Publications by authors named "Alaa Ghamrawy"

2 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

How accurate is the diagnosis of rheumatic fever in Egypt? Data from the national rheumatic heart disease prevention and control program (2006-2018).

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2020 08 17;14(8):e0008558. Epub 2020 Aug 17.

Department of Tropical Health, High Institute of Public Health, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt.

Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) as a chronic sequela of repeated episodes of acute rheumatic fever (ARF), remains a cause of cardiac morbidity in Egypt although it is given full attention through a national RHD prevention and control program. The present report reviews our experience with subjects presenting with ARF or its sequelae in a single RHD centre and describes the disease pattern over the last decade. A cross-sectional study was conducted in El-Mahalla RHD centre between 2006 and 2018. A total of 17014 individual were enrolled and evaluated. Diagnosis ARF was based on the 2015 revised Jones criteria and RHD was ruled in by echocardiography. The majority of the screened subjects were female (63.2%), in the age group 5-15 years (64.6%), rural residents (61.2%), had primary education (43.0%), and of low socioeconomic standard (50.2%). The total percentage of cases presenting with ARF sequelae was 29.3% [carditis/RHD (10.8%), rheumatic arthritis (Rh.A) (14.9%), and Sydenham's chorea (0.05%)]. Noticeably, 72% were free of any cardiac insult, of which 37.7% were victims of misdiagnoses made elsewhere by untrained practitioners who prescribed for them long term injectable long-acting penicillin [Benzathine Penicillin G (BPG)] without need. About 54% of the study cohort reported the occurrence of recurrent attacks of tonsillitis of which 65.2% underwent tonsillectomy. Among those who experienced tonsillectomy and/or received BPG in the past, 14.5% and 22.3% respectively had eventually developed RHD. Screening of family members of some RHD cases who needed cardiac surgery revealed 20.7% with undiagnosed ARF sequalae [RHD (56.0%) and Rh.A (52.2%)]. Upon the follow-up of RHD cases, 1.2% had improved, 98.4% were stable and 0.4% had their heart condition deteriorated. Misdiagnosis of ARF or its sequelae and poor compliance with BPG use may affect efforts being exerted to curtail the disease. Updating national guidelines, capacity building, and reliance on appropriate investigations should be emphasized. Since the genetic basis of RHD is literally confirmed, a family history of RHD warrants screening of all family members for early detection of the disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
August 2020

Trends in Deaths from Rheumatic Heart Disease in the Eastern Mediterranean Region: Burden and Challenges.

J Cardiovasc Dev Dis 2018 May 30;5(2). Epub 2018 May 30.

Department of Psychology, American University in Cairo, Fifth settlement, Cairo 11835, Egypt.

Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is a preventable disease that is prevalent in developing regions of the world. Its eradication from most of the developed world indicates that this disease can be controlled and eliminated. To conduct an in-depth analysis of the trends and challenges of controlling RHD in the Eastern Mediterranean region (EMR). Global data from the World Health Organization (WHO) data banks were retrieved for total deaths and age standardized death rate per 100,000 (ASDR) by age group, sex, and year (from 2000 to 2015). The data was compared with the five other WHO regions of the world. We also performed in-depth analysis by socio-economic groups in relation to other attributes in the region related to population growth, illiteracy, and nutritional status. Indicators of service delivery were correlated with ASDR from RHD. Prevalence of RHD in 2015 in the EMR region was one-third of that of the total deaths reported in the Asian and West Pacific regions. The total deaths for the region peaked twice: in early adulthood and again later in old age, and was higher in females than in males. There was a rising trend in deaths from RHD from 2000 to 2015. The highest total deaths were reported from Egypt, Pakistan, Iran, Afghanistan, and Yemen, representing 80% of the total death rates for the region (35,248). The highest ASDR was Afghanistan (27.5), followed by Yemen (18.78) and Egypt (15.59). The ASDR for RHD was highest in low income countries. It correlated highly, in all income groups, with anemia during pregnancy. Trends and patterns of deaths from RHD in the EMR have shifted to a later age group and are linked with poverty related to inequalities in development and service delivery for certain age groups and gender.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
May 2018