Publications by authors named "Ala Al-Fuqaha"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Visual Sentiment Analysis from Disaster Images in Social Media.

Sensors (Basel) 2022 May 10;22(10). Epub 2022 May 10.

SimulaMet, 0167 Oslo, Norway.

The increasing popularity of social networks and users' tendency towards sharing their feelings, expressions, and opinions in text, visual, and audio content have opened new opportunities and challenges in sentiment analysis. While sentiment analysis of text streams has been widely explored in the literature, sentiment analysis from images and videos is relatively new. This article focuses on visual sentiment analysis in a societally important domain, namely disaster analysis in social media. To this aim, we propose a deep visual sentiment analyzer for disaster-related images, covering different aspects of visual sentiment analysis starting from data collection, annotation, model selection, implementation, and evaluations. For data annotation and analyzing people's sentiments towards natural disasters and associated images in social media, a crowd-sourcing study has been conducted with a large number of participants worldwide. The crowd-sourcing study resulted in a large-scale benchmark dataset with four different sets of annotations, each aiming at a separate task. The presented analysis and the associated dataset, which is made public, will provide a baseline/benchmark for future research in the domain. We believe the proposed system can contribute toward more livable communities by helping different stakeholders, such as news broadcasters, humanitarian organizations, as well as the general public.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s22103628DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9146152PMC
May 2022

Biomedical IoT: Enabling Technologies, Architectural Elements, Challenges, and Future Directions.

IEEE Access 2022 14;10:31306-31339. Epub 2022 Mar 14.

School of Computing and Information Sciences, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199, USA.

This paper provides a comprehensive literature review of various technologies and protocols used for medical Internet of Things (IoT) with a thorough examination of current enabling technologies, use cases, applications, and challenges. Despite recent advances, medical IoT is still not considered a routine practice. Due to regulation, ethical, and technological challenges of biomedical hardware, the growth of medical IoT is inhibited. Medical IoT continues to advance in terms of biomedical hardware, and monitoring figures like vital signs, temperature, electrical signals, oxygen levels, cancer indicators, glucose levels, and other bodily levels. In the upcoming years, medical IoT is expected replace old healthcare systems. In comparison to other survey papers on this topic, our paper provides a thorough summary of the most relevant protocols and technologies specifically for medical IoT as well as the challenges. Our paper also contains several proposed frameworks and use cases of medical IoT in hospital settings as well as a comprehensive overview of previous architectures of IoT regarding the strengths and weaknesses. We hope to enable researchers of multiple disciplines, developers, and biomedical engineers to quickly become knowledgeable on how various technologies cooperate and how current frameworks can be modified for new use cases, thus inspiring more growth in medical IoT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2022.3159235DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9015691PMC
March 2022

Global User-Level Perception of COVID-19 Contact Tracing Applications: Data-Driven Approach Using Natural Language Processing.

JMIR Form Res 2022 May 11;6(5):e36238. Epub 2022 May 11.

Information and Computing Technology Division, College of Science and Engineering, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, Doha, Qatar.

Background: Contact tracing has been globally adopted in the fight to control the infection rate of COVID-19. To this aim, several mobile apps have been developed. However, there are ever-growing concerns over the working mechanism and performance of these applications. The literature already provides some interesting exploratory studies on the community's response to the applications by analyzing information from different sources, such as news and users' reviews of the applications. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no existing solution that automatically analyzes users' reviews and extracts the evoked sentiments. We believe such solutions combined with a user-friendly interface can be used as a rapid surveillance tool to monitor how effective an application is and to make immediate changes without going through an intense participatory design method.

Objective: In this paper, we aim to analyze the efficacy of AI and NLP techniques for automatically extracting and classifying the polarity of users' sentiments by proposing a sentiment analysis framework to automatically analyze users' reviews on COVID-19 contact tracing mobile apps. We also aim to provide a large-scale annotated benchmark data set to facilitate future research in the domain. As a proof of concept, we also developed a web application based on the proposed solutions, which is expected to help the community quickly analyze the potential of an application in the domain.

Methods: We propose a pipeline starting from manual annotation via a crowd-sourcing study and concluding with the development and training of artificial intelligence (AI) models for automatic sentiment analysis of users' reviews. In detail, we collected and annotated a large-scale data set of user reviews on COVID-19 contact tracing applications. We used both classical and deep learning methods for classification experiments.

Results: We used 8 different methods on 3 different tasks, achieving up to an average F1 score of 94.8%, indicating the feasibility of the proposed solution. The crowd-sourcing activity resulted in a large-scale benchmark data set composed of 34,534 manually annotated reviews.

Conclusions: The existing literature mostly relies on the manual or exploratory analysis of users' reviews on applications, which is tedious and time-consuming. In existing studies, generally, data from fewer applications are analyzed. In this work, we showed that AI and natural language processing techniques provide good results for analyzing and classifying users' sentiments' polarity and that automatic sentiment analysis can help to analyze users' responses more accurately and quickly. We also provided a large-scale benchmark data set. We believe the presented analysis, data set, and proposed solutions combined with a user-friendly interface can be used as a rapid surveillance tool to analyze and monitor mobile apps deployed in emergency situations leading to rapid changes in the applications without going through an intense participatory design method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/36238DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9097863PMC
May 2022

Securing Machine Learning in the Cloud: A Systematic Review of Cloud Machine Learning Security.

Front Big Data 2020 12;3:587139. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Hamad Bin Khalifa University (HBKU), Doha, Qatar.

With the advances in machine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL) techniques, and the potency of cloud computing in offering services efficiently and cost-effectively, Machine Learning as a Service (MLaaS) cloud platforms have become popular. In addition, there is increasing adoption of third-party cloud services for outsourcing training of DL models, which requires substantial costly computational resources (e.g., high-performance graphics processing units (GPUs)). Such widespread usage of cloud-hosted ML/DL services opens a wide range of attack surfaces for adversaries to exploit the ML/DL system to achieve malicious goals. In this article, we conduct a systematic evaluation of literature of cloud-hosted ML/DL models along both the important dimensions- and -related to their security. Our systematic review identified a total of 31 related articles out of which 19 focused on attack, six focused on defense, and six focused on both attack and defense. Our evaluation reveals that there is an increasing interest from the research community on the perspective of attacking and defending different attacks on Machine Learning as a Service platforms. In addition, we identify the limitations and pitfalls of the analyzed articles and highlight open research issues that require further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fdata.2020.587139DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7931962PMC
November 2020

Secure and Robust Machine Learning for Healthcare: A Survey.

IEEE Rev Biomed Eng 2021 22;14:156-180. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Recent years have witnessed widespread adoption of machine learning (ML)/deep learning (DL) techniques due to their superior performance for a variety of healthcare applications ranging from the prediction of cardiac arrest from one-dimensional heart signals to computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) using multi-dimensional medical images. Notwithstanding the impressive performance of ML/DL, there are still lingering doubts regarding the robustness of ML/DL in healthcare settings (which is traditionally considered quite challenging due to the myriad security and privacy issues involved), especially in light of recent results that have shown that ML/DL are vulnerable to adversarial attacks. In this paper, we present an overview of various application areas in healthcare that leverage such techniques from security and privacy point of view and present associated challenges. In addition, we present potential methods to ensure secure and privacy-preserving ML for healthcare applications. Finally, we provide insight into the current research challenges and promising directions for future research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/RBME.2020.3013489DOI Listing
July 2021
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