Publications by authors named "Akito Yabu"

23 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Trunk Muscle Mass Measured by Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis Reflecting the Cross-Sectional Area of the Paravertebral Muscles and Back Muscle Strength: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of a Prospective Cohort Study of Elderly Population.

J Clin Med 2021 Mar 12;10(6). Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka 545-8585, Japan.

Trunk muscles play an important role in supporting the spinal column. A decline in trunk muscle mass, as measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis (TMM-BIA), is associated with low back pain and poor quality of life. The purpose of this study was to determine whether TMM-BIA correlates with quantitative and functional assessments traditionally used for the trunk muscles. We included 380 participants (aged ≥ 65 years; 152 males, 228 females) from the Shiraniwa Elderly Cohort (Shiraniwa) study, for whom the following data were available: TMM-BIA, lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and back muscle strength (BMS). We measured the cross-sectional area (CSA) and fat-free CSA of the paravertebral muscles (PVM), including the erector spinae (ES), multifidus (MF), and psoas major (PM), on an axial lumbar MRI at L3/4. The correlation between TMM-BIA and the CSA of PVM, fat-free CSA of PVM, and BMS was investigated. TMM-BIA correlated with the CSA of total PVM and each individual PVM. A stronger correlation between TMM-BIA and fat-free CSA of PVM was observed. The TMM-BIA also strongly correlated with BMS. TMM-BIA is an easy and reliable way to evaluate the trunk muscle mass in a clinical setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10061187DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8001452PMC
March 2021

Using artificial intelligence to diagnose fresh osteoporotic vertebral fractures on magnetic resonance images.

Spine J 2021 Mar 13. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-4-3 Asahi-machi, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545-8585, Japan.

Background Context: Accurate diagnosis of osteoporotic vertebral fracture (OVF) is important for improving treatment outcomes; however, the gold standard has not been established yet. A deep-learning approach based on convolutional neural network (CNN) has attracted attention in the medical imaging field.

Purpose: To construct a CNN to detect fresh OVF on magnetic resonance (MR) images.

Study Design/setting: Retrospective analysis of MR images PATIENT SAMPLE: This retrospective study included 814 patients with fresh OVF. For CNN training and validation, 1624 slices of T1-weighted MR image were obtained and used.

Outcome Measure: We plotted the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and calculated the area under the curve (AUC) in order to evaluate the performance of the CNN. Consequently, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the diagnosis by CNN and that of the two spine surgeons were compared.

Methods: We constructed an optimal model using ensemble method by combining nine types of CNNs to detect fresh OVFs. Furthermore, two spine surgeons independently evaluated 100 vertebrae, which were randomly extracted from test data.

Results: The ensemble method using VGG16, VGG19, DenseNet201, and ResNet50 was the combination with the highest AUC of ROC curves. The AUC was 0.949. The evaluation metrics of the diagnosis (CNN/surgeon 1/surgeon 2) for 100 vertebrae were as follows: sensitivity: 88.1%/88.1%/100%; specificity: 87.9%/86.2%/65.5%; accuracy: 88.0%/87.0%/80.0%.

Conclusions: In detecting fresh OVF using MR images, the performance of the CNN was comparable to that of two spine surgeons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.spinee.2021.03.006DOI Listing
March 2021

Biglycan expression and its function in human ligamentum flavum.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 1;11(1):4867. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-4-3 Asahi Machi, Abeno-Ku, Osaka, 545-8585, Japan.

Hypertrophy of the ligamentum flavum (LF) is a major cause of lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS), and the pathology involves disruption of elastic fibers, fibrosis with increased cellularity and collagens, and/or calcification. Previous studies have implicated the increased expression of the proteoglycan family in hypertrophied LF. Furthermore, the gene expression profile in a rabbit experimental model of LF hypertrophy revealed that biglycan (BGN) is upregulated in hypertrophied LF by mechanical stress. However, the expression and function of BGN in human LF has not been well elucidated. To investigate the involvement of BGN in the pathomechanism of human ligamentum hypertrophy, first we confirmed increased expression of BGN by immunohistochemistry in the extracellular matrix of hypertrophied LF of LSS patients compared to LF without hypertrophy. Experiments using primary cell cultures revealed that BGN promoted cell proliferation. Furthermore, BGN induces changes in cell morphology and promotes myofibroblastic differentiation and cell migration. These effects are observed for both cells from hypertrophied and non-hypertrophied LF. The present study revealed hyper-expression of BGN in hypertrophied LF and function of increased proteoglycan in LF cells. BGN may play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of LF hypertrophy through cell proliferation, myofibroblastic differentiation, and cell migration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-84363-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7921587PMC
March 2021

Expression and function of fibroblast growth factor 1 in the hypertrophied ligamentum flavum of lumbar spinal stenosis.

J Orthop Sci 2021 Feb 23. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan.

Background: Fibrosis is one of the main pathologies caused by hypertrophy of the ligamentum flavum (LF), which leads to lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family is a key mediator of fibrosis. However, acidic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-1) expression and function are not well understood in LF. This study sought to evaluate FGF-1 expression in the hypertrophied and non-hypertrophied human LF, and to investigate its function using primary human LF cell cultures.

Methods: We obtained hypertrophied lumbar LF from LSS patients and non-hypertrophied lumbar LF from control patients during surgery. Immunohistochemistry and qPCR were performed to evaluate FGF-1 expression in LF tissue. The function of FGF-1 and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) was also investigated using primary LF cell culture. The effects on cell morphology and cell proliferation were examined using a crystal violet staining assay and MTT assay, respectively. Immunocytochemistry, western blotting, and qPCR were performed to evaluate the effect of FGF-1 on TGF-β1-induced myofibroblast differentiation and fibrosis.

Results: Immunohistochemistry and qPCR showed higher FGF-1 expression in hypertrophied LF compared to control LF. Crystal violet staining and MTT assay revealed that FGF-1 decreases LF cell size and inhibits their proliferation in a dose-dependent manner, whereas TGF-β1 increases cell size and promotes proliferation. Immunocytochemistry and western blotting further demonstrated that TGF-β1 increases, while FGF-1 decreases, α-SMA expression in LF cells. Moreover, FGF-1 also caused downregulation of collagen type 1 and type 3 expression in LF cells.

Conclusion: FGF-1 is highly upregulated in the LF of LSS patients. Meanwhile, in vitro, FGF-1 exhibits antagonistic effects to TGF-β1 by inhibiting cell proliferation and decreasing LF cell size as well as the expression of fibrosis markers. These results suggest that FGF-1 has an anti-fibrotic role in the pathophysiology of LF hypertrophy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jos.2021.01.004DOI Listing
February 2021

Risk factors of the poor long-term prognosis of osteoporotic vertebral fractures: A multicenter cohort study.

J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong) 2021 Jan-Apr;29(1):2309499021994969

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Abeno-ku, Osaka, Japan.

Introduction: The presence of existing osteoporotic vertebral fracture (OVF) increases the mortality risk. However, the influence of the characteristics of OVF is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the influence of new OVF on patients' long-term prognosis using our past cohort study.

Method: This is an extension study of our cohort study carried out between 2005 and 2007. In the present extension study, of 420 patients, 197 whose contact information was available at the 6-month follow-up were included in the telephone survey in 2018. Five patients refused to participate in the survey, and 82 could not be contacted. Eventually, 110 patients were enrolled. Of the Demographic data, radiological findings, medical history, and clinical outcome were investigated at injury onset and at the 6-month follow-up. A proportional hazard model was used to investigate the risk factors for mortality.

Results: Among 110 patients, 33 died. Male sex and low body mass index (BMI <18.5 kg/m) were significant risk factors for mortality [hazard ratio (HR) = 6.40, 1.01-40.50; 5.24, 1.44-19.04, respectively]. The history of stroke and liver disease increased the risk of mortality (HR = 13.37, 1.93-92.7; 6.62, 1.15-38.14, respectively). As regards radiological findings, local kyphosis progression per 1° or ≥7° were significant risk factors of mortality (HR = 1.20, 1.06-1.36; 5.38, 1.81-16.03, respectively).

Conclusions: A telephone survey at 12 years after the occurrence of OVF analyzed risk factors for mortality and showed that a progression of local kyphosis in fractures between injury onset and 6 months after injury was a risk factor of poor prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2309499021994969DOI Listing
February 2021

Expression and function of FGF9 in the hypertrophied ligamentum flavum of lumbar spinal stenosis patients.

Spine J 2021 Feb 10. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan.

Background Context: Ligamentum flavum (LF) hypertrophy plays a dominant role in lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). A previous study found that fibroblast growth factor 9 (FGF9) was upregulated with mechanical stress in rabbit LF. However, the expression and function of FGF9 are not well understood in human LF.

Purpose: To evaluate FGF9 expression and function in human LF with and without hypertrophy.

Study Design: This study employed a basic research study design utilizing human LF tissue for histological analyses.

Patient Samples: Hypertrophied LF tissue sample from patients with LSS, and nonhypertrophied (control) LFs from patients with lumbar disc herniation or other diseases were obtained during surgery.

Methods: LF specimens were histologically analyzed for FGF9 and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) by immunohistochemistry. The number of total and FGF9 immuno-positive cells and blood vessels were counted and compared between LF with and without hypertrophy. For functional analysis, the effect of FGF9 on cell proliferation and migration was examined using a primary cell culture of human LF.

Results: Histological studies revealed that the total cell number was significantly higher in the LF of patients with LSS than in the LF of control patients. Immunohistochemistry showed that the percentage of FGF9-positive cells was significantly higher in the LF of patients with LSS than in the controls, and it positively correlated with patients' age, regardless of disease. Double immune-positive cells for FGF9 and VEGF-A were often observed in vascular endothelial cells and fibroblasts in the fibrotic area of hypertrophied LF, and the number of double positive vessels was significantly higher in LF of LSS patients than in the LF of controls. Primary cell culture of human LF revealed that FGF9 promoted the proliferation and migration of LF cells.

Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that FGF9 expression is highly upregulated in hypertrophied human LF. FGF9 potentially plays a pivotal role in the process of hypertrophy of LF, which is associated with mechanical stress, through cell proliferation and migration.

Clinical Significance: The results from this study partially reveal the molecular mechanisms of LF hypertrophy and suggest that FGF9 may be involved in the process of LF degeneration in elderly patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.spinee.2021.02.004DOI Listing
February 2021

Classification and prognostic factors of residual symptoms after minimally invasive lumbar decompression surgery using a cluster analysis: a 5-year follow-up cohort study.

Eur Spine J 2021 Apr 8;30(4):918-927. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-4-3 Asahi-machi, Abeno-ku, Osaka, Japan.

Purpose: Residual symptoms indicating incomplete remission of lower leg numbness or low back pain may occur after spine surgery. The purpose was to elucidate the pattern of residual symptoms 5 years after minimally invasive lumbar decompression surgery using a cluster analysis.

Methods: The study comprised 193 patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) (108 men, 85 women) ranging in age from 40 to 86 years (mean, 67.9 years). Each patient underwent 5-year follow-up. The Japanese Orthopedic Association score and visual analog scale scores for low back pain, leg pain, and leg numbness at 5 years were entered into the cluster analysis to characterize postoperative residual symptoms. Other clinical data were analyzed to detect the factors significantly related to each cluster.

Results: The analysis yielded four clusters representing different patterns of residual symptoms. Patients in cluster 1 (57.0%) were substantially improved and had few residual symptoms of LSS. Patients in cluster 2 (11.4%) were poorly improved and had major residual symptoms. Patients in cluster 3 (17.6%) were greatly improved but had mild residual low back pain. Patients in cluster 4 (14.0%) were improved but had severe residual leg numbness. Prognostic factors of cluster 2 were a short maximum walking distance, motor weakness, resting lower leg numbness, cofounding scoliosis, and high sagittal vertical axis.

Conclusions: This is the first study to identify specific patterns of residual symptoms of LSS after decompression surgery. Our results will contribute to acquisition of preoperative informed consent and identification of patients with the best chance of postoperative improvement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00586-021-06754-yDOI Listing
April 2021

Relationship of back muscle and knee extensors with the compensatory mechanism of sagittal alignment in a community-dwelling elderly population.

Sci Rep 2021 Jan 26;11(1):2179. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-4-3 Asahi-machi, Abeno-ku, Osaka, 545-8585, Japan.

Compensatory mechanisms, such as a decrease in thoracic spine kyphosis and posterior tilting or rotation of the pelvis, aim to achieve optimal alignment of the spine. However, the effect of muscle strength on these compensatory mechanisms has not been elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the impact of back muscle and lower extremity strength on compensatory mechanisms in elderly people. Overall, 409 community-dwelling elderly participants (164 men, 245 women) were included. Age, disc degeneration, and 2 or more vertebral fractures showed a significant increase of risk for sagittal vertical axis (SVA) deterioration. Conversely, stronger back, hip flexor, and knee extensor muscles reduced the risk for SVA deterioration. To investigate the association of each muscle's strength with compensatory mechanisms, 162 subjects with pelvic incidence-lumbar lordosis > 10° were selected. The linear regression model for thoracic kyphosis demonstrated a negative correlation with back muscle strength and positive correlation with vertebral fracture. The regression analysis for pelvic tilt demonstrated a positive correlation with knee extensor strength. Back, hip flexor, and knee extensor muscle strength were associated with sagittal spinal alignment. Back muscle strength was important for the decrease in thoracic kyphosis, and knee extensor strength was associated with pelvic tilt.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-82015-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7838190PMC
January 2021

Long-term, Time-course Evaluation of Ligamentum Flavum Hypertrophy Induced by Mechanical Stress: An Experimental Animal Study.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2021 May;46(9):E520-E527

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan.

Study Design: Experimental animal study.

Objective: The aim of this study was to clarify chronological effects of mechanical stress on ligamentum flavum (LF) using a long-term fusion rabbit model.

Summary Of Background Data: LF hypertrophy is a major pathology of lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS), but its mechanism remains unclear. We previously demonstrated mechanical-stress-induced LF hypertrophy with a rabbit model. However, we only investigated LFs at a single time point in the short-term; the effects of long-term mechanical stress have not been elucidated.

Methods: Eighteen-week-old male New Zealand White rabbits were randomly divided into two groups: the mechanical stress group underwent L2-3 and L4-5 posterolateral fusion and resection of the L3-4 supraspinal muscle, whereas the control group underwent only surgical exposure. Rabbits were sacrificed 16 and 52 weeks after the procedure. Axial specimens of LFs at L3-4 were evaluated histologically. Immunohistochemistry for alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) was performed to assess the numbers of vessels and myofibroblasts.

Results: In the mechanical stress group, LFs at the L3-4 level exhibited hypertrophy with elastic fiber disruption and cartilage matrix production at 16 and 52 weeks. A trend test indicated that mechanical stress induced LF hypertrophy, elastic fiber disruption, and cartilage matrix production in a time-dependent manner, with the lowest levels before treatment and the highest at 52 weeks. Immunostaining for α-SMA showed similar numbers of vessels in both groups, whereas the percentage of myofibroblasts was significantly larger at 16 and 52 weeks in the mechanical stress group than in the control group.

Conclusion: We demonstrated that long-term mechanical stress caused LF hypertrophy with progressive elastic fiber disruption and cartilage matrix production accompanied by enhanced myofibroblasts. In addition, the reported rabbit model could be extended to elucidate the mechanism of LF hypertrophy and to develop new therapeutic strategies for LSS by preventing LF hypertrophy.Level of Evidence: SSSSS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BRS.0000000000003832DOI Listing
May 2021

Time Course of Physical and Mental Well-being Improvements After Cervical Surgery.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2021 Mar;46(5):E303-E309

Department of Orthopedics, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan.

Study Design: Retrospective cohort study.

Objective: To elucidate the postoperative time course of improvements in physical and mental well-being in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM).

Summary Of Background Data: Spinal surgeons should understand the postoperative course in detail. However, data are still needed regarding the time course of improvements in well-being, a fundamental aspect of human life, after cervical surgery for CSM.

Methods: One hundred consecutive patients who underwent laminoplasty for CSM, with complete clinical data preoperatively and 3 months and 2 years postoperatively, were enrolled. The Short Form-36 physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) scores were used as parameters of physical and mental well-being, respectively, and 4.0 was defined as the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) for both parameters.

Results: On average, PCS and MCS scores were significantly improved after surgery (P < 0.001, P=0.004, respectively). Moreover, 64 and 48 patients achieved meaningful improvement (>MCID) in PCS and MCS scores at 3 months postoperatively, with maintained improvement (to 2 yr) in 46/64 (71.9%) and 34/48 patients (70.8%), respectively (PCS vs. MCS: P = 0.912). Additionally, 15 of 36 patients (41.7%) and 8 of 52 patients (15.4%) achieved late improvement (meaningful improvement at 2 yr but not at 3 months) in PCS and MCS scores, respectively (PCS vs. MCS: P = 0.007). In multivariate regression analysis, improvement in cJOA score was significantly associated with PCS improvement, but not MCS improvement, at both 3 months and 2 years (P = 0.001, P > 0.001, respectively).

Conclusion: The overall outcome of physical well-being improvement is decided within 3 months postoperatively, in proportion to the recovery in myelopathy, with a relatively high chance of meaningful improvement over the next 21 months. The outcome of improvement in mental well-being is decided within 3 months postoperatively, independently from the recovery in myelopathy, with a low chance of meaningful improvement over the next 21 months.Level of Evidence: 3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BRS.0000000000003787DOI Listing
March 2021

Advanced glycation end products in musculoskeletal system and disorders.

Methods 2020 Sep 26. Epub 2020 Sep 26.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan.

The human population is ageing globally, and the number of old people is increasing yearly. Diabetes is common in the elderly, and the number of diabetic patients is also increasing. Elderly and diabetic patients often have musculoskeletal disorder, which are associated with advanced glycation end products (AGEs). AGEs are heterogeneous molecules derived from non-enzymatic products of the reaction of glucose or other sugar derivatives with proteins or lipids, and many different types of AGEs have been identified. AGEs are a biomarker for ageing and for evaluating disease conditions. Fluorescence, spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, chromatography, and immunological methods are commonly used to measure AGEs, but there is no standardized evaluation method because of the heterogeneity of AGEs. The formation of AGEs is irreversible, and they accumulate in tissue, eventually causing damage. AGE accumulation has been confirmed in neuromusculoskeletal tissues, including bones, cartilage, muscles, tendons, ligaments, and nerves, where they adversely affect biomechanical properties by causing charge changes and forming cross-linkages. AGEs also bind to receptors, such as the receptor for AGEs (RAGE), and induce inflammation by intracellular signal transduction. These mechanisms cause many varied aging and diabetes-related pathological conditions, such as osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, sarcopenia, tendinopathy, and neuropathy. Understanding of AGEs related pathomechanism may lead to develop novel methods for the prevention and therapy of such disorders which affect patients' quality of life. Herein, we critically review the current methodology used for detecting AGEs, and present potential mechanisms by which AGEs cause or exacerbate musculoskeletal disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymeth.2020.09.012DOI Listing
September 2020

Residual numbness of the upper extremity after cervical surgery in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy.

J Neurosurg Spine 2020 Jul 31:1-8. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

Objective: Although numbness is one of the chief complaints of patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM), preoperative factors relating to residual numbness of the upper extremity (UE) and impact of the outcomes on cervical surgery are not well established. The authors hypothesized that severe preoperative UE numbness could be a risk factor for residual UE numbness after surgery and that the residual UE numbness could have a negative impact on postoperative outcomes. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the preoperative factors that are predictive of residual UE numbness after cervical surgery and demonstrate the effects of residual UE numbness on clinical scores and radiographic parameters.

Methods: The study design was a retrospective cohort study. The authors analyzed data of 103 patients who underwent cervical laminoplasty from January 2012 to December 2014 and were followed up for more than 2 years postoperatively. The patients were divided into two groups: the severe residual-numbness group (postoperative visual analog scale [VAS] score for UE numbness > 40 mm) and the no/mild residual-numbness group (VAS score ≤ 40 mm). The outcome measures were VAS score, Japanese Orthopaedic Association scores for cervical myelopathy, physical and mental component summaries of the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), radiographic film parameters (C2-7 sagittal vertical axis, range of motion, C2-7 lordotic angle, and C7 slope), and MRI findings (severity of cervical canal stenosis, snake-eye appearance, severity of foraminal stenosis). Following univariate analysis, which compared the preoperative factors between groups, the variables with p values < 0.1 were included in the multivariate linear regression analysis. Additionally, the changes in clinical scores and radiographic parameters after 2 years of surgery were compared using a mixed-effects model.

Results: Among 103 patients, 42 (40.8%) had residual UE numbness. In the multivariate analysis, sex and preoperative UE pain were found to be independent variables correlating with residual UE numbness (p = 0.017 and 0.046, respectively). The severity of preoperative UE numbness did not relate to the residual UE numbness (p = 0.153). The improvement in neck pain VAS score and physical component summary of the SF-36 was significantly low in the severe residual-numbness group (p < 0.001 and 0.040, respectively).

Conclusions: Forty-one percent of the CSM patients experienced residual UE numbness for at least 2 years after cervical posterior decompression surgery. Female sex and preoperative severe UE pain were the predictive factors for residual UE numbness. The patients with residual UE numbness showed less improvement of neck pain and lower physical status compared to the patients without numbness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.4.SPINE191566DOI Listing
July 2020

Surgical Outcomes of Multilevel Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion versus Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion for the Correction of Adult Spinal Deformity: A Comparative Clinical Study.

Asian Spine J 2020 Aug 23;14(4):421-429. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan.

Study Design: A retrospective case control study.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the surgical outcomes of multilevel lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LIF) and multilevel posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) in the surgical treatment of adult spinal deformity (ASD) and to evaluate the sagittal plane correction by combining LIF with posterior-column osteotomy (PCO).

Overview Of Literature: The surgical outcomes between multilevel LIF and multilevel PLIF in ASD patients remain unclear.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 31 ASD patients who underwent multilevel LIF combined with PCO (LIF group, n=14) or multilevel PLIF (PLIF group, n=17) and with a minimum 2-year follow-up. In the comparison between LIF and PLIF groups, their mean age at surgery was 69.4 vs. 61.8 years while the mean follow-up period was 29.2 vs. 59.3 months. We evaluated the transition of pelvic incidence-lumbar lordosis (PI-LL) and disc angle (DA) in the LIF group, in fulcrum backward bending (FBB), after LIF and after posterior spinal fusion (PSF) with PCO. The spinopelvic radiographic parameters were compared between LIF and PLIF groups.

Results: Compared with the PLIF group, the LIF group had less blood loss and comparable surgical outcomes with respect to radiographic data, health-related quality of life scores and surgical time. In the LIF group, the mean DA and PI-LL were unchanged after LIF (DA, 5.8°; PI-LL, 15°) compared with the values using FBB (DA, 4.3°; PI-LL, 15°) and improved significantly after PSF with PCO (DA, 8.1°; PI-LL, 0°).

Conclusions: In the surgical treatment of ASD, multilevel LIF is less invasive than multilevel PLIF and combination of LIF and PCO would be necessary for optimal sagittal correction in patients with rigid deformity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.31616/asj.2019.0357DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7435311PMC
August 2020

The Severity of Cervical Disc Degeneration Does Not Impact 2-year Postoperative Outcomes in Patients With Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy Who Underwent Laminoplasty.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2020 Sep;45(18):E1142-E1149

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan.

Study Design: Retrospective cohort study.

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of cervical disc degeneration (CDD) severity on 2-year postoperative outcomes following laminoplasty.

Summary Of Background Data: The impact of CDD on postoperative outcomes of cervical laminoplasty has not been well established.

Methods: A total of 144 patients who underwent open-door laminoplasty for cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) were enrolled. Six cervical discs were independently analyzed for degeneration severity using a previously reported grading system (grade 0: none, grade 3: severest). The relationship between the segmental range of motion (ROM) and the severity of CDD was evaluated. Subsequently, after dividing overall patients into mild and severe CDD groups by the average of CDD scores, the mixed-effect model was applied to assess 2-year postoperative outcomes, including physician-assessed myelopathy scores, patient-reported outcomes, and preoperative radiographic parameters. Finally, as additional analysis, the severe CDD group was further divided into two groups: group 1 included patients with a grade 3 CDD change in their most stenotic level and group 2 included the others. The 2-year postoperative myelopathy score was compared between groups 1 and 2.

Results: The cervical segments with grade 3 CDD showed significantly smaller ROM compared with those with grade 0, 1, or 2 CDD (P < 0.01). There were no significant differences in postoperative improvements in myelopathy, pain, patient-reported physical and mental status, and radiographic parameters, except for quality of life (QOL) scores between CDD groups. A significant (P = 0.02) postoperative improvement in QOL scores was noted in the severe CDD group. In an additional analysis, myelopathy score at 2 years postoperatively was significantly higher in group 1 than group 2 (P = 0.041).

Conclusion: The severity of CDD did not negatively impact 2-year postoperative laminoplasty outcomes. The postulated reason is that the decreased segmental instability in the level with severe CDD may affect surgical outcomes positively.

Level Of Evidence: 3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BRS.0000000000003528DOI Listing
September 2020

Predictors of dropout from cohort study due to deterioration in health status, with focus on sarcopenia, locomotive syndrome, and frailty: From the Shiraniwa Elderly Cohort (Shiraniwa) study.

J Orthop Sci 2021 Jan 19;26(1):167-172. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-4-3 Asahi-machi, Abeno-ku, Osaka, Japan.

Background: Conditions of the elderly like sarcopenia, locomotive syndrome, and frailty have been attracting attention recently. However, the relationship of these 3 conditions and the difference in the magnitude of influence each has on deterioration in health status remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and relationship of sarcopenia, locomotive syndrome, and frailty, and to clarify their influence on the dropout from cohort study due to deterioration in health status.

Methods: The 1st survey of the Shiraniwa Elderly Cohort (Shiraniwa) study was conducted in 2016. We examined 409 participants (aged ≥ 65 years; 164 males, 245 females) and assessed sarcopenia, locomotive syndrome, and frailty. Those who could not attend the 2nd survey (2017) due to deterioration in health status were defined as the Dropout group. We investigated the predictors of Dropout using multiple logistic regression analysis.

Results: The prevalence of sarcopenia, locomotive syndrome stage 2, and frailty were 4.4%, 40.1%, and 14.2%, respectively; 89.7% of participants with frailty were also diagnosed with locomotive syndrome stage 2. From the results of the 2nd survey, 46 people were classified into the Dropout group. Independent predictors of the Dropout were locomotive syndrome stage 2 (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 2.42, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.11-5.31) and frailty (adjusted OR: 3.37, 95%CI: 1.56-7.30).

Conclusions: Locomotive syndrome stage 2 was the most common condition in the elderly, and most people with frailty also had locomotive syndrome stage 2. Locomotive syndrome stage 2 and frailty independently influenced the dropout from cohort study due to deterioration in health status. These results suggest that screening for locomotive syndrome is useful for early detection of the elderly with a risk of deterioration in health status, and screening for frailty may contribute to detecting the elderly with higher risk of deterioration in health status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jos.2020.02.006DOI Listing
January 2021

Patient-reported outcomes for cervical disease in end-stage renal disease patients: Propensity matching analysis using volunteer data.

J Clin Neurosci 2020 Feb 6;72:130-133. Epub 2020 Jan 6.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan.

As the number of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has been increasing, the number of cervical spine surgeries for the patients with ESRD has also been increasing. The purpose is to identify the differences in cervical disease-specific patient-reported outcomes (PROs) between a healthy population and patients with ESRD, adjusting for subjects' age and physical activity.

Methods: The ESRD group included patients with ESRD who were treated with hemodialysis in our outpatient clinic and healthy volunteers were individuals who attended public health lectures. Volunteers with a history of cervical disease were excluded. All participants answered the Japanese Orthopaedic Association Cervical Myelopathy Evaluation Questionnaire (JOACMEQ) and questionnaires that evaluate the disability in performing physical activities.

Results: A total of 111 participants were enrolled and divided into the ESRD group (n = 40) and the control group (n = 71). After adjusting for age and sex using propensity score, cervical function (p = 0.008), lower-extremity function (p = 0.007), and QOL (p < 0.001) in patients in the adjusted ESRD group were significantly lower than those in the control group. In multivariate linear regression, the use of hemodialysis was a significant variable that was negatively related to lower-extremity function (p = 0.004) and QOL (p = 0.011) independent of age and disability in performing physical activity.

Conclusion: The ESRD was a significant negative factor of lower-extremity function and QOL, independent of age, sex, and disability in performing physical activity. These results can help understand the cervical status of patients with ESRD and adjust the goal for such patients after cervical surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jocn.2019.12.045DOI Listing
February 2020

Improvement in Patient Mental Well-being After Surgery for Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2020 May;45(10):E568-E575

Department of Orthopedics, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Asahimachi, Abenoku, Osaka, Japan.

Study Design: Retrospective cohort study.

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate changes in mental well-being after surgery for cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) and identify factors associated with improvement.

Summary Of Background Data: Posterior cervical surgery with laminoplasty significantly improves myelopathy and physical function in patients with CSM. However, its impact on mental well-being is unclear.

Methods: Patients who underwent laminoplasty for CSM and had >2 years of follow-up were reviewed (n = 111). The mental component summary (MCS) score was used as a measure of mental well-being. The trend in MCS score change was evaluated using the Jonckheere-Terpstra trend test. Preoperative clinical scores were compared between patients with improvements greater and less than the minimal clinically important difference (MCID). Significant variables were included in a multinomial logistic regression analysis and further validated in a receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Additionally, the results were confirmed in a long-term observation cohort of patients followed up for >5 years (n = 46).

Results: The improvement in the average MCS score (5.6) was greater than the MCID (4.0). The trend of improvement was sustained for 2 years (P = 0.002), but not for 5 years (P = 0.130). In terms of individual cases, 56 patients (50.5%) achieved MCS score improvement greater than the MCID. These patients showed significantly lower preoperative MCS scores than those without meaningful improvement (P < 0.001). The preoperative "social functioning (SF)" score was independently associated with MCS score improvement (P = 0.001). ROC curve analysis validated the ability of preoperative SF to predict MCS score improvement at 2 and 5 years postoperatively (area under the curve: 0.744, 0.893, respectively).

Conclusion: Half of the patients achieved meaningful improvement in mental well-being. A lower preoperative SF score was independently associated with improvement. These results may help identify patients who could experience an improvement in mental well-being after surgery and develop novel approaches to achieve further improvement.

Level Of Evidence: 3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BRS.0000000000003337DOI Listing
May 2020

Clinical Impact of Cervical Imbalance on Surgical Outcomes of Laminoplasty: A Propensity Score-Matching Analysis.

Clin Spine Surg 2020 02;33(1):E1-E7

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan.

Study Design: This is a retrospective cohort study.

Objective: The objective of this study was to identify the impact of preoperative cervical sagittal balance on the 2-year surgical outcomes of laminoplasty.

Summary Of Background Data: The cervical imbalance is considered associated with poor health-related quality of life and poor outcomes for cervical deformity surgery. However, the influences of cervical imbalance on the clinical outcomes of laminoplasty for cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) patients are unclear.

Materials And Methods: A total of 277 consecutive CSM patients who underwent laminoplasty were analyzed. From the last consecutive 136 patients, matched control group [cervical sagittal vertical axis (cSVA)<40 mm, n=30] and matched imbalance group (≥40 mm, n=30) were selected based on their propensity score adjusted for age, sex, cervical alignment, and preoperative Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score. Change in clinical outcomes and radiographic parameters at 2 years postoperatively were compared between the 2 matched groups using mixed-effects model. For the validation of the primary results, factors that correlated with the recovery rate of JOA score of another 141 patients were analyzed using multiple linear regression analysis.

Results: There was no significant interaction between the 2 matched groups in all clinical outcomes, including the severity of myelopathy, patient-oriented health-related quality of life score, physical and mental status, physical functions, and pain score. Regarding the radiographic evaluation, change in cSVA showed significant differences (P=0.038); cSVA was kept stable in the matched control group, whereas its value significantly decreased in the matched imbalance group. Multiple linear regression models demonstrated that preoperative cSVA is not significantly related to the recovery rate of JOA score at 2 years postoperatively (P=0.114).

Conclusions: Preoperative cervical imbalance did not significantly affect the 2-year surgical outcomes of laminoplasty. Furthermore, cervical imbalance improved after surgery. These results can suggest physicians consider laminoplasty as a treatment for CSM patients regardless of their cervical balance.

Level Of Evidence: Level III-treatment benefits: nonrandomized controlled cohort/follow-up study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BSD.0000000000000849DOI Listing
February 2020

Does sagittal imbalance impact the surgical outcomes of short-segment fusion for lumbar spinal stenosis associated with degenerative lumbar scoliosis?

J Orthop Sci 2019 Mar 2;24(2):224-229. Epub 2018 Nov 2.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan.

Background: The degenerative lumbar scoliosis (DLS) patients who mainly complained about neurogenic claudication due to spinal canal stenosis are well-indicated for short segment fusion (SSF) at the affecting levels. However, it is unclear whether we should consider global sagittal balance or not. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of sagittal balance on the surgical outcomes of degenerative lumbar scoliosis (DLS) patients who underwent SSF.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 70 DLS patients who underwent SSF (less than 3 levels) and could be followed for at least 2 years. The PI-LL, PT, SVA, and T1 pelvic angle (TPA) were measured using standing whole spine X-rays preoperatively (PreO) and at final follow-up (FFU). Surgical outcomes were assessed with the improvement in Japanese Orthopaedic Association score (JOAs) for low back pain (LBP), and the level of LBP was measured using the visual analogue scale (LBP-VAS). We analysed the relationships between the radiographic parameters and the surgical outcomes.

Results: We divided the patients into the three groups (poor/fair/good) based on the JOAs. The analysis with the Jonckheere-Terpstra trend test indicated that the following radiographic parameters had a significant trend with surgical outcomes in each group: (poor/fair/good; p value); PreO PI-LL (26/20/17°; P = 0.04), SVA (46/75/35.5 mm; P = 0.02), TPA (28/27/23°; p = 0.04), FFU PI-LL (33/25/8.5°; P = 0.004), SVA (93/90.5/32.5 mm; P = 0.001), and TPA (33/29/25°; P = 0.007). Additionally, LBP-VAS had a significant correlation between the three groups at final follow-up (P = 0.004). There were significant correlations between improvement in JOAs and PI-LL, SVA, and TPA both PreO and at FFU (P < 0.05).

Conclusions: Sagittal spinal imbalance and spinopelvic malalignment significantly impact the surgical outcomes of SSF for DLS. Preoperative evaluation of spinopelvic alignment and sagittal balance is of critical importance when SSF are performed for DLS patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jos.2018.10.005DOI Listing
March 2019

Comparison of minimally invasive decompression and combined minimally invasive decompression and fusion in patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis with instability.

J Clin Neurosci 2018 Nov 25;57:79-85. Epub 2018 Aug 25.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan.

Posterior lumbar interbody fusion with cortical bone trajectory (CBT-PLIF) is a form of minimally invasive decompression and fusion, whereas microendoscopic laminotomy (MEL) is a form of minimally invasive decompression surgery. No study has compared the clinical outcomes of the two methods for patients who have degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) with instability. In this study, CBT-PLIF and MEL were both offered to 64 patients who met the inclusion criteria. Each patient then selected his or her preferred treatment. Twenty patients received CBT-PLIF. They were matched to 30 of the 44 patients receiving MEL based on age, sex, disease duration, and surgical levels. The 20 patients with CBT-PLIF formed the CBT group and the 30 matched patients with MEL formed the MEL group. At 2 years of follow-up, Japanese Orthopaedic Association scores improved to 72.6% and 70.5% in the CBT and MEL groups, respectively. The difference in scores was not statistically significant. Further, improvements in visual analogue scale scores for back and leg symptom did not differ significantly between the two groups. Regarding complications, 1 CBT-group patient (5%) had adjacent-segment degeneration and 7 MEL-group patients (23%) had same-segment degeneration. Three CBT-group patients (15%) and 5 MEL-group patients (16%) required reoperation within the follow-up period. In summary, among patients who had DS with instability, MEL and CBT-PLIF offered comparable clinical outcomes at 2 years of follow-up. Although the rate of segmental degeneration was relatively high in the MEL group, both groups had similar reoperation rates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jocn.2018.08.032DOI Listing
November 2018

Effect of Different Types of Upper Instrumented Vertebrae Instruments on Proximal Junctional Kyphosis Following Adult Spinal Deformity Surgery: Pedicle Screw versus Transverse Process Hook.

Asian Spine J 2018 Aug 27;12(4):622-631. Epub 2018 Jul 27.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan.

Study Design: Retrospective comparative study.

Purpose: To compare the incidence of proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) between transverse process hooks (TPHs) and pedicle screws (PSs) at the upper instrumented vertebrae (UIV) following adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery.

Overview Of Literature: The choice of UIV implant type may be important for avoiding PJK; however, few comparative clinical studies have evaluated the incidence of PJK according to the type of UIV implant used in ASD surgery.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 39 consecutive patients with ASD (mean age, 67 years; mean follow-up period, 41 months) who underwent corrective surgery between 2009 and 2013. TPH was used in 17 patients and PS in 22 patients. PJK was defined as the presence of a UIV or UIV±1 fracture, or a change in the proximal junctional angle (PJA) of >20°. Data of patients with TPH and PS were compared.

Results: The TPH group had a PJK incidence of 17.6% compared with 27.3% in the PS group (p =0.47). In the TPH group, PJK was a result of UIV fracture in one patient, UIV-1 fracture in one patient, and ligamentous failure in one patient. In the PS group, six patients developed PJK because of UIV fracture. No differences in radiographic parameters were found between the two groups. After analyzing the PJA data in the patients with PJK, the changes in PJA were significantly higher in the PS group than in the TPH group (19.0°/5.0°, p =0.04).

Conclusions: Our results show that using TPH as a UIV implant may not prevent PJK; however, using TPH as the UIV anchor may prevent vertebral collapse if cases of UIV fracture. The increased risk of UIV fracture collapse in the PS group may be a result of a higher mechanical load on UIV when using PS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.31616/asj.2018.12.4.622DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6068411PMC
August 2018

Preoperative severity of facet joint degeneration does not impact the 2-year clinical outcomes and cervical imbalance following laminoplasty.

Spine J 2019 02 27;19(2):246-252. Epub 2018 Jun 27.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan.

Background Context: The impact of preoperative facet degeneration (FD) on surgical outcomes following laminoplasty has not been established.

Purpose: To elucidate the influence of preoperative FD on pre and postoperative clinical symptoms and radiographic parameters.

Study Design: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data.

Patient Sample: A total of 135 consecutive patients who underwent laminoplasty for cervical spondylotic myelopathy with greater than 2 years follow-up.

Outcome Measures: The cervical Japanese Orthopedic Association score, visual analog scale, Short Form-36, Japanese Orthopedic Association Cervical Myelopathy Evaluation Questionnaire, and radiographic parameters (C7 slope, C2-C7 sagittal vertical axis, C2-C7 lordotic angle, and scoring of FD).

Methods: FD severity of the bilateral facets of C2-3 to C7-T1 was graded using preoperative computer tomography images. Patients were divided into two quantiles according to the mean score of their FD grading: mild (n=69) and severe FD groups (n=66). The preoperative clinical score and radiographic parameters of the two groups were compared. Variables with p<.05 were included in the multinomial logistic regression model. The changes in clinical scores and radiographic parameters between both groups (from the preoperative to 2-year postoperative period) were compared using a mixed-effect model, after adjusting for age and sex.

Results: Mean age and neck pain visual analog scale were independently associated with FD severity (age: p=.004, neck pain: p=.004). However, the other preoperative clinical scores and radiographic parameters were not significantly different. In terms of the change in clinical scores 2 years postlaminoplasty, no significant differences between the severe and mild FD groups were noted. While the mild FD group had a reduced C2-C7 lordotic angle, the severe FD group demonstrated an increased C2-C7 lordotic angle 2 years postlaminoplasty (p=.044). The change in C7 slope and C2-C7 sagittal vertical axis showed no significant differences.

Conclusions: Preoperative FD severity did not influence the 2-year surgical outcomes of laminoplasty, in terms of improvement in myelopathy, patient-oriented score of quality of life, physical and mental status, as well as neck pain. Furthermore, preoperative FD severity correlated with neither preoperative cervical imbalance nor balance deterioration after laminoplasty. These results may encourage physicians to consider laminoplasty for patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy, regardless of the severity of FD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.spinee.2018.06.343DOI Listing
February 2019

Hepatocellular ballooning in NASH.

J Hepatol 2010 Oct 25;53(4):719-23. Epub 2010 Jun 25.

GI/Hepatology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA.

Background & Aims: Hepatocellular ballooning is a key finding in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). It is conventionally defined by hemotoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining showing enlarged cells with rarefied cytoplasm and recently by changes in the cytoskeleton. Fat droplets are emerging as important organelles in cell metabolism. To address a possible relation between fat droplets and ballooning, we studied fat staining, H&E, and keratin 18 staining in human NASH.

Methods: Sequential staining and high resolution imaging were used to study freshly prepared cryo-sections from 10 patients with histologically confirmed steatohepatitis using oil red O for fat droplet identification, H&E to identify ballooning, and anti-K18 to confirm cytoskeletal changes. High resolution images were captured at each stage using the Aperio Scanscope. To provide ultrastructural correlation, glutaraldehyde-fixed specimens were studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with serial sectioning for localization of ballooned cells by light microscopy and TEM in identical specimens.

Results: Serial staining consistently demonstrated that hepatocellular ballooning is associated with fat droplet accumulation evident by oil red O positivity and depletion of cytoplasmic keratin 18 with K-18 positive Mallory-Denk bodies (MDB). TEM confirmed the association between osmium stained fat droplets, MDB formation, and cellular enlargement and suggested droplet-associated dilation of the endoplasmic reticulum.

Conclusions: These results indicate a relationship between cellular ballooning, fat droplet accumulation, and cytoskeletal injury in NASH. We speculate that injury to multiple, organelles including fat droplets and endoplasmic reticulum, contribute to this characteristic finding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2010.04.031DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2930100PMC
October 2010