that met inclusion criteria. EoE-associated endoscopic findings (assessed either as absence/presence or using Endoscopic Reference Score) were evaluated in 24/35, 11/17, and 9/17 studies of topical corticosteroids, diet, and dilation, respectively. Esophageal eosinophil density was recorded in 32/35, 17/17, and 11/17 studies of topical corticosteroids, diet, and dilation, respectively. Patient-reported outcomes were not uniformly used (only in 14, 8, and 3 studies of topical corticosteroids, diet, and dilation, respectively), and most tools were not validated for use in adults with EoE.

Conclusions: Despite the lack of an agreed set of core outcomes that should be recorded and reported in studies in adult EoE patients, endoscopic EoE-associated findings and esophageal eosinophil density are commonly used to assess disease activity in observational studies. Standardization of outcomes and data supporting the use of outcomes are needed to facilitate interpretation of evidence, its synthesis, and comparisons of interventions in meta-analyses of therapeutic trials in adults with EoE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000516898DOI Listing
September 2021

Development of a core outcome set for therapeutic studies in eosinophilic esophagitis (COREOS).

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2021 Jul 6. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Inform Diagnostics, Irving, Tex; Department of Pathology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Tex.

Background: End points used to determine treatment efficacy in eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) have evolved over time. With multiple novel therapies in development for EoE, harmonization of outcomes measures will facilitate evidence synthesis and appraisal when comparing different treatments.

Objective: We sought to develop a core outcome set (COS) for controlled and observational studies of pharmacologic and diet interventions in adult and pediatric patients with EoE.

Methods: Candidate outcomes were generated from systematic literature reviews and patient engagement interviews and surveys. Consensus was established using an iterative Delphi process, with items voted on using a 9-point Likert scale and with feedback from other participants to allow score refinement. Consensus meetings were held to ratify the outcome domains of importance and the core outcome measures. Stakeholders were recruited internationally and included adult and pediatric gastroenterologists, allergists, dieticians, pathologists, psychologists, researchers, and methodologists.

Results: The COS consists of 4 outcome domains for controlled and observational studies: histopathology, endoscopy, patient-reported symptoms, and EoE-specific quality of life. A total of 69 stakeholders (response rate 95.8%) prioritized 42 outcomes in a 2-round Delphi process, and the final ratification meeting generated consensus on 33 outcome measures. These included measurement of the peak eosinophil count, Eosinophilic Esophagitis Histology Scoring System, Eosinophilic Esophagitis Endoscopic Reference Score, and patient-reported measures of dysphagia and quality of life.

Conclusions: This interdisciplinary collaboration involving global stakeholders has produced a COS that can be applied to adult and pediatric studies of pharmacologic and diet therapies for EoE and will facilitate meaningful treatment comparisons and improve the quality of data synthesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2021.07.001DOI Listing
July 2021

Long-Lasting Dissociation of Esophageal Eosinophilia and Symptoms Following Dilation in Adults With Eosinophilic Esophagitis.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 May 29. Epub 2021 May 29.

Digestive Health Institute, Children's Hospital Colorado, Gastrointestinal Eosinophilic Diseases Program, Section of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Aurora, Colorado.

Background & Aims: Esophageal dilation improves dysphagia but not inflammation in eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) patients. We investigated if dilation modifies the association between symptoms and eosinophils per high-power field (eos/hpf).

Methods: Adults enrolled in a multisite prospective Consortium of Gastrointestinal Eosinophilic Disease Researchers OMEGA observational study (NCT02523118) completed the symptom-based EoE activity index (EEsAI) patient-reported outcome instrument and underwent endoscopy with biopsy specimens. Patients were stratified based on dilation status as absent, performed 1 year or less before endoscopy, and performed more than 1 year before endoscopy. Assessments included Spearman correlations of the relationship between symptoms and eos/hpf and linear regression with EEsAI as the outcome, eos/hpf as predictor, and interaction for dilation and eos/hpf.

Results: Among 100 patients (n = 61 males; median age, 37 y), 15 and 40 patients underwent dilation 1 year or less and more than 1 year before index endoscopy, respectively. In nondilated patients, the association between eos/hpf and symptoms was moderate (rho = 0.49; P < .001); for a 10-eos/hpf increase, the predicted EEsAI increased by 2.69 (P = .002). In patients dilated 1 or less and more than 1 year before index endoscopy, this association was abolished (rho = -0.38; P = .157 for ≤1 y and rho = 0.02; P = .883 >1 y); for a 10-eos/hpf increase, the predicted EEsAI changed by -1.64 (P = .183) and 0.78 (P = .494), respectively. Dilation modified the association between symptoms and eos/hpf (P = .005 and P = .187 for interaction terms of eos/hpf and dilation 1 or less years before and more than 1 year before index endoscopy, respectively).

Conclusions: In nondilated EoE adults, eos/hpf correlates modestly with symptoms; this correlation was no longer appreciated in dilated patients, and the dilation effects lasted longer than 1 year. Dilation status should be considered in studies evaluating EoE treatment and for clinical follow-up evaluation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2021.05.049DOI Listing
May 2021

A Summary of the Meetings of the Development of a Core Outcome Set for Therapeutic Studies in Eosinophilic Esophagitis (COREOS) International Multidisciplinary Consensus.

Gastroenterology 2021 Sep 27;161(3):778-784. Epub 2021 May 27.

Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern, Switzerland. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2021.04.081DOI Listing
September 2021

Development of a Core Outcome Set for Therapeutic Studies in Eosinophilic Esophagitis (COREOS): An International Multidisciplinary Consensus.

Gastroenterology 2021 Sep 20;161(3):748-755. Epub 2021 May 20.

Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern, Switzerland. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2021.04.080DOI Listing
September 2021

Technical feasibility, clinical effectiveness, and safety of esophageal stricture dilation using a novel endoscopic attachment cap in adults with eosinophilic esophagitis.

Gastrointest Endosc 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV) and University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Background And Aims: The BougieCap (Ovesco Endoscopy AG, Tübingen, Germany) is a new device that allows optical and tactile feedback during stricture dilation of the upper GI tract. We evaluated the technical feasibility, clinical efficacy, and safety of a 1-time esophageal stricture dilation using the BougieCap in adults with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE).

Methods: EoE patients prospectively included in the Swiss EoE Cohort were dilated with the BougieCap for esophageal strictures (esophageal diameter, ≤14 mm) and stricture-related symptoms. Symptoms were assessed before and 2 weeks after a single dilation session using the validated Eosinophilic Esophagitis Activity Index Patient Reported Outcomes instrument (score ranges from 0 to 100 points).

Results: Fifty patients (70% men; median age, 41 years; median disease duration, 4 years; 50% treated with swallowed topical corticosteroids, 10% with proton pump inhibitors, 14% with combined swallowed topical corticosteroids plus proton pump inhibitors, 14% with elimination diet, 12% without antieosinophil therapy) were evaluated. Endoscopic bougienage was technically successful in 100%. The median esophageal diameter increased from 12 mm (interquartile range [IQR], 12-13) to 16 mm (IQR, 16-16; P < .001). Median symptom severity dropped from 32 points (IQR, 27-41) to 0 (IQR, 0-10; P < .001) at 2 weeks postdilation. In 1 patient the BougieCap was temporarily lost after stricture dilation in the hypopharynx but could be retrieved. No severe adverse events were reported.

Conclusions: In adults with EoE, endoscopic treatment of esophageal strictures using the BougieCap is technically feasible and safe and offers significant symptomatic improvement in the short term.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gie.2021.05.017DOI Listing
May 2021

[Advances in gastroenterology and hepatology 2020].

Rev Med Suisse 2021 Jan;17(720-1):29-32

Service de gastroentérologie et d'hépatologie, CHUV, Université de Lausanne, 1011 Lausanne.

The year 2020 has been dominated by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, with important lessons learned also in gastroenterology and hepatology. Major advances, however, have also been made in other areas, a selection of which is highlighted in this article.
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January 2021

Impact of obesity on disease activity and disease outcome in inflammatory bowel disease: Results from the Swiss inflammatory bowel disease cohort.

United European Gastroenterol J 2020 12;8(10):1196-1207

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of obesity on disease activity and disease outcome in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

Patients And Methods: The impact of obesity on inflammatory bowel disease disease activity and outcome was retrospectively assessed in 3075 patients enrolled in the prospective nation-wide Swiss inflammatory bowel disease cohort between July 2006 and September 2018. Baseline characteristics, disease activity and disease course in 325 obese inflammatory bowel disease patients (body mass index ≥30 kg/m) were compared to 1725 normal weight inflammatory bowel disease individuals (body mass index 18.5-24.9).

Results: Among 3075 patients in the prospective Swiss inflammatory bowel disease cohort, 325 patients (10.6%) were obese, namely, 194 Crohn's disease patients, 131 ulcerative colitis, and inflammatory bowel disease-unclassified patients. Disease activity scores were elevated in obese Crohn's disease (Crohn's Disease Activity Index 33 vs 20,  = 0.001), but not ulcerative colitis patients. Obese Crohn's disease, but not ulcerative colitis patients were less likely to be in remission based on a Crohn's Disease Activity Index less than 100 and a calprotectin less than 100 ug/g. In a multivariate regression model, obesity was negatively associated with disease remission in Crohn's disease (odds ratio 0.610, 95% confidence interval 0.402-0.926,  = 0.020), but not ulcerative colitis. Increased soft stool frequency was observed in both obese Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis patients. Adjusted Cox regression models revealed increased risk of complicated disease course in obese Crohn's disease patients (hazard ratio 1.197, 95% confidence interval 1.046-1.370,  = 0.009). No association between obesity and disease progression, index treatment failure was seen neither in Crohn's disease nor ulcerative colitis.

Conclusion: Obesity is associated with decreased rates of disease remission and increased risk of complicated disease course in Crohn's disease over a six-year follow-up period. No effects were seen on disease progression and index treatment failure neither in Crohn's disease nor ulcerative colitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2050640620954556DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7724522PMC
December 2020

Increasing Incidence of Microscopic Colitis in a Population-Based Cohort Study in Switzerland.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 10 14;19(10):2205-2206. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Microscopic colitis (MC) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the colon that presents with chronic, nonbloody watery diarrhea and only few or no endoscopic abnormalities. Histologic examination discriminates lymphocytic colitis (LyC; presence of ≥20 intraepithelial lymphocytes per 100 surface epithelial cells) and collagenous colitis (CC; colonic subepithelial collagen band >10 μm in diameter). MC not otherwise specified describes a subgroup of patients who do not fulfill the diagnostic criteria for either CC or LyC. Population-based epidemiologic data regarding MC are scarce. We aimed to evaluate the clinical presentation at diagnosis, incidence, and prevalence of MC in Cantons of Vaud and Fribourg, Switzerland.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2020.10.015DOI Listing
October 2021

Dilation Modifies Association Between Symptoms and Esophageal Eosinophilia in Adult Patients With Eosinophilic Esophagitis.

Am J Gastroenterol 2020 12;115(12):2098-2102

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Center for Esophageal Diseases and Swallowing, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.

Introduction: We investigated whether dilation modifies the association between symptoms and esophageal eosinophilia (peak esophageal eosinophils/high-power field [eos/hpf]) in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis enrolled into a randomized trial comparing the efficacy of budesonide and fluticasone.

Methods: Baseline Dysphagia Symptom Questionnaire and Eosinophilic Esophagitis Activity Index were available in 102 and 73 patients, respectively, of whom 56 and 39 underwent dilation at screening endoscopy before symptom assessment. The pair-wise relationship between Dysphagia Symptom Questionnaire, Eosinophilic Esophagitis Activity Index, and eos/hpf was analyzed with nonparametric correlations.

Results: In nondilated patients, the association between baseline eos/hpf and symptoms was moderate and significant, although it was abolished in dilated patients.

Discussion: Dilation modifies association between symptoms and eos/hpf (clinicaltrials.gov NCT02019758).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14309/ajg.0000000000000957DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7710608PMC
December 2020

Follow-Up Ileocolonoscopy Is Underused in Crohn's Disease Patients after Ileocecal Resection despite Higher Total and Inpatient Health-Care Costs Compared to Controls.

Inflamm Intest Dis 2020 Aug 26;5(3):100-108. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Health Sciences, Helsana Group, Zurich, Switzerland.

Background: Postoperative recurrence is frequently observed after ileocecal resection in Crohn's disease (CD) patients. Since 2010, endoscopy within 1 year is considered the gold standard for its diagnosis. However, if and how frequent such endoscopies are performed in clinical practice remains unknown.

Methods: We analyzed 1-year follow-up data on CD patients who underwent ileocecal resection between 2012 and 2014 and compared them with hospitalized, non-resected CD controls. Data were extracted from the Helsana database. Helsana is one of the largest Swiss health insurance companies providing coverage for 1.2 million individuals.

Results: A total of 645 CD patients were identified with ≥1 hospitalization between 2012 and 2014 and a follow-up of 1 year. Of these, 79 (12.2%) underwent ileocecal resection. Although endoscopy rates increased over time and were higher in patients with resection versus controls ( = 0.029), in only 54.4% a 1-year follow-up ileocolonoscopy was performed. Postoperative prophylaxis with anti-tumor necrosis factor or azathioprine was prescribed in 63.3%. Female sex and age >60 years were independent predictors for not receiving prophylaxis (odds ratio [OR] 0.36, = 0.048, and OR 0.2, = 0.022). Patients with resection had significantly lower numbers of rehospitalizations (1.2 vs. 1.8, = 0.021), with resection being an independent negative predictor for number of rehospitalizations in a Poisson regression model (incident risk ratio 0.64, = 0.029). However, disease-related surgery was more often the cause for rehospitalization after resection versus controls (47.6 vs. 22.1%, = 0.015). Total and inpatient health-care costs were higher in these patients.

Conclusion: Endoscopies are underused after ileocecal resection. This contrasts current guidelines. Physicians should be aware of this underuse and perform follow-up examinations more often.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000507115DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7506201PMC
August 2020

Emerging treatment options for extraintestinal manifestations in IBD.

Gut 2021 Apr 26;70(4):796-802. Epub 2020 Aug 26.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland

Extraintestinal manifestations (EIMs) are frequently observed in IBDs and contribute considerably to morbidity and mortality. They have long been considered a difficult to treat entity due to limited therapy options, but the increasing use of anti-tumour necrosis factors has dramatically changed the therapeutic approach to EIM in recent years. Newly emerging therapies such as JAK inhibitors and anti-interleukin 12/23 will further shape the available armamentarium. Clinicians dealing with EIMs in everyday IBD practice may be puzzled by the numerous available biological agents and small molecules, their efficacy for EIMs and their potential off-label indications. Current guidelines on EIMs in IBD do not include treatment algorithms to help practitioners in the treatment decision-making process. Herein, we summarise knowledge on emerging biological treatment options and small molecules for EIMs, highlight current research gaps, provide therapeutic algorithms for EIM management and shed light on future strategies in the context of IBD-related EIMs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2020-322129DOI Listing
April 2021

Effectiveness and Safety of High- vs Low-Dose Swallowed Topical Steroids for Maintenance Treatment of Eosinophilic Esophagitis: A Multicenter Observational Study.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020 Aug 13. Epub 2020 Aug 13.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Background & Aims: Data evaluating efficacy of different doses of swallowed topical corticosteroids (STC) in the long-term management of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) are lacking. We assessed long-term effectiveness and safety of different STC doses for adults with EoE after achievement of histological remission.

Methods: We performed a retrospective multicenter study at five EoE referral centers (US and Switzerland). We analyzed data on 82 patients with EoE in histological remission and ongoing STC treatment with therapeutic adherence of ≥75% (58 males; mean age at diagnosis, 37.2±14.4 years). Patients were followed for a median of 2.2 years (interquartile range [IQR], 1.0-3.8 years). We collected data from 217 follow-up endoscopy visits. The primary endpoint was time to histological relapse.

Results: Histological relapse occurred in 67% of patients. Relapse rates were comparable in patients taking low dose (≤0.5 mg per day, n = 58) and high dose STC (>0.5 mg per day, n = 24) with 72 vs 54% (ns). However, histological relapse occurred significantly earlier with low dose STC (1.0 vs 1.8 years, P = .030). There was no difference regarding rates of and time to stricture formation for low vs high dose STC. Esophageal candidiasis was observed in 6% of patients (5% for low dose, 8% for high dose, ns). No dysplasia or mucosal atrophy was detected.

Conclusion: Histological relapse frequently occurs in EoE despite ongoing STC treatment regardless of STC doses. However, relapse develops later in patients on high dose STC without an increase in side-effects. Doses higher than 0.5 mg/day may be considered for EoE maintenance treatment, but advantage over lower doses appears to be small.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2020.08.027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8108396PMC
August 2020

Treatment Algorithm for Mild and Moderate-to-Severe Ulcerative Colitis: An Update.

Digestion 2020 16;101 Suppl 1:2-15. Epub 2020 Jan 16.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Clarunis, Basel, Switzerland.

Background: Patient care in ulcerative colitis (UC) remains challenging despite an array of established treatment options and emerging new therapies. The management of UC therapy should be guided by the endoscopic extent of inflammation, disease severity, and prognostic factors of poor outcome. Complete remission, defined as durable symptomatic and endoscopic remission without corticosteroid therapy, is the desired treatment goal.

Summary: This review focuses on treatment recommendations for different clinical scenarios in moderate-to-severe UC: Active UC of any extent not responding to aminosalicylates, steroid-dependent UC, steroid-refractory UC, immunomodulator-refractory UC, and acute severe UC. Comprehensive treatment algorithms for daily clinical practice were developed based on published guidelines and current literature. Key Messages: While current treatment options including a number of biologicals and small molecules have evolved UC treatment to achieve sustained remission in a majority of patients, upcoming treatment options with different molecular pathways and different modes of actions will further increase the need for personalized medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000504092DOI Listing
August 2021

Management of the Elderly Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patient.

Digestion 2020 14;101 Suppl 1:105-119. Epub 2020 Jan 14.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasingly diagnosed among elderly persons (older than 60 years). Epidemiological studies show that late-onset IBD is characterized by predominance of colonic disease, milder disease course, and less frequent occurrence of extraintestinal manifestations. However, due to comorbidities, polypharmacy and reduced resistance to severe disease course elderly patients have an increased risk of mortality. Drug treatment generally follows the same algorithms as in the younger IBD patients. This is challenging for the treating physician as this population is usually underrepresented in clinical trials and treatment outcomes as well as safety data on the elderly population are scarce. Choice of drugs should consider risk of infections, skin cancer, lymphoma, and metabolic as well as cardiovascular side effects. Considering comorbidities, surgical interventions such as colectomy with ileo-anal pouch anastomosis for refractory ulcerative colitis can be performed safely provided that the anal sphincter function is adequately maintained. Special attention should be given in this age group to general health issues, including nutrition, vaccination, bone, muscle, and mental health as well as colorectal and skin cancer screening.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000503099DOI Listing
August 2021

Update on the Management of Inflammatory Bowel Disease during Pregnancy and Breastfeeding.

Digestion 2020 8;101 Suppl 1:27-42. Epub 2020 Jan 8.

Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) affects patients during their peak reproductive years. This raises important questions, in both patients and healthcare providers, regarding conception, pregnancy, and breastfeeding. Lack of information and insufficient communication among healthcare providers can leave patients with limited information and even contradictory advice. Given the fact that pregnant and/or breastfeeding IBD patients are excluded from clinical studies the evidence on many questions related to pregnancy and postpartum period is limited. However, there exists increasing data from case series and cohort studies that allows to provide clinical guidance. The overarching concept is that optimizing the mother's health is critical for optimizing the health of the unborn child and benefit of continuing medical therapy in IBD during pregnancy outweighs possible risks in most instances. This paper provides an up-to-date systematic review of the literature on IBD in pregnancy and proposes guidance to questions frequently encountered by healthcare professionals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000502886DOI Listing
August 2021

Systematic Assessment of Adult Patients' Satisfaction with Various Eosinophilic Esophagitis Therapies.

Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2020 19;181(3):211-220. Epub 2019 Dec 19.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland,

Background And Aims: The treatment options for eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) patients include drugs (proton pump inhibitors [PPIs], swallowed topical corticosteroids [STCs]), elimination diets, and dilation. Given the lack of data, we aimed to assess adult EoE patients' satisfaction with different EoE-specific treatment modalities.

Patients And Methods: We evaluated therapy satisfaction recalled over a 12-month period using the validated Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication that assesses effectiveness, side effects, convenience, and overall satisfaction. The score for each scale ranges from 0 (dissatisfied) to 100 (satisfied). To evaluate satisfaction with nonpharmacologic therapies, the questionnaire was modified and debriefed into three focus groups. The final questionnaire was sent to 147 patients.

Results: The patient response rate was 74%. In the last 12 months, 24, 75, 19, and 9% were treated with PPIs, STCs, elimination diet, and dilation, respectively. Patients identified the following considerations as important for therapy choice: effect on symptoms (89%), effect on esophageal inflammation (76%), side effects (69%), and ease of use (58%). Patients found STCs to be effective (83 points), convenient (83 points), and experienced no side effects when using this therapy. When using STCs alone (43%), overall patient satisfaction was high (86 points). Patients judged PPIs to be most convenient (89 points), STCs to be a bit less convenient (83 points), and diet to be most inconvenient (46 points) of the three therapies examined.

Conclusions: Adult EoE patients consider both therapy effect on symptoms and esophageal inflammation as important criteria when choosing EoE therapy and appear to be satisfied with STC use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000504846DOI Listing
May 2020

Lower Risk of B1-to-pB3-Stage Migration in Crohn's Disease Upon Immunosuppressive and Anti-TNF Treatment in the Swiss IBD Cohort Study.

Dig Dis Sci 2020 09 3;65(9):2654-2663. Epub 2019 Dec 3.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Gastroenterology, University Hospital Zurich (USZ), University of Zurich, Rämistrasse 100, 8091, Zurich, Switzerland.

Background: While the long-term evolution of disease behavior in Crohn's disease has been well described in the pre-anti-TNF era, our knowledge thereon remains scarce after the introduction of anti-TNF.

Aims: Our investigation examined the long-term evolution of disease concerning Montreal classification's B-stages over time in patients enrolled into the Swiss IBD Cohort Study between 2006 and 2017.

Methods: We analyzed prospectively collected SIBDCS data using a Markov model and multivariate testing for effects of treatment and other confounders on B-stage migration over time. The primary outcome was a transition in disease behavior from B1 to either B2 or pB3, or from B2 to pB3, respectively.

Results: The 10- and 15-year probability of remaining in B1 was 0.61 and 0.48, as opposed to a probability to migrate to B2 or B3 of 0.25 or 0.14, and 0.32 or 0.2, after 10 and 15 years, respectively. In multivariate testing, the hazard ratio for migrating from B1 to pB3 (HR 0.27) and from B2 to pB3 (HR 0.12) was lower in patients > 40 years compared to patients < 17 years. We found that immunosuppression (HR 0.38) and treatment with anti-TNF for > 1 year (HR 0.30) were associated with a decreased likelihood of transitioning from stage B1 to pB3.

Conclusions: While in the anti-TNF era most patients with Crohn's disease will eventually develop stricturing and/or penetrating complications, our data indicate that immunosuppressive and anti-TNF treatment for more than 1 year reduce the risk of transitioning from stage B1 to pB3 in the long-term run.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10620-019-05978-9DOI Listing
September 2020

Real-World Data on Topical Therapies and Annual Health Resource Utilization in Hospitalized Swiss Patients with Ulcerative Colitis.

Inflamm Intest Dis 2019 Oct 7;4(4):144-153. Epub 2019 Aug 7.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois/CHUV and University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Objectives: Topical treatment with aminosalicylates and/or budesonide was shown to be highly effective in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), while reducing the likelihood of systemic adverse effects. However, previous research has shown that topical treatment is clearly underused. We aimed to evaluate the use of topical therapy in the real-world setting.

Methods: This is an observational study based on claims data of 201 Swiss adult patients who were hospitalized for UC between 2012 and 2014 and who were then followed for 1 year. A variety of factors presumably associated with topical treatment were examined. Annual health care utilization (UC-related medications, diagnostic procedures, consultations, and rehospitalizations) of patients with versus without topical therapy was compared.

Results: Of the 201 hospitalized UC patients, 82 (40.8%) were treated with topical 5-acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and/or topical rectal steroids. The main factors significantly and positively associated with receiving topical treatment were the use of topical treatment in the year prior to the hospitalization, receiving oral 5-ASA, and living in an urban area. The mode of administration was further related to the language area. Patients with topical therapy significantly more often received other UC-related medications, such as combinations with systemic steroids. They significantly more often underwent colonoscopies and calprotectin measurements, and more often consulted a gastroenterologist in the follow-up, while there was no significant difference regarding rehospitalizations.

Conclusions: Topical treatment is underused in patients with UC, which stands in contrast to the current European Crohn's and Colitis Organization guidelines. Patients' preferences and considerations need to be taken into account when prescribing medical therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000502205DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6873052PMC
October 2019

Efficacy of Dupilumab in a Phase 2 Randomized Trial of Adults With Active Eosinophilic Esophagitis.

Gastroenterology 2020 01 5;158(1):111-122.e10. Epub 2019 Oct 5.

Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc, Tarrytown, New York.

Background & Aims: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an allergen-mediated inflammatory disease with no approved treatment in the United States. Dupilumab, a VelocImmune-derived human monoclonal antibody against the interleukin (IL) 4 receptor, inhibits IL4 and IL13 signaling. Dupilumab is effective in the treatment of allergic, atopic, and type 2 diseases, so we assessed its efficacy and safety in patients with EoE.

Methods: We performed a phase 2 study of adults with active EoE (2 episodes of dysphagia/week with peak esophageal eosinophil density of 15 or more eosinophils per high-power field), from May 12, 2015, through November 9, 2016, at 14 sites. Participants were randomly assigned to groups that received weekly subcutaneous injections of dupilumab (300 mg, n = 23) or placebo (n = 24) for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was change from baseline to week 10 in Straumann Dysphagia Instrument (SDI) patient-reported outcome (PRO) score. We also assessed histologic features of EoE (peak esophageal intraepithelial eosinophil count and EoE histologic scores), endoscopically visualized features (endoscopic reference score), esophageal distensibility, and safety.

Results: The mean SDI PRO score was 6.4 when the study began. In the dupilumab group, SDI PRO scores were reduced by a mean value of 3.0 at week 10 compared with a mean reduction of 1.3 in the placebo group (P = .0304). At week 12, dupilumab reduced the peak esophageal intraepithelial eosinophil count by a mean 86.8 eosinophils per high-power field (reduction of 107.1%; P < .0001 vs placebo), the EoE-histologic scoring system (HSS) severity score by 68.3% (P < .0001 vs placebo), and the endoscopic reference score by 1.6 (P = .0006 vs placebo). Dupilumab increased esophageal distensibility by 18% vs placebo (P < .0001). Higher proportions of patients in the dupilumab group developed injection-site erythema (35% vs 8% in the placebo group) and nasopharyngitis (17% vs 4% in the placebo group).

Conclusions: In a phase 2 trial of patients with active EoE, dupilumab reduced dysphagia, histologic features of disease (including eosinophilic infiltration and a marker of type 2 inflammation), and abnormal endoscopic features compared with placebo. Dupilumab increased esophageal distensibility and was generally well tolerated. ClinicalTrials.gov, Number: NCT02379052.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2019.09.042DOI Listing
January 2020

Reply.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019 10;17(11):2385-2386

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2019.04.054DOI Listing
October 2019

Therapeutic Drug Monitoring to Guide Clinical Decision Making in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients with Loss of Response to Anti-TNF: A Delphi Technique-Based Consensus.

Digestion 2020 28;101(6):683-691. Epub 2019 Aug 28.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland,

Background: Loss of response is frequently encountered in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) treated with antitumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) and antidrug antibody measurement are increasingly used in this setting.

Methods: To establish a consensus on the use of TDM in the context of loss of response to anti-TNFs, we performed a vote using a Delphi-style process followed by an expert panel discussion among 8 IBD specialists practicing in Switzerland, Europe. Statements were rated on an even Likert-scale ranging from 1 (strong disagreement) to 4 (strong agreement), based on expert opinion and the available literature.

Results: The experts agreed on the following statements: (i) loss of response is associated with inadequate drug levels in both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis; (ii) best timepoint for measuring drug levels is prior to the next application (= trough levels) with different thresholds for anti-TNF agents (infliximab 5 μg/mL, adalimumab 8 μg/mL, certolizumab pegol 10 μg/mL); (iii) antidrug antibodies are predictive for loss of response; and (iv) antidrug-antibody titers and drug trough levels are key determinants in the treatment algorithm. Data about non-anti-TNF biologics were considered too limited to propose recommendations.

Conclusion: A Delphi-style consensus among 8 IBD experts shows that TDM and measurement of antidrug-antibody titers are useful in the context of loss of response to anti-TNF. Optimal cutoff levels depend on the type of anti-TNF. These values are critical in the decision making process. More studies are needed to address the value of such measurements for non-anti-TNF biologics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000501930DOI Listing
July 2021

Early Initiation of Anti-TNF is Associated with Favourable Long-term Outcome in Crohn's Disease: 10-Year-Follow-up Data from the Swiss IBD Cohort Study.

J Crohns Colitis 2019 Sep;13(10):1292-1301

Department of Gastroenterology, University Hospital Zurich [USZ] and University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Background And Aims: The optimal timing of treatment escalation in Crohn's disease [CD] remains a challenging issue, and very little is known about its long-term development following early versus late administration of anti-TNF antibodies. The long-term outcome of Swiss CD patients was comparatively assessed in an up to 10-year follow-up, using patients participating in the Swiss Inflammatory Bowel Disease Cohort Study [SIBDCS].

Methods: Prospectively collected SIBDCS patient data, including disease history, baseline characteristics at enrolment, and course of disease, were analysed in patients with early versus late [<24 versus ≥24 months after diagnosis] and no anti-TNF treatment.

Results: A reduced risk of developing bowel stenosis was found in patients who received early anti-TNF treatment. This association was seen in patients overall and also in the subgroups of CD patients without pre-existing complications [Log-rank test: p < 0.001].Furthermore, osteoporosis and anaemia were observed significantly less frequently in patients who received early anti-TNF treatment, compared with either patients who received treatment late [p < 0.001 and p = 0.046, respectively] or were never [p < 0.001 for both] treated with anti-TNF antibodies. Patients with early anti-TNF administration sought medical consultations significantly less often, including gastroenterologists in private practice [p = 0.017], ambulatory [outpatient] hospital visits [p = 0.038], and a composite of any medical visits [p = 0.001]. The percentage of patients unable to work was lowest for early-anti-TNF-treated patients, in comparison with patients who were treated late or never [3.6% vs 8.8% vs 3.7%, p = 0.016].

Conclusions: In CD patients within the SIBDCS, early anti-TNF administration was found to be associated with several indicators of a more favourable long-term outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjz057DOI Listing
September 2019

Symptom-based patient-reported outcomes in adults with eosinophilic esophagitis: value for treatment monitoring and randomized controlled trial design.

Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2019 04;19(2):169-174

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois/CHUV, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Purpose Of Review: In adults with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), a chronic, inflammatory immune-mediated condition of the esophagus, both inflammation and fibrosis are likely associated with symptom generation. Therefore, assessing symptom-based patient-reported outcomes (PROs), defined by US Food and Drug Administration as 'any report of the status of a patient's health condition that comes directly from the patients, without interpretation of the patient's response by a clinician or anyone else', is important in the context of trials and observational studies of emerging therapies.

Recent Findings: For purposes of treatment monitoring, lack of symptoms does not predict the absence of biologic inflammation; hence, endoscopy with esophageal biopsies should be performed to check for residual inflammation. Lack of inflammation does not predict lack of symptoms, and the presence of subepithelial fibrosis cannot be excluded. No published instrument currently measures the frequency of dysphagia described all possible ways, strategies of living with this symptom and various pain types. In randomized controlled trials, in which symptom response was detected using validated PRO measures, only modest decreases in symptom scores were observed.

Summary: Accessing full EoE symptom spectrum and optimizing PRO measures remains a challenge that should be tackled to reliably assess response to existing and emerging therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACI.0000000000000514DOI Listing
April 2019

Variation in Endoscopic Activity Assessment and Endoscopy Score Validation in Adults With Eosinophilic Esophagitis.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019 07 23;17(8):1477-1488.e10. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

Background & Aims: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is assessed endoscopically (endoscopic activity), based on grades of edema, rings, exudates, furrows, and strictures (EREFS). We examined variations in endoscopic assessments of severity, developed and validated 3 EREFS-based scoring systems, and assessed responsiveness of these systems using data from a randomized placebo-controlled trial of patients with EoE.

Methods: For the development set, 5 gastroenterologists reviewed EREFS findings from 266 adults with EoE and provided endoscopist global assessment scores (EndoGA, scale of 0 to 10); variation (ΔEndoGA) was assessed using linear regression. We evaluated simple scores (features given arbitrary values from 0 to 3) and developed 2 scoring systems (adjusted score range, 0-100). We then fitted our linear regression model with mean EndoGA to data from 146 adults recruited in centers in Switzerland and the United States between April 2011 and December 2012. For the validation set, we collected data from 120 separate adults (recruited in centers in Switzerland and the United States between May 2013 and July 2014), assessing regression coefficient-based scores using Bland-Altman method. We assessed the responsiveness of our scoring systems using data from a randomized trial of patients with EoE given fluticasone (n=16) or placebo (n=8).

Results: The distribution of EndoGA values differed among endoscopists (mean ΔEndoGA, 2.6±1.8; range 0-6.6). We developed 2 regression-based scoring systems to assess overall and proximal and distal esophageal findings; variation in endoscopic features accounted for more than 90% of the mean EndoGA variation. In the validation group, differences between mean EndoGA and regression-based scores were small (ranging from -4.70 to 2.03), indicating good agreement. In analyses of data from the randomized trial, the baseline to end of study change in patients given fluticasone was a reduction of 24.3 in simple score (reduction of 4.6 in patients given placebo, P=.052); a reduction of 23.5 in regression-based overall score (reduction of 6.56 in patients given placebo, P=.12), and a reduction of 23.8 (reduction of 8.44 in patients given placebo, P=.11).

Conclusion: Assessments of endoscopic activity in patients with EoE vary among endoscopists. In an analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial, we found that newly developed scoring systems are no better than simple scoring system in detecting changes in endoscopic activity. These results support the use of a simple scoring system in evaluation of endoscopic activity in patients with EoE. clinicaltrials.gov no: NCT00939263 and NCT01386112.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2018.11.032DOI Listing
July 2019

RPC4046, a Monoclonal Antibody Against IL13, Reduces Histologic and Endoscopic Activity in Patients With Eosinophilic Esophagitis.

Gastroenterology 2019 02 2;156(3):592-603.e10. Epub 2018 Nov 2.

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic, esophageal, type 2 inflammatory response associated with increased serum levels of interleukin 13 (IL13), which might contribute to its pathogenesis. RPC4046, a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody against IL13, prevents its binding to the receptor subunits IL13RA1 and IL13RA2. We performed a phase 2 trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of RPC4046 in patients with EoE.

Methods: We performed a multicenter, double-blind trial of 99 adults with active EoE randomly assigned (1:1:1) to groups given RPC4046 (180 or 360 mg) or placebo once weekly for 16 weeks, from September 2014 through December 2015. Patients were seen at day 1 (baseline) and weeks 2, 4, 8, 12, and 16. They underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy and biopsies were collected at baseline and week 16. Patients completed a daily dysphagia symptom diary through week 16 and patient-reported outcome data were collected. The primary outcome was change in mean esophageal eosinophil count in the 5 high-power fields (hpfs) with the highest level of inflammation.

Results: At week 16, mean changes in esophageal eosinophil count per hpf were a reduction of 94.8 ± 67.3 in patients who received 180 mg RPC4046 (P < .0001) and a reduction of 99.9 ± 79.5 in patients who received 360 mg RPC4046 (P < .0001) compared with a reduction of 4.4 ± 59.9 in patients who received placebo. The 360-mg RPC4046 group, compared with the placebo group, showed significant reductions in validated endoscopic severity score at all esophageal locations (P < .0001), validated histologic grade and stage scores (both P < .0001), and clinician's global assessment of disease severity (P = .0352); they had a numerical reduction in scores from the dysphagia symptom diary (P = .0733). Significant reductions in esophageal eosinophil counts and histologic and endoscopic features were observed in patients with steroid-refractory EoE who received RPC4046. The most common adverse events were headache and upper respiratory tract infection.

Conclusions: In a phase 2 trial of patients with EoE, we found RPC4046 (a monoclonal antibody against IL13) to reduce histologic and endoscopic features compared with placebo. RPC4046 was well tolerated. ClinicalTrials.gov no: NCT02098473.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2018.10.051DOI Listing
February 2019

Assessment of endoscopic Doppler to guide hemostasis in high risk peptic ulcer bleeding.

Scand J Gastroenterol 2018 Oct - Nov;53(10-11):1311-1318. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

a Clinic for Internal Medicine IV (Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Infectious Diseases) , Jena University Hospital , Jena , Germany.

Introduction: Rebleeding or emergency surgery in failed endoscopic therapy of peptic ulcer bleeding are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. The clinical benefit of an endoscopic Doppler (ED) examination prior to endoscopic injection therapy was evaluated in high risk ulcer patients for rebleeding episode. Standard injection therapy (non-Doppler (ND)) was compared with targeted injection therapy after examination of the supplying vessel in the ulcer base by the ED.

Materials And Methods: Sixty patients with peptic ulcer bleeding (Forrest Ia-IIa; Rockall score of 5 or higher) were included in the study. Patients were assigned to ED or ND group with conventional therapy by chance. In the ND group injection was directed by the visual aspect of the ulcer, whereas in ED therapy was directed by ED.

Results: Thirty-five patients were allocated to the ED group, and 25 to the ND group, respectively. No significant differences in patient or ulcer characteristics were observed regarding ulcer size, localization, Forrest classification or endoscopic treatment. Recurrent bleeding was observed in 7/35 (20%) in the ED group and in 13/25 (52%) of patients in the ND group (p = .013). Fewer ED patients needed surgery for rebleeding (1/35 vs. 6/25; p = .017). Bleeding related, but not all-cause mortality was significantly lower in the ED group (1/35 vs. 6/25, p = .017).

Discussion: In this comparative analysis, use of ED to guide hemostatic therapy was associated with a significant reduction in recurrence of bleeding, surgical intervention and bleeding associated mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00365521.2018.1509121DOI Listing
April 2019

Adults with eosinophilic oesophagitis identify symptoms and quality of life as the most important outcomes.

Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2018 11;48(10):1082-1090

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV), Lausanne, Switzerland.

Background: Well informed patients who are in cohesive partnership with physicians and who have realistic expectations towards therapy are more likely to be adherent, which results in better disease control.

Aim: To assess which therapy goals adults with eosinophilic oesophagitis consider relevant.

Methods: Following refinement during three focus groups, a study brochure and questionnaire were sent to 148 patients. Patients ranked the importance (five levels) of short-term (in the next 3 months) and long-term (≥1 year) treatment effect on symptoms, quality of life (QoL), histologically-detected inflammation and fibrosis, endoscopically-detected inflammation, and stricture formation as well as achieving histological remission while asymptomatic. Patients' characteristics associated with treatment goals were identified using logistic regression.

Results: Of 109 respondents (mean age 43 years), 85 were men. Over 90% chose symptoms and QoL improvement as important short- and long-term therapy goals. A greater proportion attributed more importance to long-term reduction in endoscopic (90% vs 73%, P < 0.001) and histological (81% vs 62%, P = 0.002) inflammation, and histologically-detected fibrosis (79% vs 64%, P = 0.018) when compared to short-term reduction in these features. Patients (88%) ranked achieving histological remission while being asymptomatic as important. Gender, therapy use, education level, QoL, symptom severity, and history of dilation were associated with patients' choice of treatment goals.

Conclusions: Patients attributed most importance to improvement in symptoms and QoL. Reduction in biological activity was judged less important, but more relevant in the long- compared to the short-term.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apt.15000DOI Listing
November 2018

Malignancies in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Frequency, Incidence and Risk Factors-Results from the Swiss IBD Cohort Study.

Am J Gastroenterol 2019 01;114(1):116-126

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Background: Malignancy may occur as long-term complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) due to different risk factors. We assessed prevalence and incidence of malignancy, and predictive factors in the Swiss IBD Cohort Study (SIBDCS).

Methods: All IBD patients in the SIBDCS were analyzed from a cross-sectional and longitudinal perspective. Patients with malignancies were compared to controls. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) were calculated based on age-specific and sex-specific background rates.

Results: Malignancies were identified in 122 of 3119 patients (3.9%). In a logistic regression model, age (OR 1.04 per year), intestinal surgery (OR 3.34), and treatment with steroids (OR 2.10) were the main predictors for the presence of malignancy, while treatment with 5-ASA (OR 0.57) and biologics (OR 0.38) were protective. From a longitudinal perspective, 67 out of 2580 patients (2.6%) were newly diagnosed with malignancy during a follow-up of 12,420.8 years (median 4.9 years). While there was no increased risk for malignancy overall (SIR 0.93, 95% CI 0.72-1.18) and colorectal cancer (SIR 1.55, 95% CI 0.71-2.95), IBD patients had an increased risk for lymphoma (SIR 2.98, 95% CI 1.36-5.66) and biliary cancer (SIR 6.3, 95% CI 1.27-18.41). In a Cox regression model, age and recent use of immunomodulators were the main predictors for development of malignancies, while 5-ASA, biologics were protective.

Conclusions: IBD patients showed increased risk for lymphoma and biliary cancer, but not colorectal cancer and cancer overall. Age and recent use of immunomodulators were the main risk factors for malignancy, while aminosalicylates and biologics appear to be protective.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41395-018-0360-9DOI Listing
January 2019

Upper Gastrointestinal Tract Involvement in Crohn's Disease: Frequency, Risk Factors, and Disease Course.

J Crohns Colitis 2018 Nov;12(12):1399-1409

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Hospital Lausanne - CHUV, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Background: The frequency of upper gastrointestinal [GI] tract involvement in Crohn`s disease [CD] has been reported with a large variation. Risk factors and disease course of patients with upper GI tract involvement remain largely elusive.

Methods: Data on CD patients in the Swiss Inflammatory Bowel Disease Cohort were analysed. Patients with upper GI tract involvement were compared with controls. Logistic regression models for prediction of upper GI tract involvement and Cox proportional hazard models for occurrence of complications were computed.

Results: We included 1638 CD patients, of whom 107 [6.5%] presented with upper GI tract involvement at the time of diagnosis and 214 [13.1%] at any time. Prevalence of such involvement at diagnosis increased over time [5.1% for 1955-95 versus 11.3% for 2009-16]. In a multivariate logistic regression model, male sex and diagnosis between 2009 and 2016 [versus before 1995] were independent predictors for presence of upper GI tract involvement at CD diagnosis (odds ratio [OR] 1.600, p = 0.021 and OR 2.686, p < 0.001, respectively), whereas adult age was a negative predictor [OR 0.388, p = 0.001]. Patients with upper GI tract involvement showed a disease course similar to control patients (hazard ratio [HR] for any complications 0.887, (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.409-1.920), and a trend towards occurrence of fewer intestinal fistulas [log-rank test p = 0.054].

Conclusions: Prevalence of upper GI tract involvement has been increasing over the past decades. Male sex and young age at diagnosis were identified as the main predictive factors for such involvement at CD diagnosis. Involvement of upper GI tract did not result in a worse outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjy121DOI Listing
November 2018
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