Publications by authors named "Al-Misned F"

62 Publications

Mitigation of cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity by casticin in male albino rats.

Braz J Biol 2021 27;83:e243438. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

King Saud University - KSU, College of Science, Department of Zoology, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Cisplatin (CP) is a commonly used, powerful antineoplastic drug, having numerous side effects. Casticin (CAS) is considered as a free radical scavenger and a potent antioxidant. The present research was planned to assess the curative potential of CAS on CP persuaded renal injury in male albino rats. Twenty four male albino rats were distributed into four equal groups. Group-1 was considered as a control group. Animals of Group-2 were injected with 5mg/kg of CP intraperitoneally. Group-3 was co-treated with CAS (50mg/kg) orally and injection of CP (5mg/kg). Group-4 was treated with CAS (50mg/kg) orally throughout the experiment. CP administration substantially reduced the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GSR), glutathione (GSH) content while increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels. Urea, urinary creatinine, urobilinogen, urinary proteins, kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) levels were substantially increased. In contrast, albumin and creatinine clearance was significantly reduced in CP treated group. The results demonstrated that CP significantly increased the inflammation indicators including nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activity and histopathological damages. However, the administration of CAS displayed a palliative effect against CP-generated renal toxicity and recovered all parameters by bringing them to a normal level. These results revealed that the CAS is an effective compound having the curative potential to counter the CP-induced renal damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1519-6984.243438DOI Listing
September 2021

Toxicological effects of thimerosal on rat kidney: a histological and biochemical study.

Braz J Biol 2021 27;83:e242942. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

King Saud University, Department of Zoology, College of Science, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Thimerosal is an organomercurial compound, which is used in the preparation of intramuscular immunoglobulin, antivenoms, tattoo inks, skin test antigens, nasal products, ophthalmic drops, and vaccines as a preservative. In most of animal species and humans, the kidney is one of the main sites for mercurial compounds deposition and target organs for toxicity. So, the current research was intended to assess the thimerosal induced nephrotoxicity in male rats. Twenty-four adult male albino rats were categorized into four groups. The first group was a control group. Rats of Group-II, Group-III, and Group-IV were administered with 0.5µg/kg, 10µg/kg, and 50µg/kg of thimerosal once a day, respectively. Thimerosal administration significantly decreased the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione (GSH), and protein content while increased the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels dose-dependently. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, urobilinogen, urinary proteins, kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) levels were substantially increased. In contrast, urinary albumin and creatinine clearance was reduced dose-dependently in thimerosal treated groups. The results demonstrated that thimerosal significantly increased the inflammation indicators including nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activities, DNA and histopathological damages dose-dependently. So, the present findings ascertained that thimerosal exerted nephrotoxicity in male albino rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1519-6984.242942DOI Listing
September 2021

Growth performance, intestinal histomorphology, gut microflora and ghrelin gene expression analysis of broiler by supplementing natural growth promoters: A nutrigenomics approach.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Jun 13;28(6):3438-3447. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

In an epoch of escalating number of antibiotic-resistance bacteria, there is a dire need to develop efficient and novel feeding strategies for animal nutrition as alternatives to antibiotics. Here, implicating nutrigenomic approach, phytobiotics and organic acids were used to evaluate ghrelin gene expression levels, gut microflora composition, performance parameters and intestinal histomorphological changes in broiler chickens. One-day-old chicks (n = 315) were reared for 42 days and distributed randomly into five experimental groups; each with three replicates (21 birds per replicate). Experimental groups were control: basal diet only, antimicrobial growth promoter: 40 g/metric ton of basal diet (virginiamycin), organic acids: 4 kg/metric ton of basal diet, phytobiotics: 3 kg/metric ton of basal diet, combination: 7 kg/metric ton of basal diet (organic acids 4 kg and phytobiotics 3 kg metric ton of feed). Growth performance, histological and ghrelin gene expression analysis were executed on 21 and 42 days while, quantitative bacterial analysis of cecum and ileum was performed on day 42. Increased feed intake and body weight () were noticed in phytobiotics group. Addition of phytobiotics significantly improved () villus height and ratio of villus height/crypt depth in ileum, jejunum, and duodenum and down-regulated ghrelin gene expression levels. Total coliform and in cecal and ileal digesta were decreased significantly () in organic acids group. Correlation analysis revealed spp. were positively correlated to villus height/crypt depth ration in duodenum. The findings indicated the importance of gene-nutrient-microbiota interactions based on nutrigenomics approach. Hence, phytobiotics and organic acids might be suitable alternatives to antibiotics for improved performance and immunity, along with healthier meat production in poultry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2021.03.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8176037PMC
June 2021

Seasonal analysis of food items and feeding habits of endangered riverine catfish Rita rita (Hamilton, 1822).

Braz J Biol 2021 4;82:e237040. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

King Saud University, College of Science, Department of Zoology, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

This investigation presents the food and feeding activity of and endangered riverine catfish Rita rita, during February 2017-January 2018. A total of 225 fish individuals was analyzed for stomach contents by characterizing the dominant food items and morphometric features. The results divulged ten major food items consumed, preferably fish scales and eggs, teleost fishes, copepods, cladocerans, rotifers, and mollusks. Total length and body weight of fish varied between 9-34 cm (20.53 ± 6.90 cm) and 10-400 g (9125.94 ± 102.07 g), respectively. The index of relative importance (IRI%) showed the importance of rotifers over the other food items. Morisita's index of diet overlap indicated seasonal variations in catfish diets with summer and monsoon displaying the least overlap, while maximum overlap during monsoon and winter seasons. The non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS) indicated the close association between the food items available during summer and winter seasons with a significant difference among the seasons (ANOSIM, R = 0.638, P = 0.013). Levin's niche breadth index arranged in the order of 0.88>0.81>0.78>0.63>0.43 for the size classes of V, IV, III, II and I, respectively. The PCA explained 95.39% of the total variance among the food items and fish size groups. Small-sized fish individuals displayed a greater correlation with food items suitable for their mouth size. In conclusion, the variety and frequency of food items recorded indicated considerable feeding plasticity and opportunistic feeding behavior with a shift from carnivorous to omnivorous feeding nature. This study could render useful information on the food and feeding habits of R. rita and provide background for preparing its diet for future aquaculture practices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1519-6984.237040DOI Listing
June 2021

A study on risk assessment of effect of hematoxylin dye on cytotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in freshwater fish: Food and water security prospective research.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Apr 20;28(4):2267-2271. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Department of Zoology, College of Science. King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

The cytotoxicity in freshwater fishes due to different industrial dyes in industrial effluents is a major worldwide issue. Hematoxylin dye has a wide range of uses in textile industries and laboratories. This study was aimed to evaluate the toxic effects of hematoxylin's sublethal effect in vitro in . The fish was exposed to different grading concentrations of dye in the aquarium. Fish were sacrificed and dissected to remove the kidney after exposure to hematoxylin dye for specific time intervals. Nephrotoxicity and cytotoxicity induced by this dye were detected through histopathology by using the paraffin wax method. Immediate mortality of fish was noticed against the exposure to 0.08 g/L (LC) concentration of dye, but at 0.008 mg/L and 0.018 mg/L, it showed tremendous tissue damage in the kidneys, significant reduction in fish growth. This dye induced many alterations in the kidney such as tubular degeneration, vacuolation, shrinkage of a glomerulus, reduced lumen, congestion in the kidney, glomerulonephritis, absence of Bowmen space, necrosis of the hematopoietic interstitial tissues, clogging of tubules, necrosis in the glomerulus and increased space between glomerulus and bowmen's capsule. Although this dye has a wide range of biological and industrial applications, a minute amount of hematoxylin released in effluents is quite toxic to aquatic fauna.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2021.01.019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8071821PMC
April 2021

Reproductive success in : A role of post-insemination association of male and female.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Mar 22;28(3):1539-1543. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Department of Botany, Hindu College Moradabad (Mahatma Jyotiba Phule Rohilkhand University Bareilly), India.

Reproductive success is attained by various mechanisms in insects. Prolonged post insemination association is one such mechanism to increase the reproductive success. The present study was conducted to assess the role of post insemination association of mating partners on reproductive performance in Chrysomelidae beetle, Pallister. The matings were disrupted at different time intervals and fecundity and percent egg viability of the females were recorded. In addition, the mounting attempts, mating attempts, time to commencement of mating and latent period were also recorded. It was hypothesized that: (1) the mounting and mating attempts would not exist, (2) copulation duration, would not affect the reproductive performance, and (3) the beetle would not exhibit the mate guarding behaviour. Interestingly, results revealed that 6.00 ± 1.3 and 6.59 ± 0.93 mounting and mating attempts are needed to establish successful mating. The results revealed that males improved their percent egg viability with a mating duration ranging from nearly 30-50 min. While fecundity increased with a mating duration of above 30 min and up to a duration of 60 min. This result concluded that males of this beetle display post copulatory mate guarding behaviour after 60 min in which male rides on female's back with his aedeagus inserted in the female genital tract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.12.030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7938115PMC
March 2021

network-based analysis of drugs used against COVID-19: Human well-being study.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Mar 21;28(3):2029-2039. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Introduction: Researchers worldwide with great endeavor searching and repurpose drugs might be potentially useful in fighting newly emerged coronavirus. These drugs show inhibition but also show side effects and complications too. On December 27, 2020, 80,926,235 cases have been reported worldwide. Specifically, in Pakistan, 471,335 has been reported with inconsiderable deaths.

Problem Statement: Identification of COVID-19 drugs pathway through drug-gene and gene-gene interaction to find out the most important genes involved in the pathway to deal with the actual cause of side effects beyond the beneficent effects of the drugs.

Methodology: The medicines used to treat COVID-19 are retrieved from the Drug Bank. The drug-gene interaction was performed using the Drug Gene Interaction Database to check the relation between the genes and the drugs. The networks of genes are developed by Gene MANIA, while Cytoscape is used to check the active functional association of the targeted gene. The developed systems cross-validated using the EnrichNet tool and identify drug genes' concerned pathways using Reactome and STRING.

Results: Five drugs Azithromycin, Bevacizumab, CQ, HCQ, and Lopinavir, are retrieved. The drug-gene interaction shows several genes that are targeted by the drug. Gene MANIA interaction network shows the functional association of the genes like co-expression, physical interaction, predicted, genetic interaction, co-localization, and shared protein domains.

Conclusion: Our study suggests the pathways for each drug in which targeted genes and medicines play a crucial role, which will help experts o overcome and deal with the side effects of these drugs, as we find out the gene analysis for the COVID-19 drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2021.01.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7825994PMC
March 2021

Polychromatic luminescence and improved antifungal performance of succinic acid in the lattice of L-Lysine monohydrochloride.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Jan 24;28(1):395-399. Epub 2020 Oct 24.

Department of Physics, Govt. Arts and Science College, Nagercoil, Tamilnadu 629004, India.

The incorporation of succinic acid (SA) in the lattice of L-Lysine monohydrochloride (LM) has opened the new avenue in the field of production and application of scintillator materials such as LED and antifungal drug. Crystalline trait and monoclinic structure were scanned by XRD. The existence of carbonyl, carboxylate and protonated amine group were confirmed through FTIR and UV spectra predicted the transmittance of SA: LM crystal. Polychromatic luminescence behaviour had achieved through the incorporation of SA instead of blue luminescence, which is a new result. Also SA: LM exhibited good response towards pathogenic fungi which causes numerous types of infections and diseases in both humans and animals. The high inhibitory zone at 16 mm was formed by the grown SA: LM crystal against the life threatening fungi like Also fungal inhibition against respectively, were tuned by the inclusion of succinic acid
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.10.021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7783679PMC
January 2021

FbD directed fabrication and investigation of luliconazole based SLN gel for the amelioration of candidal vulvovaginitis: a 2 T (thermosensitive & transvaginal) approach.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Jan 16;28(1):317-326. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi 110062, India.

Candidal vulvovaginitis (CVV), is the second most leading vaginal infection (global prevalence > 75%), caused due to excessive growth of spp. predominantly (>95% cases). The current treatment regimens for CVV are marred with the challenges of fungal resistance & infection recurrence, subsequently leading to the compromised therapeutic efficacy of anti-fungal drugs, prolonged treatment and low patient compliance. The core of the present research was the fabrication & investigation of 2 T-SLN (solid lipid nanoparticles) gel carrying luliconazole for the amelioration of CVV. '2T' symbolizes transvaginal & thermosensitive attributes of the present formulation. SLNs were prepared by a modified melt emulsification-ultra sonication method using a combination of solid lipids (Gelucire 50/13 & Precirol ATO 5), surfactant (Tween 80) and co-surfactant (Kolliphor). Formulation by design (FbD) approach was adopted to obtain appropriately screened and tailored SLNs. The optimized SLNs yielded a particle size, polydispersity index & entrapment efficiency of 62.18 nm, 0.263 & 81.5% respectively. To formulate the 2 T-gel, the final SLNs were loaded into Carbopol 971P-NF and Triethanolamine based gel. The 2 T-SLN gel was found to be easily spreadable and homogenous with mean extrudability (15 ± 0.4 g/cm), viscosity (696.42 ± 2.34 Pa·s) and %drug content (93.24 ± 0.73%) values.. The pH of the prepared 2 T-SLN gel (4.5 ± 0.5) was in concordance with the vaginal pH (normal conditions). For characterization of an optimized 2 T-SLN gel the release kinetics & anticandidal activity were assessed which offers a %cumulative drug release of 62 ± 0.5% in 72 h and 37.3 ± 1.5 mm zone of inhibition in 48 h. The visual appearance & dimensions were determined using fluorescent microscopy (spherical shape) & transmission electron microscopy (90-120 nm) respectively. The optimized 2 T-SLN gel showcases a skin-friendly profile with no significant signs of erythema and oedema and was found to be stable at room temperature for 2 months without any visual non-uniformity/cracking/breaking. In conclusion, the current research serves a new therapeutic perspective in assessing the activity of luliconazole for vaginal drug delivery using a 2 T-SLN gel system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.10.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7785458PMC
January 2021

Facile synthesis of gold and platinum doped titanium oxide nanoparticles for antibacterial and photocatalytic activity: A photodynamic approach.

Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2021 Mar 17;33:102148. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Unit of Vector Control, Phytochemistry and Nanotechnology, Department of Zoology, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar, 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India; Unit of Natural Products and Nanotechnology, Department of Zoology, Government College for Women (Autonomous), Kumbakonam, 612 001, Tamil Nadu, India.

A simple method has been needed to synthesize nanoparticles (NPs) to avoid environmental pollution, an alternative chemical and physical method. This current study deals with phytosynthesis of gold (Au) and platinum (Pt) metal doped with titanium oxide (TiO) NPs using Enterolobium saman bark extract. This extract plays a vital role in reducing and stabilizing Au and Pt doped into the TiO NPs lattices. Phytosynthesized samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, ED-XRF, TEM, FTIR, Raman, and UV-vis-DRS analyses. The metal doping effect has decreased bandgap energy and particle size, whereas increased conductivity for TiO/M-Au and TiO/M-Pt NPs compared to pristine TiO NPs. Phytosynthesized NPs were fabricated for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) and photocatalytic behaviour against methylene blue (MB) dye was studied. An obtained result demonstrates that TiO/M-Au NPs have excellent feasibility for applying DSSC and photocatalytic application due to particle size, crystallite size, absorption ability, and bandgap energy. Besides, synthesized samples were measured with cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy found that the metal doping is drifted the dielectric and increases that the metal doping is drifted the dielectric increases electro-catalytic of the TiO. Different concentrations of all NPs were tested against Escherichia coli MTCC 40 and S. aureus ATCC 6633 bacteria by a well-diffusion method. The 10 mg concentration of all NPs showed better antibacterial activity. However, we believe that the proposed simple phytosynthesized method provides an efficient way to overcome the chemical and physical methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pdpdt.2020.102148DOI Listing
March 2021

Probing of heavy metals in the feathers of shorebirds of Central Asian Flyway wintering grounds.

Sci Rep 2020 12 17;10(1):22118. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Unit of Vector Control, Phytochemistry and Nanotechnology, Department of Zoology, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar, Tamil Nadu, 608 002, India.

The study is intended to deliver the incidence of heavy metals in the feathers of shorebirds from two important Central Asian Flyway (CAF) migratory shorebirds wintering sites such as the Point Calimere Wildlife Sanctuary (PWLS) and Pichavaram Mangrove Forest (PMF), India. Feathers of fifteen species of shorebirds and seven different metals viz., Cu, Cr, Co, Pb, Hg, Ni and Zn were analyzed. Zn was highest in Dunlin, Little-ringed Plover, Marsh Sandpiper, and Common sandpiper, Ni showed highest in Little ringed plover, and Common sandpiper, Co, Cr, and Cu were maximum in Little stint, Marsh sandpiper, and Dunlin, respectively. The Hg was higher in Black-winged stilt, Common redshank, Curlew Sandpiper, Eurasian curlew, Lesser Sand-plover, Temminck's stint, Kentish plover, Spotted redshank, and Wood sandpiper, the Pb found highest in Kentish plover, Painted stork, Spotted redshank, Wood sandpiper, Eurasian Curlew, and Lesser sand-plover. The concentration of metals showed significant variations among the species of shorebirds studied (P < 0.001). The mercury negatively correlated with the other metals than the other six metals studied in both the wetlands. The order of metal concentration in the feathers of shorebirds was Zn > Ni > Co > Cr > Cu > Pb > Hg. Nevertheless, the current study revealed that the level of metals in the shorebirds is alarming; since the PWLS and PMF are located along the CAF routes, it needs intensive studies on various pollutions to manage both the resident as well as migratory shorebirds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-79029-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7747699PMC
December 2020

Down-regulation of hepatic G-6-Pase expression in hyperglycemic rats: Intervention with biogenic gold nanoconjugate.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2020 Dec 22;27(12):3334-3341. Epub 2020 Sep 22.

Department of Bio-Medical Sciences, School of BioSciences and Technology, Vellore Institute of Technology (VIT), Vellore 632 014, Tamil Nadu, India.

Chronic diabetes extensively complicates the glucose metabolism to onset and progress the complication. Concurrently, several contemporary medicines, especially organo-metallic formulations, are emerging to treat hyperglycemia. The current study aims to emphasize the gold nanoparticles (GNPs) potential for glucose metabolism regulation in Streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was carried out to detect the mRNA expression of Glucose transporters 2 (GLUT2), Glucokinase (GK) and Glucose 6 Phosphatase (G-6-Pase). The study shows remarkable results such as the prognostic effect of GNPs in reinforcing the repression of enzyme complex G-6-Pase about 13.3-fold when compared to diabetes control. Also, molecular docking studies showed significant inhibition of G-6-Pase by the terpenoid ligands with alpha and beta amyrin from leaf extract of . Thus the study explored the novel mechanism of G-6-Pase downregulated by GNPs intervention that majorly contributes to the regulation of circulatory glucose homeostasis during diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.09.026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7715047PMC
December 2020

Linking fish and crustacean taxonomic composition with seasonal contrasts in the soft-bottom intertidal zone.

Braz J Biol 2021 Oct-Dec;81(4):1036-1049

Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

The primary objective of this study was to investigate the seasonal fish and crustacean variations concerning taxonomic composition, species richness, and diversity in sandy beach habitat. For this purpose, we investigated the Sonmiani Hor lagoon area during four distinct seasons, i.e., northeast (NE) monsoon, pre-monsoon, south-west (SW) monsoon, and post-monsoon for one year. During each haul, the net was pulled about 100m along the beach in 0.5m depth. The results showed a strong linear correlation between the diversity index and equitability in fishes (r = 0.978). The diversity index was strong negatively correlated with the abundance and biomass (r = -0.978, -0.972, respectively). The physical attributes like sea surface water temperature and salinity showed a strong negative effect on species assemblages (r = -0.981 and -0.943, respectively). The mean air and water temperature illustrated approximately 3°C difference during NE and pre-monsoon seasons. However, salinity, pH, and electrical conductivity did not show any significant seasonal variabilities. Under the ecological indices, the fish species displayed higher diversity (H' = 3.19) during SW monsoon, whereas the lowest diversity was observed during pre-monsoon (H' = 1.58). The equitability and species richness, however, remained more noticeable during SW monsoon (J' = 0.81). The total number of individuals of fish and crustaceans reached 4799 with 3813 fish individuals and 986 individuals of crustaceans. A total of 27 families of fish while five crustacean families comprising of 30 genera and 38 fish species while ten genera and 17 species of crustaceans were recorded. Liza subviridis displayed the highest abundance among the sampled fish species. In conclusion, fish species constituted a significant part of the coastal fauna in the study area. The seasonal variations displayed distinct variations in fish species composition and diversity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1519-6984.234129DOI Listing
February 2021

Entomofaunal survey and larvicidal activity of greener silver nanoparticles: A perspective for novel eco-friendly mosquito control.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2020 Nov 4;27(11):2917-2928. Epub 2020 Sep 4.

Unit of Vector Control, Phytochemistry and Nanotechnology, Department of Zoology, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar, 608 002 Tamil Nadu, India.

The entomofaunal survey and its toxicity of (Asteraceae) leaf aqueous extract-mediated (-LAE) silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were assessed against selected human vector mosquitoes (HVMs). A total of 1800 individuals of 29 species belongs to 7 genera were identified. Month-wise and Genus-wise abundance of HVMs larval diversity were calculated and one-way ANOVA statistically analyzed the average physico-chemical characteristics. The relationship between physicochemical characteristics and HVMs larvae in KWS was interpreted. The total larval density and container index were 23530.18 and 1961.85 examined against 10 different containers. Various spectroscopic and microscopic investigation characterized -AgNPs. The AgNPs tested against HVMs larvae, the predominant LC/LC values of 18.17/39.56, 23.45/42.49 and 21.82/40.43 μg/mL were observed on and respectively. The findings of this investigation, improperly maintained drainages, containers and unused things in study sites, are engaged to HVMs development. This will be essential for designing and implementing HVMs control. The larval toxic potentiality of AgNPs had a prompt, inexpensive and compelling synthesis of multi-disperse action against HVMs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.08.046DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7569148PMC
November 2020

Photocatalytic, antiproliferative and antimicrobial properties of copper nanoparticles synthesized using Manilkara zapota leaf extract: A photodynamic approach.

Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2020 Dec 13;32:102058. Epub 2020 Oct 13.

Department of Animal Health and Management, Alagappa University, Science Block, 6th Floor, Burma Colony, Karaikudi, 630 004, Tamil Nadu, India. Electronic address:

Copper nanoparticles were synthesized using Manilkara zapota leaf extract. The synthesis of the nanoparticle was primarily visualized when the colour of the reaction mixture turned into reddish-brown. Biosynthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis, FT-IR, XRD, SEM and EDX. The UV spectra showed maximum absorption at 584 nm. FT-IR studies showed stretching frequency at 592.76 cm which is the fingerprint region for Cu-O bond. The crystallinity of the synthesized copper nanoparticles (Mz-Cu NPs) was revealed through XRD analysis. The synthesized Mz-Cu NPs were spherical with an average size of 18.9-42.5 nm and it was shown by SEM analysis. EDX analysis displayed that the nano sample contains 58 % of copper. The antimicrobial property of the synthesized nanoparticles was evaluated against fungal plant pathogens Rhizoctonia solani (MTCC 12232), Sclerotium oryzae (MTCC 12230) and bacterial species, namely Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 23857), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Vibrio harveyi (ATCC 35084), Vibrio parahaemolyticus (ATCC 33845). In in-vitro haemolytic assay, the particle showed 5.73, 3.34, 0.5 % hemolysis at 100, 50, 25 μg/mL concentration respectively. In the antiproliferative assay, the IC values of MCF7 and Vero cells were found to be 53.89 and 883.69 μg/μl. The particle degraded Methyl violet, Malachite green and Coomassie brilliant blue by 92.2, 94.9 and 78.8 %, within 50, 40 and 60 min, respectively, through its photocatalytic activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pdpdt.2020.102058DOI Listing
December 2020

Evaluation of etiology and pregnancy outcome in recurrent miscarriage patients.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2020 Oct 3;27(10):2809-2817. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate etiology and pregnancy outcome of recurrent miscarriage women. The enrolled patients (280) were evaluated for Triiodothyronine, Thyroxine, Thyroid stimulating hormone, prolactin, chromosomal analysis, Haemoglobin A1C, blood sugar, Magnetic resonance imaging, 3D-ultrasound, auto-antibodies profile (antiphospholipid antibodies, anticardiolipin antibodies, lupus anticoagulant, antinuclear antibodies, anti-thyroid antibodies and β2 glycoprotein1), torch profile (Toxoplasmo gondii, rubella, cytomegalo virus and herpes simplex virus), blood vitamin D3 levels, psychological factors, Body mass index and thrombotic factors (protein S and C deficiency, Prothrombin G20210A mutation, anti-thrombin III, Factor V Leiden and Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase mutation), uterosalpingography (hysteronsalpingography) and hysteroscopy. The therapeutic regimens either singly or combined were employed for the treatment of recurrent miscarriage patients on the basis of etiology (single or multiple) and include intravenous immunoglobulin, low molecular weight heparin, low dose aspirin, levothyroxine, progesterone, folic acid, human chorionic gonadotrophin, vitamin D3, psychotherapy, genetic counselling. However, patients with idiopathic recurrent miscarriage were treated with progesterone supplementation, anticoagulation and/or immune modulatory agents. The incidence of primary recurrent miscarriage was highest and most of the women experienced recurrent miscarriage during first trimester. Endocrinological disorders (39%) were found as the major pathological factor for recurrent miscarriage. Other factors include uterine abnormalities (5.7%), vitamin D3 deficiency (3.5%), psychological factors (3.2%) infection (3.6%), autoimmune abnormalities (1.8%) and protein S deficiency (1.8%). However, 40% cases were idiopathic. The overall live birth rate achieved after the management of recurrent miscarriage patients was 75.7%. Enocrinopathy was the major cause of recurrent miscarriage. The overall live birth rate achieved was 75.7% with highest pregnancy outcome in secondary recurrent miscarriage patients after the management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.06.049DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7499272PMC
October 2020

Enhanced modulation of gut microbial dynamics affecting body weight in birds triggered by natural growth promoters administered in conventional feed.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2020 Oct 24;27(10):2747-2755. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Karachi Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan.

This study explored the effects of natural growth promoters (phytogenic feed additives and organic acids) on animal performance, carcass characteristics, blood parameters, gut microflora composition, and microbe-host interactions in broiler chickens over a 42-day feeding period. Two-hundred-fifty-day-old chicks were randomly assigned to one of five treatments: (i) control diets (CON); (ii) control diets + 40 g/tons antibiotic growth promoter (AB); (iii) control diets + 3 kg/tons organic acids (ORG); (iv) control diets + 3 kg/tons phytogenic feed additives (PHY); (v) control diets + 3 kg/tons organic acids + phytogenic feed additive combination (COM). A non-significant differences ( > ) were observed in broiler performance among treatments at 21 days of age; however, a gradually increasing body weight gain and reduced feed conversion ratio were observed at 42 days in treatments versus control group. Biochemical indices were non-significant ( > ) except for decreased cholesterol ( < ) and increased A/G ratio ( < ) recorded in the treatment groups. The addition of PHY and ORG improved total counts of spp. and spp. ( < ) as well as reduced caecal and ileal spp. and ( < ). Correlation analysis elucidated beneficial bacteria ( spp. and spp.) were positively and pathogenic bacteria ( spp. and ) were negatively correlated ( < ) with host weight gain. The findings indicated that dietary supplementation of PHY and ORG sustained balanced gut microflora, which in turn improved body weight. This study broadens the significance of using PHY and ORG as safe alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters for achieving healthier and economical broiler production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.06.027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7499368PMC
October 2020

Dim Light at Night Induced Neurodegeneration and Ameliorative Effect of Curcumin.

Cells 2020 09 13;9(9). Epub 2020 Sep 13.

Amity Institute of Pharmacy, Amity University, Noida UP 201303, India.

It is a well-known fact that following a proper routine light/dark or diurnal rhythm controls almost all biological processes. With the introduction of modern lighting and artificial illumination systems, continuous exposure to light at night may lead to the disruption of diurnal rhythm. However, the effect of light during the night on brain anatomy, physiology, and human body functions is less explored and poorly understood. In this study, we have evaluated the effect of exposure to dim light (5 lux) at night (dLAN) on Swiss Albino mice over a duration of three consecutive weeks. Results have revealed that exposure to dLAN led to an impairment of cognitive and non-cognitive behaviour, oxidative stress-mediated elevation of lipid peroxidation, and reduction of superoxide dismutase and catalase activity. It also led to the downregulation of hippocampal proteins (BDNF, Synapsin II and DCX) at both protein and mRNA level. Additionally, there was downregulation of CREB and SIRT1 mRNAs and neurodegeneration-associated miRNA21a-5p and miRNA34a-5p. The pyramidal and cortical neurons started showing pyknotic and chromatolysis characteristics. However, a dose of curcumin administered to the mice positively modulated these parameters in our experimental animals. We proposed the modulatory role of curcumin in addressing the deleterious effects of dLAN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9092093DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7565558PMC
September 2020

Design and development of porous terracotta disc: An eco-friendly novel control agent for mosquito larvae.

Exp Parasitol 2020 Nov 3;218:107988. Epub 2020 Sep 3.

Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, 11451, Saudi Arabia.

In the present work, we synthesized silver nanoparticles supported by rice husk by hydrothermal treatment, as-synthesized silver nanoparticles rice husk (AgNPs-RH) bio-composite mixed with potter clay thoroughly, molded, dried into a disc-shaped before firing and applying as a point of use larvicidal agent. As designed, porous terracotta disc (PTD) infused with AgNPs-RH-biocomposite were characterized by UV spectrophotometer, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The amount of silver ions released from the PTD was also found to be within the prescribed limit of 0.1 ppm-level. Later we dropped the PTD and tested its larvicidal activity against the IV instar larva stage of Aedes, Anopheles and Culex species. We found 100% larvicidal mortality in 24 h of exposure to the designed PTD and the amount of silver released from the porous disc was found to be 0.0343 ppm. Further from the histopathological studies of dead larvae revealed that the silver ions from the PTD have substantially damaged the exoskeleton of larvae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exppara.2020.107988DOI Listing
November 2020

Evaluation of larvicidal efficacy of (Castor) and synthesized green silver nanoparticles against L.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2020 Sep 21;27(9):2403-2409. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

mosquitoes are the most important group of vectors that transmit pathogens, including arboviruses, and cause human diseases such as dengue fever, yellow fever, Zika virus, and Chikungunya. Biosynthesis and the use of green silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is a vital step to identify reliable and eco-friendly controls for these vectors. In this study, (.) larvae (2nd and 3rd instar) were exposed to leaf extracts of (Castor) and AgNPs synthesized from the extract to evaluate their larvicidal potential. Synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (XRD). larvae were treated with different concentrations (50-250 ppm) of the leaf extract and synthesized AgNPs. There were five replicates per treatment, in addition to a positive (temephos) and negative control (dechlorinated water). Mortality was recorded after 12, 24, 36, and 48 h and the data were subjected to Probit analysis. The nanoparticles were more toxic (LC = 46.22 ppm and LC = 85.30 ppm) than the plant extract (106.24 and 175.73 ppm, respectively). The leaf extracts of were subjected to HPLC analysis to identify their chemical constituents. This study suggests that plant extracts and synthesized nanoparticles are excellent alternatives to hazardous chemical pesticides used to control vector mosquitoes. This is a potentially useful technique that can reduce aquatic toxicity from insecticide use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.04.025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7451677PMC
September 2020

Box-Behnken Response Surface Design of Polysaccharide Extraction from and the Evaluation of Its Antioxidant Potential.

Molecules 2020 Aug 24;25(17). Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

In the present investigation, the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) conditions and optimization of Rhododendron arboreum polysaccharide (RAP) yield were studied by a Box-Behnken response surface design and the evaluation of its antioxidant potential. Three parameters that affect the productivity of UAE, such as extraction temperature (50-90 °C), extraction time (10-30 min), and solid-liquid ratio (1-2 g/mL), were examined to optimize the yield of the polysaccharide percentage. The chromatographic analysis revealed that the composition of monosaccharides was found to be glucose, galactose, mannose, arabinose, and fucose. The data were fitted to polynomial response models, applying multiple regression analysis with a high coefficient of determination value (R = 0.999). The data exhibited that the extraction parameters have significant effects on the extraction yield of polysaccharide percentage. Derringer's desirability prediction tool was attained under the optimal extraction conditions (extraction temperature 66.75 °C, extraction time 19.72 min, and liquid-solid ratio 1.66 mL/g) with a desirability value of 1 yielded the highest polysaccharide percentage (11.56%), which was confirmed through validation experiments. An average of 11.09 ± 1.65% of polysaccharide yield was obtained in optimized extraction conditions with a 95.43% validity. The in vitro antioxidant effect of polysaccharides of R. arboreum was studied. The results showed that the RAP extract exhibited a strong potential against free radical damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25173835DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7504118PMC
August 2020

Low Doses of Extract Act as Natural Biostimulants to Improve the Germination Vigor, Growth, and Grain Yield of Wheat Grown under Water Stress: Photosynthetic Pigments, Antioxidative Defense Mechanisms, and Nutrient Acquisition.

Biomolecules 2020 08 20;10(9). Epub 2020 Aug 20.

Botany and Microbiology Department, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh l1451, Saudi Arabia.

The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of extract (CRE) on the activities of germination enzymes, seed germination vigor, biomass production, physio-biochemical attributes, and seed yield of water-stressed wheat plants. Different levels of CRE (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50%), including water soaking, were used as seed priming. Water stress negatively affected the seed germination, germination enzyme activities, growth, yield, and different physio-biochemical attributes of wheat plants. Low doses of CRE (10, 20, and 30%) ameliorated the adverse effects of water stress on seed germination attributes, and activities of germination enzymes, but negative impacts were recorded at higher doses (40 and 50%) of CRE. Water-stressed wheat plants grown from seeds pre-treated with low doses of CRE also showed better growth and yield as compared with non-treated ones, and that was associated with an improvement in water relations, photosynthetic pigments, nutrient acquisition, reduced lipid peroxidation, and better antioxidative defense mechanisms. The maximum increase in seed yield was 14.77 and 12.32%, found in plants grown from seeds treated with 20% and 10% CRE, respectively. In conclusion, it is suggested that using low doses of CRE as seed priming can contribute to better wheat yield under water stress, especially in semi-arid and arid areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10091212DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7565113PMC
August 2020

Ecotoxicity of neonicotinoids and diamides on population growth performance of Zygogramma bicolorata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2020 Oct 20;203:110998. Epub 2020 Jul 20.

School of Agricultural Sciences, Sharda University, GN, Delhi, India.

Relative ecotoxicity of approved neonicotinoids (i.e. imidacloprid, clothianidin, acetamiprid, thiacloprid, thiamethoxam and dinotefuran) and diamides (i.e. chlorantraniliprole, cyantraniliprole and flubendiamide) was examined on population growth parameters of Zygogramma bicolorata Pallister on parthenium under laboratory conditions at 27 ± 1 °C, 65 ± 5% relative humidity and 10 L : 14D photoperiod. The dose of all tested insecticides in the bioassay procedure was within a minimum range of their recommended field rate. In acute toxicity trial, imidacloprid caused highest rate of mortality in treated adults of Z. bicolorata, however, it was lowest in flubendiamide treatment followed by cyantraniliprole and chlorantraniliprole. Further, based on toxicity coefficient (E) value in acute toxicity trial, all were classified as harmful (H) and diamides were classified as moderately harmful (MH) as per IOBC classification. Moreover, chronic toxicity trials were carried out through life table response experiments (LTREs) in the F progeny of acute toxicity experienced group. Prolonged development with the highest mortality was evident in as compared to diamides. Furthermore, population growth parameters i.e. potential fecundity (Pf), natality rate (m), intrinsic rate of increase (r), net reproductive rate (R) and finite rate of increase (λ) was greatly reduced in Z. bicolorata treated with neonicotinoids as compared with diamides. However, mean generation time (T), corrected generation time (τ) and the doubling time (DT) was prolonged in neonicotinoids followed by diamides. Furthermore, proportion of females was greatly reduced (0.43-0.48 females) in neonicotinoids as comparison to diamides (0.53-0.55 females) and control (0.67 females). On the basis of ecotoxicity trials, the tested neonicotinoids were highly toxic to Z. bicolorata than diamides. Therefore, diamide insecticides could be used with Z. bicolorata, however, for validation experimentation need to be done under natural field conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2020.110998DOI Listing
October 2020

Does Pallister really affects the growth, density and reproductive performance of L?

Saudi J Biol Sci 2020 Jul 30;27(7):1871-1878. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Pallister (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is a satisfactory potential candidate for controlling L The study was conducted in order to evaluate the bio-control potential of to satisfactory reduced the density of parthenium weed in natural field conditions. Therefore, beetles were released in the twelve study sites @ 12 adults and/or larvae/m in their respective sites on 5th, 10th, 15th and 20th day after initial field releases. Observations were made on defoliation by the beetle perthenium plant height, plant biomass, leaf injury rating and soil seed reservoir. Present study showed that field releases of considerably lowering down the parthenium density at all treated sites. At larval release sites by the 60th day of observation a complete defoliation was noted, however at adult release sites it took 80 days for complete defoliation. Moreover, significantly higher number of developmental stages i.e. eggs, larvae and adults were noted in the adults released sites than to larval released sites and the controls. It was also noted that plant height and its density, flowers & leaves production biomass of parthenium plant and seed reservoir in soil was negatively affected in treated sites as compared to untreated sites. Thus, we have concluded that adults can be utilized in biocontrol program because population build-up was greater in those sites where adults were released.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.03.023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7296485PMC
July 2020

Complex interactions and different possible pathways among functional components of the aquatic microbial world in Farasan Archipelago, Southern Red Sea, Saudi Arabia.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2020 May 28;27(5):1412-1417. Epub 2019 Dec 28.

Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

This work aims to outline the dynamics of trophic links between the three main microbial components (bacteria, nanoflagellates, and ciliates) of the Farasan Archipelago in order to establish a baseline for future research in this area. The Farasan Archipelago lies along the southwestern coast of the Saudi Arabia, southern Red Sea between 16°20'-17°10'N and 41°30'-42°30'E and had been declared as marine and terrestrial reserve by the year 1996. Three different sites were chosen for this study, with each site visited bimonthly for 18 months from September 2016 to February 2018. Bacteria, nanoflagellates and ciliates were enumerated in order to explore the complex interactions between the main microbial categories in sea waters of the Farasan Archipelago. High abundances were recorded during the present study for bacteria (8.7 × 10 bacteria ml), nanoflagellates (3.7 × 10 TNAN ml) and ciliates (40.4 ciliates ml). The paper discusses the various potential pathways controlling the complex interactions between these microbial groups in this part of the southern Red Sea. It is concluded that a linear trophic chain consisting of bacteria heterotrophic nanoflagellates filter feeding ciliates is a major route by which the production of bacteria is transferred to the higher consuming levels, thereby confirming the high importance of t bottom-up control (food supply), alongside top-down control (predation) in regulating bacterial abundances in the Farasan Archipelago. During the present investigation, each nanoflagellate ingested between 11 and 87 bacteria in one hour, while each ciliate consumed between 20 and 185 nanoflagellates every hour. These calculated grazing rates of protistan eukaryotes confirmed the role of heterotrophic nanoflagellates as the main consumers of bacteria, and the role of ciliates as the major control for the heterotrophic nanoflagellate population dynamics, and thus the top predators within the microbial plankton assemblage in the Farasan Archipelago.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2019.12.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7182789PMC
May 2020

Chemical Composition, Oxidative Stability, and Antioxidant Activity of Allium ampeloprasum L. (Wild Leek) Seed Oil.

J Oleo Sci 2020 May 13;69(5):413-421. Epub 2020 Apr 13.

Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University.

Allium ampeloprasum L., commonly known as wild leek, is an edible vegetable that has been cultivated for centuries. However, no detailed studies have been undertaken to valorize A. ampeloprasum seed oil. This study aims to evaluate the physicochemical properties, chemical composition, and antioxidant activity of A. ampeloprasum seed oil. The seed oil content was found to be 18.20%. Gas chromatographymass spectrometry (GC-MS) showed that linoleic acid (71.65%) was the dominant acid, followed by oleic acid (14.11%) and palmitic acid (7.11%). A. ampeloprasum seed oil exhibited an oxidative stability of 5.22 h. Moreover, γ- and δ-tocotrienols were the major tocols present (79.56 and 52.08 mg/100 g oil, respectively). The total flavonoid content (16.64 µg CE /g oil) and total phenolic content (62.96 µg GAE /g oil) of the seed oil were also determined. The antioxidant capacity of the oil, as evaluated using the ABTS assay (136.30 µM TEAC/g oil), was found to be significant. These findings indicate that A. ampeloprasum seeds can be regarded as a new source of edible oil having health benefits and nutritional properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5650/jos.ess19298DOI Listing
May 2020

Disentangling the interplay of positive and negative selection forces that shaped mitochondrial genomes of and .

R Soc Open Sci 2020 Jan 8;7(1):190669. Epub 2020 Jan 8.

Wuxi Fisheries College, Nanjing Agricultural University, Wuxi 214081, People's Republic of China.

We hypothesized that the mitogenome of (GL), native to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, might exhibit genetic adaptations to the extreme environmental conditions associated with high altitudes (greater than 3000 m). To test this, we also sequenced the mitogenome of (GP), whose native range is close to the Tibetan plateau, but at a much lower altitude (200-1500 m). The two mitogenomes exhibited conserved mitochondrial architecture, but low identity between genes (55% to 76.1% ). Standard (homogeneous) phylogenetic models resolved Gammaridae as paraphyletic, but 'heterogeneous' CAT-GTR model as monophyletic. In indirect support of our working hypothesis, GL, GP and exhibit evidence of episodic diversifying selection within the studied Gammaroidea dataset. The mitogenome of GL generally evolves under a strong purifying selection, whereas GP evolves under directional (especially pronounced in ) and/or relaxed selection. This is surprising, as GP does not inhabit a unique ecological niche compared to other gammarids. We propose that this rapid evolution of the GP mitogenome may be a reflection of its relatively recent speciation and heightened non-adaptive (putatively metabolic rate-driven) mutational pressures. To test these hypotheses, we urge sequencing mitogenomes of remaining species populating the same geographical range as GP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsos.190669DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7029888PMC
January 2020

Evaluation of the andrographolides role and its indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase inhibitory potential and attendant molecular mechanism against STZ-induced diabetic rats.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2020 Feb 17;27(2):713-719. Epub 2019 Dec 17.

Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

The study is to scrutinize andrographolides with Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) inhibitory potential, its molecular mechanism against streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic retinopathy (DR) in Wistar rats. Oxidative stress markers such as Kynurenine metabolites, retinal histopathological changes have been studied. Further, IDO gene expression and docking studies have been performed. Andrographolide treated rats have been reducing the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and protein carbonyls Kynurenine metabolites with an improvement in the level of GSH and expression of IDO as revealed by morphological changes in inner and outer nuclear layer of the retina. The current results of this study have been generated information about an activity of the andrographolide in the essential pocket of IDO. Our results explain, involving IDO and andrographolide would constitute an attempt to identify natural products with therapeutic value and further studies in this direction would be of immense significance in the administration of diabetes and its related problems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2019.12.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6997866PMC
February 2020

Evaluation of Yeast Fermented Poultry By-Product Meal in Nile Tilapia () Feed: Effects on Growth Performance, Digestive Enzymes Activity, Innate Immunity, and Antioxidant Capacity.

Front Vet Sci 2019 24;6:516. Epub 2020 Jan 24.

Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of dietary inclusion of fermented poultry by-product meal (FPBM) on growth performance, digestive enzymes activity, innate immunity, and antioxidant capacity in Nile tilapia (). A basal diet containing fish meal and soybean meal was considered as a control (Con), and four other diets were produced by inclusion of 10, 20, 30, or 40% FPBM (FPBM10, FPBM20, FPBM30, and FPBM40 diets). The experiment was done in triplicates (20 fish per replicate) and the fish were fed the test diets to visual satiety twice daily for 8 weeks. The groups of fish fed the FPBM10 and FPBM20 diets showed significantly ( < 0.05) higher weight gain and specific growth rate, and lower feed conversion ratio than those fed the Con and FPBM40 diets. Moreover, inclusion of 40% FPBM led to significant reduction of feed intake compared to the other treatments. FPBM at all the tested levels improved intestinal protease activity and lipase activity was enhanced at 10-30% inclusion levels. Furthermore, the FPBM10 and FPBM20 groups revealed significantly higher amylase activity than the other treatments. The FPBM10 group exhibited significantly higher phagocytic activity than the control group and phagocytic index was enhanced by dietary inclusion of 10-30% FPBM. However, inclusion of over 30% FPBM led to significant reduction of lysozyme, phagocytic, and bactericidal activities compared to the control group. Further, FPBM10 and FPBM20 diets increased the serum IgM levels, while NBT was significantly increased by feeding FPBM10 diet compared with FPBM30 and FPBM40 groups ( < 0.05). The group fed the FPBM30 diet showed significantly higher glutathione peroxidase activity than the control group. According to the analysis of the data by the polynomial regression, the inclusion of FPBM at 11.17-25.14% can be applied effectively in the diets of tilapia for better growth performance and health condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2019.00516DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6996487PMC
January 2020

Sub-lethal effect of synthetic pyrethroid pesticide on metabolic enzymes and protein profile of non-target Zebra fish, .

Saudi J Biol Sci 2020 Jan 20;27(1):441-447. Epub 2019 Nov 20.

Department of Clinical Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan, Republic of Korea.

Extensive application of pesticide in agricultural field affects the enzymatic activity of non-target animals, including fishes. In this study, the impact of sublethal concentration of fenvalerate on marker enzymes of freshwater Zebra fish was evaluated. Pesticide-induced stress can specifically affect non target fishes, through elevated level of reactive oxygen species which is responsible for biochemical, cell metabolism and physiological activities. The oxidative stress mediated by fenvalerate at sub lethal concentrations after 28 days of exposure of Zebra fish. Following 28 days of exposure of pesticide, catalase, superoxide dismutase, aspartate amino transferases, alanine amino transferase, alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase were assessed. Results revealed reduction of superoxide dismutase activity after 28 days of exposure in sub lethal concentration of fenvalerate in liver and gills. In liver, catalase activity was found to be less in fenvalerate exposed fish than control fish. In liver, increase of 75.75% aspartate amino transferase and 38% increase in alanine amino transferase in gills. SGPT activity was relatively higher than SGOT suggests more contribution of phyruvalate than oxaloacetate formation. Fenvalerate induced changes in acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase activity in the liver and gills of Zebra fish after four weeks of exposure. Fenvalerate induced expression of various stress proteins in gill, liver, followed by muscle. Some proteins lost its intensity due to fenvalerate toxicity. Result revealed that enzyme assays and SDS-PAGE analysis for protein subunits determination is relevant tool to monitor stress in freshwater ecosystem. The findings suggest that in monitoring fenvalerate toxicity programme, enzyme activities can be potent diagnostic tool for fenvalerate induced toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2019.11.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6933226PMC
January 2020
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