Publications by authors named "Akram Sardari"

13 Publications

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Imaging data in COVID-19 patients: focused on echocardiographic findings.

Int J Cardiovasc Imaging 2021 Jan 16. Epub 2021 Jan 16.

Cardiovascular Medicine Department, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, USA.

To assess imaging data in COVID-19 patients and its association with clinical course and survival and 86 consecutive patients (52 males, 34 females, mean age = 58.8 year) with documented COVID-19 infection were included. Seventy-eight patients (91%) were in severe stage of the disease. All patients underwent transthoracic echocardiography. Mean LVEF was 48.1% and mean estimated systolic pulmonary artery pressure (sPAP) was 27.9 mmHg. LV diastolic dysfunction was mildly abnormal in 49 patients (57.6%) and moderately abnormal in 7 cases (8.2%). Pericardial effusion was present in 5/86 (minimal in size in 3 cases and mild- moderate in 2). In 32/86 cases (37.2%), the severity of infection progressed from "severe" to "critical". Eleven patients (12.8%) died. sPAP and computed tomography score were associated with disease progression (P value = 0.002, 0.002 respectively). Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) was significantly higher in patients with no disease progression compared with those who deteriorated (P value = 0.005). Pericardial effusion (minimal, mild or moderate) was detected more often in progressive disease (P = 0.03). sPAP was significantly lower among survivors (P value = 0.007). Echocardiographic findings (including systolic PAP, TAPSE and pericardial effusion), total CT score may have prognostic and therapeutic implication in COVID-19 patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10554-020-02148-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7811393PMC
January 2021

Lessons learnt from COVID-19 in adult congenital heart patient in Tehran: a survey-based study of prevention, exposure, susceptibility, and outcomes.

Cardiol Young 2020 Nov 18:1-10. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Department of Cardiology, Adult Congenital Heart Disease, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Background: COVD-19 pandemic has overwhelmed many healthcare systems worldwide. Underlying cardiovascular disease predisposes to greater disease susceptibility and more complications including mortality. Such data is unverified in adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD). The aim of the study is to report the Tehran experience with respect to preventative self-care measures, disease exposure, susceptibility, and outcomes after COVD-19 infection in ACHD patients.

Methods: A telephone-based survey was conducted in ACHD patients, focusing on new-onset symptoms that might indicate COVID-19 infection, prevention measures, confirmed infection rates, and outcomes.

Results: Three-hundred and nine ACHD patients, with a mean age of 29.13 years (range from 14 to 72 years, SD = 10.64), and 170 (55%) women were assessed. The majority (86.7%) had moderate or complex ACHD. Two-thirds (67.3%) of the patients practiced high-level preventative self-care measures. After community exposure, 33.3% developed COVID-19, and after household exposure, 43.7% developed COVID-19. There was only one mortality in a post-operative patient. Thirty-seven patients (12%) reported new symptoms including cough (10%), fatigue (8%), fever (7%), and new dyspnoea (6.5%). Amongst 18 (6%) with confirmed COVID-19, there was only 1 mortality in a post-operative patient. Age (adjusted OR = 1.19, 95% CI: 1.07-1.31, p = 0.001), contact with confirmed COVID-19 cases (adjusted OR = 59.34, 95% CI: 3.68-955.10, p = 0.004) were independently associated with COVID-19 infection.

Conclusions: Mortality risk associated with COVID-19 infection in ACHD patients with moderate or severe disease appears to be relatively low, similar to the general population. Such risk appears to act through conventional risk factors, and in this cohort, we demonstrated age as a significant risk factor in addition to exposure to the development of COVID-19 infection. Preventative self-care measures are a potentially significant and impactful intervention target for intervention and for improving outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1047951120004400DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7844187PMC
November 2020

Quantification of aortic valve area: comparison of different methods of echocardiography with 3-D scan of the excised valve.

Int J Cardiovasc Imaging 2021 Feb 1;37(2):529-538. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Cardiology Department, Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Keshavarz Boulevard, P.O.Box: 1419733141, Tehran, Iran.

Accurate determination of severity of aortic valve stenosis (AS) by aortic valve area (AVA) is essential for choosing the best treatment strategy. We compared AVA quantified by 4 different in vivo echocardiographic methods with AVA measured by 3D ex vivo scanning of the excised AV. The data on 38 patients who underwent aortic valve replacement were assessed. The AVA was determined by 4 echocardiographic methods of planimetry in 2D transesophageal echocardiography [planimetry (2D-TEE)], plainemetry by multiplanar reconstruction approach in 3D transesophageal echocardiography [MPR (3D-TEE)], and two continuity equation (CE) approaches; conventional CE (2D-TTE) in which left ventricular outflow tract [LVOT] area derived by LVOT diameter obtained in 2D transthoracic echocardiography and CE (3D-TEE) in which LVOT area obtained by 3D MPR. After the surgical removal of the AV, AVA was determined by 3D ex vivo scanning. Lowest AVA mean difference with 3D ex vivo scanning was found between CE (2D-TTE), followed by CE (3D-TEE). Planimetry (2D-TEE) in male patients as well as severely and non-severely calcified valves revealed a significant higher AVA mean difference with 3D ex vivo scanning than CE (2D-TTE) and CE (3D-TEE) methods. However, with a nonsignificant effect, CE (2D-TTE) and planimetry (2D-TEE) had the least mean difference with 3D ex vivo scanning possibly due to less frequent bicuspid AV in females. CE (2D-TTE) was more accurate than other methods of AVA calculation. Moreover, CE (3D-TEE) and MPR (3D-TEE) methods had acceptable accuracy in comparison with planimetry (2D-TEE) for definition of AS severity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10554-020-02035-9DOI Listing
February 2021

Myocarditis detected after COVID-19 recovery.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging 2021 Jan;22(1):131-132

Rajaie Cardiovascular Medical and Research Center, Tehran, Iran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ehjci/jeaa166DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7574602PMC
January 2021

Endocarditis with .

IDCases 2019 17;18:e00625. Epub 2019 Aug 17.

Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

is a facultative Gram-negative bacillus, inhabiting in water. It is a common source of furunculosis and septicemia in fish. Report on the human infection with this organism is rare. A male farmer referred with weakness and intermittent fever. He had cardiac valves' regurgitation due to fever with rheumatic heart disease. He had a history of swimming in well water. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) revealed a mobile mass of 1.3 × 0.9 cm attached to the mitral valve chordae, suggestive of a vegetation. was isolated from the blood. After cardiac surgery and taking ceftriaxone for 4 weeks, he was discharged in good general condition. Five previous case reports of human infection with this organism were found. The patient was the sixth human case, and the first endocarditis, reported with this organism. is a rare agent for human infection. Contact with water is a risk factor for this type of infection. It seems that the use of modern diagnostic methods has been effective in identifying the microorganism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idcr.2019.e00625DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6717131PMC
August 2019

Effects of Enhanced External Counterpulsation on Heart Rate Recovery in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease.

J Tehran Heart Cent 2018 Jan;13(1):13-17

Tehran Heart Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) reduces angina pectoris, extends time to exercise-induced ischemia, and improves quality of life in patients with symptomatic stable angina. We aimed to evaluate the effects of EECP on heart rate recovery in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Between January 2011 and March 2013, a total of 34 consecutive patients (24 male, 70.6%) with symptomatic CAD, who were candidated for EECP, prospectively received 35 sessions of 1-hour EECP therapy per day, 6 days per week. The patients underwent echocardiography and a symptom-limited modified Bruce exercise test before and after EECP. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), resting and peak exercise heart rates, systolic blood pressure, heart rate at 1 and 2 minutes of recovery, exercise duration, workload, and first- and second-minute heart rate recovery were measured before EECP and compared with those after EECP. The mean age of the patients (70.6% men) was 64.82 ± 8.28 years. After EECP, exercise duration increased significantly from 6.48 ± 2.76 minutes to 9.20 ± 2.71 minutes (p value < 0.001). Maximum workload increased significantly (4.44 ± 1.28 vs. 5.65 ± 1.77 METS; p value < 0.001). The LVEF increased from 42.65 ± 11.82% to 44.26 ± 11.86% (p value < 0.001). The resting systolic blood pressure decreased significantly from 125.59 ± 22.35 mmHg to 116.26 ± 14.93 mmHg (p value = 0.013). The increase in the first- and second-minute heart rate recovery after EECP was not statistically significant. : The results of the present study showed that exercise duration, maximum workload, and the LVEF might increase significantly after EECP. The increase in the first- and second-minute heart rate recovery after EECP was not statistically significant.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6037627PMC
January 2018

Early Improvement in Mitral Regurgitation after Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy in Cardiomyopathy Patients.

J Heart Valve Dis 2017 09;26(5):557-563

Tehran Heart Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: The study aim was to investigate factors affecting the improvement of mitral regurgitation (MR) severity within 48 hours after cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) in patients with cardiomyopathy.

Methods: Sixty-nine cardiomyopathy patients (48 males, 21 females; mean age 59.12 ± 9.66 years) in NYHA functional class ≥III, with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤35%, and QRS duration >120 ms, with MR ≥moderate, were included in the study. Conventional echocardiography was performed before and within 48 h after CRT, and all patients underwent tissue Doppler imaging prior to CRT. Improved MR was defined as a reduction of at least one grade in MR severity.

Results: After CRT, 49 patients (71%) showed MR improvement but 20 (29%) had no MR improvement. The mean MR severity grade was reduced significantly, from 2.70 ± 0.77 before CRT to 1.90 ± 0.94 after CRT (p<0.001). The group with improved MR had a significantly higher rate of left bundle branch block (75.5% versus 45%; p = 0.015), a higher QRS duration (172.00 ± 31.98 versus 147.25 ± 28.75 ms; p = 0.001), a higher median septal lateral delay (70 versus 35 ms, p = 0.035), and a higher median anteroseptal to posterior-wall delay by M mode (200 versus 130 ms, p = 0.041). Older age, longer QRS duration, and septallateral delay remained significant independent predictors of MR improvement. A greater proportion of patients with improved MR showed ≥5% increase in LVEF (55.1% versus 30.0%, p = 0.058).

Conclusions: CRT acutely reduced the severity of functional MR in the majority of cardiomyopathy patients. Those patients with improved MR showed a higher frequency of ≥5% increase in LVEF after CRT. Older age, longer QRS duration, and septallateral delay were independent predictors of MR improvement after CRT.
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September 2017

Asymptomatic Interrupted Aortic Arch, Severe Tricuspid Regurgitation, and Bicuspid Aortic Valve in a 76-Year-Old Woman.

Tex Heart Inst J 2016 Oct 1;43(5):437-440. Epub 2016 Oct 1.

Interrupted aortic arch is a rare congenital abnormality with a high infancy mortality rate. The principal finding is loss of luminal continuity between the ascending and descending portions of the aorta. Because of the high mortality rate in infancy, interrupted aortic arch is very rare among adults. In this report, we describe the case of a 76-year-old woman with asymptomatic interrupted aortic arch, severe tricuspid regurgitation, and bicuspid aortic valve. To our knowledge, she is the oldest patient ever reported with this possibly unique combination of pathologic conditions. In addition to reporting her case, we review the relevant medical literature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14503/THIJ-15-5320DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5067042PMC
October 2016

Effect of Enhanced External Counterpulsation (EECP) on Exercise Time Duration and Functional Capacity in Patients with Refractory Angina Pectoris.

J Tehran Heart Cent 2014 Jan;9(1):33-7

Tehran Heart Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) is a noninvasive technique used for patients with refractory angina pectoris. There are controversial data on the effectiveness of EECP in improving patients with refractory stable angina. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of EECP for the treatment of patients with refractory angina pectoris.

Methods: Twenty consecutive patients with refractory angina pectoris were treated with EECP, and their symptoms, echocardiographic measures, treadmill exercise test parameters, and Canadian Cardiovascular Society Class were evaluated before and immediately after EECP. The patients were followed up for 6months post treatment.

Results: There were significant differences regarding total exercise time before and after treatment (p value < 0.001). The patients showed a significant reduction in angina classes III and IV immediately after EECP (p value < 0.001); for most of the patients, these beneficial effects were sustained for 6 months (p value = 0.010). There was no significant improvement in the echocardiographic parameters.

Conclusion: EECP decreased symptoms and increased total exercise time in our study population. These beneficial effects were sustained for 6 months.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4277789PMC
January 2014

Correlation between Mitral Regurgitation and Myocardial Mechanical Dyssynchrony and QRS Duration in Patients with Cardiomyopathy.

J Tehran Heart Cent 2014 6;9(4):147-52. Epub 2014 Jul 6.

Tehran Heart Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Several competing geometric and hemodynamic factors are suggested as contributing mechanisms for functional mitral regurgitation (MR) in heart failure patients. We aimed to study the relationships between the severity of MR and the QRS duration and dyssynchrony markers in patients with ischemic or dilated cardiomyopathy.

Methods: We prospectively evaluated 251 heart failure patients with indications for echocardiographic evaluation of possible cardiac resynchronization therapy. All the patients were subjected to transthoracic echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging to evaluate the left ventricular (LV) synchronicity. The patients were divided into two groups according to the severity of MR: ≤ mild MR and ≥ moderate MR. The effects of different dyssynchrony indices were adjusted for global and regional left ventricular remodeling parameters.

Results: From the 251 patients (74.5% male, mean age = 53.38 ± 16.68 years), 130 had ≤ mild MR and 121 had ≥ moderate MR. There were no differences between the groups regarding the mean age, frequency of sex, and etiology of cardiomyopathy. The LV systolic and diastolic dimensions were greater in the patients with ≥ moderate MR (all p values < 0.001). Among the different echocardiographic factors, the QRS duration (150.75 ± 34.66 vs. 126.77 ± 29.044 ms; p value = 0.050) and interventricular mechanical delay (41.60 ± 29.50 vs. 35.00 ms ± 22.01; p value = 0.045) were significantly longer in the patients with ≤ mild MR in the univariate analysis. After adjusting the effect of these parameters on the severity of MR for the regional and global LV remodeling parameters, no significant impact of the QRS duration and dyssynchrony indices was observed.

Conclusion: Our results showed that the degree of functional MR was not associated with the QRS duration and inter- and intraventricular dyssynchrony in our patients with cardiomyopathy. No association was found between the severity of MR and the ischemic or dilated etiology for cardiomyopathy.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4394052PMC
April 2015

Relationship between left atrial function and size and level of left ventricular dyssynchrony in heart failure patients.

Echocardiography 2013 Aug 25;30(7):772-7. Epub 2013 Feb 25.

Echocardiography Department, Tehran Heart Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Aim: To study whether there is any relation between left atrial (LA) size or function and the level of left ventricular dyssynchrony (LV) in patients with heart failure.

Method: Fifty-two patients (male 34, mean age = 65.77 ± 8.69 years) with ejection fraction (EF) <35%, who were candidates for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), underwent conventional transthoracic echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). Intra-ventricular dyssynchrony, inter-ventricular mechanical dyssynchrony (IVMD), and related time intervals were measured. The LA size and function were evaluated by transthoracic echocardiography and deformation imaging using LA lateral wall strain (ST) and strain rate (SR), and the septal wall ST.

Results: The LA volume showed severe dilation in 41 (78.8%) patients. 44 (84.6%) cases had intra-ventricular dyssynchrony and 33 (63.5%) had IVMD. In univariable analysis, the LA lateral wall ST and SR as well as the LA septal wall ST had significant but poor correlation with IVMD. There were also poor to moderate correlation between these parameters and the LV end diastolic diameter and mitral annulus tissue velocity at early and late diastole. However, after adjustment for all the related factors, IVMD remained a significant independent correlate for the LA lateral wall ST and SR. This correlation for the LA septal wall ST was not statistically significant.

Conclusion: IVMD was a significant independent correlate for the LA lateral wall ST and SR. This correlation for the LA septal wall ST was nonsignificant. Future studies are needed to examine whether the correction of inter-ventricular dyssynchrony by CRT in patients with concomitant LA dysfunction can have an independent role in the improvement of the LA function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/echo.12148DOI Listing
August 2013

Effects of cardiac rehabilitation program on right ventricular function after coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

J Tehran Heart Cent 2012 28;7(1):25-9. Epub 2012 Feb 28.

Tehran Heart Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Cardiac rehabilitation has been recognized as one of the most effective strategies for managing cardiovascular indices as well as controlling the cardiovascular risk profile, in particular after coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). However, the effect of this program on right ventricular function following CABG is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of cardiac rehabilitation on the right ventricular (RV) function in a cohort of patients who underwent CABG.

Methods: A total of 28 patients who underwent CABG and participated consecutively in an 8-week cardiac rehabilitation program at Tehran Heart Center were studied. The control group consisted of 39 patients who refused to attend cardiac rehabilitation and only received postoperative medical treatment after registration in the Cardiac Rehabilitation Clinic. Two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography was performed to assess the RV function in both groups at the three time points of before surgery, at the end of surgery, and at the end of the rehabilitation program.

Results: Significant increase of RV function parameters were observed in both rehabilitation group (RG) and control group (CG) at the end of the rehabilitation program compared with post-CABG evaluation in terms of tricuspid annular plane systolic execution (RG: 12.50 mm to 14.18 mm; CG: 13.41 mm to 14.56 mm), tricuspid annular peak systolic velocity (RG: 8.55 cm/s to 9.14 cm/s; CG: 9.03 cm/s to 9.26 cm/s), and tricuspid annular late diastolic velocity (RG: 8.93 cm/s to 9.39 cm/s; CG: 9.26 cm/s to 9.60 cm/s).The parameters of the RV function did improve in both groups, but this improvement was not associated with participation in the complete cardiac rehabilitation program.

Conclusion: The RV function parameters gradually improved after CABG; this progress, however, was independent of the exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation program.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3466878PMC
October 2012

Baseline Systolic Blood Pressure Response to Exercise Stress Test Can Predict Exercise Indices following Cardiac Rehabilitation Program.

J Tehran Heart Cent 2010 30;5(4):184-7. Epub 2010 Sep 30.

Tehran Heart Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Systolic blood pressure recovery (rSBP) is of prognostic value for predicting the survival and co-morbidity rate in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). This study investigated the association between rSBP and exercise indices after complete cardiac rehabilitation program (CR) in a population-based sample of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).

Methods: The sample population consisted of 352 patients who underwent pure CABG. The patients underwent standard symptom-limited exercise testing immediately before and also after the completion of the CR sessions. rSBP was defined as the ratio of the systolic blood pressure at 3 minutes in recovery to the systolic blood pressure at peak exercise.

Results: An abnormal baseline rSBP after exercise was a strong predictor of exercise parameters in the last session, including metabolic equivalents (β = -0.617, SE = 0.127, p value < 0.001) and peak O2 consumption (β = -1.950, SE = 0.363, p value < 0.001) measured in the last session adjusted for baseline exercise characteristics, demographics, function class, and left ventricular ejection fraction.

Conclusion: The current study strongly emphasizes the predictive role of baseline rSBP after exercise in evaluating exercise parameters following CR. This baseline index can predict abnormal METs value, peak O2 consumption, post-exercise heart rate, and heart rate recovery after a 24-session CR program.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3466858PMC
October 2012