Publications by authors named "Akitomo Narimatsu"

10 Publications

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Machine Learning Approach for Intraocular Disease Prediction Based on Aqueous Humor Immune Mediator Profiles.

Ophthalmology 2021 08 21;128(8):1197-1208. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Medical University Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Purpose: Various immune mediators have crucial roles in the pathogenesis of intraocular diseases. Machine learning can be used to automatically select and weigh various predictors to develop models maximizing predictive power. However, these techniques have not yet been applied extensively in studies focused on intraocular diseases. We evaluated whether 5 machine learning algorithms applied to the data of immune-mediator levels in aqueous humor can predict the actual diagnoses of 17 selected intraocular diseases and identified which immune mediators drive the predictive power of a machine learning model.

Design: Cross-sectional study.

Participants: Five hundred twelve eyes with diagnoses from among 17 intraocular diseases.

Methods: Aqueous humor samples were collected, and the concentrations of 28 immune mediators were determined using a cytometric bead array. Each immune mediator was ranked according to its importance using 5 machine learning algorithms. Stratified k-fold cross-validation was used in evaluation of algorithms with the dataset divided into training and test datasets.

Main Outcome Measures: The algorithms were evaluated in terms of precision, recall, accuracy, F-score, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, area under the precision-recall curve, and mean decrease in Gini index.

Results: Among the 5 machine learning models, random forest (RF) yielded the highest classification accuracy in multiclass differentiation of 17 intraocular diseases. The RF prediction models for vitreoretinal lymphoma, acute retinal necrosis, endophthalmitis, rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, and primary open-angle glaucoma achieved the highest classification accuracy, precision, and recall. Random forest recognized vitreoretinal lymphoma, acute retinal necrosis, endophthalmitis, rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, and primary open-angle glaucoma with the top 5 F-scores. The 3 highest-ranking relevant immune mediators were interleukin (IL)-10, interferon-γ-inducible protein (IP)-10, and angiogenin for prediction of vitreoretinal lymphoma; monokine induced by interferon γ, interferon γ, and IP-10 for acute retinal necrosis; and IL-6, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and IL-8 for endophthalmitis.

Conclusions: Random forest algorithms based on 28 immune mediators in aqueous humor successfully predicted the diagnosis of vitreoretinal lymphoma, acute retinal necrosis, and endophthalmitis. Overall, the findings of the present study contribute to increased knowledge on new biomarkers that potentially can facilitate diagnosis of intraocular diseases in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2021.01.019DOI Listing
August 2021

Blockade of costimulatory CD27/CD70 pathway promotes corneal allograft survival.

Exp Eye Res 2020 10 14;199:108190. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Medical University, 6-7-1 Nishi-shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 160-0023, Japan.

Purpose: To determine whether the CD27/CD70 pathway plays a significant role in corneal allograft rejection by investigating the effect of blocking the CD27/CD70 pathway by anti-CD70 antibody on corneal allograft survival.

Methods: Orthotopic penetrating keratoplasty was performed using C57BL/6 donor grafts and BALB/c recipients. Expression of CD27 and CD70 on rejected cornea was examined by immunohistochemistry. Corneal transplant recipients received intraperitoneal injection of anti-CD70 antibody (FR70) or control rat IgG. Alloreactivity was measured by mixed lymphoid reaction (MLR) in recipients administered control rat IgG and those administered anti-CD70 antibody. Corneal expression of IFN-γ and IL-12 was also examined in both groups. Graft opacity was assessed over an 8-week period and graft survival was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier survival curves. Proportion of CD4CD44 memory T cells in lymph nodes was measured by flow cytometry.

Results: CD4CD27 cells and CD11cCD70 cells were present in rejected cornea. Anti-CD70 antibody administration suppressed alloreactivity in corneal allograft recipients, and inhibited IFN-γ expression in recipient cornea (p < 0.05). Anti-CD70 antibody suppressed opacity score of recipient cornea and prolonged corneal allograft survival (p < 0.05). Proportion of CD4CD44 memory T cells in recipient lymph nodes was reduced by anti-CD70 antibody treatment.

Conclusion: The CD27/CD70 pathway plays a significant role in corneal allograft rejection by initiating alloreactive Th1 cells and preserving memory T cells. Anti-CD70 antibody administration prolongs corneal allograft survival indicating the potential therapeutic effect of CD27/CD70 pathway blockade on corneal allograft rejection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exer.2020.108190DOI Listing
October 2020

Distinctive Tissue and Serum MicroRNA Profile of IgG4-Related Ophthalmic Disease and MALT Lymphoma.

J Clin Med 2020 Aug 5;9(8). Epub 2020 Aug 5.

Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo 160-0023, Japan.

The molecular pathogenesis of orbital lymphoproliferative disorders, such as immunoglobulin G4-related ophthalmic disease (IgG4-ROD) and orbital mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, remains essentially unknown. Differentiation between the two disorders, which is important since the work-up and treatment can vary greatly, is often challenging due to the lack of specific biomarkers. Although miRNAs play an important role in the regulation of carcinogenesis and inflammation, the relationship between miRNA and orbital lymphoproliferative diseases remains unknown. We performed a comprehensive analysis of 2565 miRNAs from biopsy and serum specimens of 17 cases with IgG4-ROD, where 21 cases with orbital MALT lymphoma were performed. We identified specific miRNA signatures and their miRNA target pathways, as well as the network analysis for IgG4-ROD and orbital MALT lymphoma. Machine-learning analysis identified miR-202-3p and miR-7112-3p as the best discriminators of IgG4-ROD and orbital MALT lymphoma, respectively. Enrichment analyses of biological pathways showed that the longevity-regulating pathway in IgG4-ROD and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway in orbital MALT lymphoma was most enriched by target genes of downregulated miRNAs. This is the first evidence of miRNA profiles of biopsy and serum specimens of patients with IgG4-ROD and orbital MALT lymphoma. These data will be useful for developing diagnostic and therapeutic interventions, as well as elucidating the pathogenesis of these disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9082530DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7464164PMC
August 2020

High-Throughput MicroRNA Profiling of Vitreoretinal Lymphoma: Vitreous and Serum MicroRNA Profiles Distinct from Uveitis.

J Clin Med 2020 Jun 12;9(6). Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Medical University, 6-7-1 Nishi-shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-0023, Japan.

Purpose: Vitreoretinal lymphoma (VRL) is a non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the diffuse large B cell type (DLBCL), which is an aggressive cancer causing central nervous system related mortality. The pathogenesis of VRL is largely unknown. The role of microRNAs (miRNAs) has recently acquired remarkable importance in the pathogenesis of many diseases including cancers. Furthermore, miRNAs have shown promise as diagnostic and prognostic markers of cancers. In this study, we aimed to identify differentially expressed miRNAs and pathways in the vitreous and serum of patients with VRL and to investigate the pathogenesis of the disease.

Materials And Methods: Vitreous and serum samples were obtained from 14 patients with VRL and from controls comprising 40 patients with uveitis, 12 with macular hole, 14 with epiretinal membrane, 12 healthy individuals. The expression levels of 2565 miRNAs in serum and vitreous samples were analyzed.

Results: Expression of the miRNAs correlated significantly with the extracellular matrix (ECM) ‒receptor interaction pathway in VRL. Analyses showed that miR-326 was a key driver of B-cell proliferation, and miR-6513-3p could discriminate VRL from uveitis. MiR-1236-3p correlated with vitreous interleukin (IL)-10 concentrations. Machine learning analysis identified miR-361-3p expression as a discriminator between VRL and uveitis.

Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that aberrant microRNA expression in VRL may affect the expression of genes in a variety of cancer-related pathways. The altered serum miRNAs may discriminate VRL from uveitis, and serum miR-6513-3p has the potential to serve as an auxiliary tool for the diagnosis of VRL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9061844DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7356511PMC
June 2020

Corticosteroid eye drop instillation aggravates the development of Acanthamoeba keratitis in rabbit corneas inoculated with Acanthamoeba and bacteria.

Sci Rep 2019 09 6;9(1):12821. Epub 2019 Sep 6.

Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Medical University, Shinjuku City, Japan.

The role of topical corticosteroids in management of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) remains controversial. Using a rabbit AK model, we investigated whether corticosteroid use is a risk factor of AK. Acanthamoeba (1 × 10/ml) was incubated with two densities of P. aeruginosa (PA; high-PA: 1 × 10/ml, low-PA: 3 × 10/ml) before corneal inoculation. Rabbit corneas were inoculated with Acanthamoeba alone or Acanthamoeba plus PA and administered levofloxacin and betamethasone sodium phosphate (BSP) eye drops for 5 or 7 days. Infected rabbit eyes were evaluated for clinical score and Acanthamoeba by histological examination. Acanthamoeba alone and BSP treatment did not produce keratitis. Corneas inoculated with Acanthamoeba plus low-PA treated immediately with levofloxacin and BSP remained clear with few infiltrates. Corneas inoculated with Acanthamoeba plus low-PA treated with levofloxacin immediately and BSP 12 h later developed severe keratitis. Corneas inoculated with Acanthamoeba plus high-PA treated immediately with levofloxacin and BSP also developed severe keratitis. Acanthamoebae were detected by PAS staining in corneas inoculated with Acanthamoeba plus high-PA treated with levofloxacin and BSP. Topical corticosteroids have the potential to aggravate AK when cornea is infected by Acanthamoeba with a critical number of bacteria or when corticosteroids are given after infection has established by Acanthamoeba with small number of bacteria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-49128-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6731293PMC
September 2019

Corneal lymphangiogenesis ameliorates corneal inflammation and edema in late stage of bacterial keratitis.

Sci Rep 2019 02 27;9(1):2984. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, Japan.

Lymphatic vessels play a crucial role in systemic immune response and regulation of tissue fluid homeostasis. Corneal lymphangiogenesis in bacterial keratitis has not been studied. In this study, we investigated the mechanism and the role of corneal lymphangiogenesis in a murine bacterial keratitis model using Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We first demonstrated that corneal lymphangiogenesis was enhanced mainly in the late stage of bacterial keratitis, contrary to corneal angiogenesis that started earlier. Corresponding to the delayed lymphangiogenesis, expression of the pro-lymphangiogenic factors VEGF-C and VEGFR-3 increased in the late stage of bacterial keratitis. We further found that F4/80 and CD11b positive macrophages played an essential role in corneal lymphangiogenesis. Notably, macrophages were specifically involved in corneal lymphangiogenesis in the late stage of bacterial keratitis. Finally, we demonstrated the beneficial role of corneal lymphangiogenesis in ameliorating the clinical course of bacterial keratitis. Our study showed that bacterial activity was not directly involved in the late stage of keratitis, while corneal lymphangiogenesis reduced corneal edema and clinical manifestation in the late stage of bacterial keratitis. These findings suggest that the process of lymphangiogenesis in bacterial keratitis ameliorates corneal inflammation and edema in the late stage of bacterial keratitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-39876-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6393676PMC
February 2019

Rebamipide suppresses TNF-α production and macrophage infiltration in the conjunctiva.

Vet Ophthalmol 2018 Jul 18;21(4):347-352. Epub 2017 Dec 18.

Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Medical University, 6-7-1 Nishi-shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 160-0023, Japan.

Purpose: To evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of rebamipide during corneal epithelial wound healing using a mouse wound repair model.

Methods: A 2-mm circular disc of the central cornea was demarcated in the right eye of C57BL/6 mice and the epithelium removed. Rebamipide 2% eyedrop was instilled onto the wounded eye 5 times a day (n = 26). Phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) was used in the control group (n = 26). Corneal and conjunctival IL-1β and TNF-α levels were measured at 6 h and 24 h postinjury by ELISA. The wounded area was evaluated by fluorescein staining at 24 h postinjury. Macrophage infiltration was assessed immunohistochemically, and TNF-α secretion from macrophages was examined in vitro.

Results: Conjunctival IL-1β and corneal IL-1β levels were not significantly different between PBS-treated and rebamipide-treated groups. However, conjunctival TNF-α level was significantly lower in the rebamipide-treated group compared with the PBS-treated group. Macrophage migration into the conjunctiva, but not into the cornea, was suppressed by rebamipide treatment. In addition, TNF-α secretion from cultured macrophages was suppressed by rebamipide in a concentration-dependent manner. Rebamipide treatment significantly accelerated corneal epithelial wound healing at 24 h postinjury.

Conclusions: In a mouse corneal epithelial wound model, rebamipide suppressed TNF-α secretion and macrophage infiltration in the conjunctiva, which might have contributed to accelerated corneal epithelial wound healing in the first 24 h following injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vop.12510DOI Listing
July 2018

Reply.

Cornea 2017 09;36(9):e22

Departments of *Ophthalmology and †Microbiology, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ICO.0000000000001274DOI Listing
September 2017

Number of Bacteria and Time of Coincubation With Bacteria Required for the Development of Acanthamoeba Keratitis.

Cornea 2017 Mar;36(3):353-357

Departments of *Ophthalmology, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, Japan; and †Microbiology, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, Japan.

Purpose: We hypothesized that bacteria may be a factor contributing to the development of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK). We investigated interactions between Acanthamoeba and Pseudomonas aeruginosa for the development of keratitis in rabbit corneas.

Methods: Acanthamoeba castellanii (ATCC50492) and P. aeruginosa (PAO-1) were used. Two densities of P. aeruginosa (high, 1 × 10/mL; low, 3 × 10/mL) and 2 durations of coincubation (long, 6 h; short, 2 h) of Acanthamoeba with 1 × 10/mL of P. aeruginosa were tested. Acanthamoeba alone or Acanthamoeba coincubated with P. aeruginosa was inoculated into rabbit corneas. After inoculation, levofloxacin (LVFX) eye drops were administered. The clinical score of the cornea was evaluated after inoculation.

Results: Acanthamoeba alone did not produce keratitis during a 5-day observation period. Rabbit corneas inoculated with Acanthamoeba coincubated with low-density P. aeruginosa followed by topical LVFX were clear with few infiltrates. Corneas inoculated with Acanthamoeba coincubated with high-density P. aeruginosa followed by LVFX treatment developed severe keratitis, and clinical scores were significantly higher compared with high-density P. aeruginosa alone followed by LVFX treatment (scores 7, 9.6, 8.5 vs. 3, 3.5, 3.25 on days 1-3, all P < 0.01). The long (6 h) coincubation time of Acanthamoeba with high-density P. aeruginosa resulted in more severe keratitis compared with short (2 h) coincubation (scores, 9.7, 12.7, 12.1, 9.8, 8.7 vs. 7, 9.6, 8.5, 6.9, 5.6 on days 1-5, all P < 0.01).

Conclusions: These results suggest that the presence of bacteria is essential and a critical number of bacteria is required for the development of AK. The time of coexistence with bacteria may be an important determinant of the severity of AK.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ICO.0000000000001129DOI Listing
March 2017
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