Publications by authors named "Akira Kanda"

61 Publications

Omalizumab Restores Response to Corticosteroids in Patients with Eosinophilic Chronic Rhinosinusitis and Severe Asthma.

Biomedicines 2021 Jul 7;9(7). Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Airway Disease Section, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Kansai Medical University, Hirakata, Osaka 573-1010, Japan.

Eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (ECRS), which is a subgroup of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps, is characterized by eosinophilic airway inflammation extending across both the upper and lower airways. Some severe cases are refractory even after endoscopic sinus surgery, likely because of local steroid insensitivity. Although real-life studies indicate that treatment with omalizumab for severe allergic asthma improves the outcome of coexistent ECRS, the underlying mechanisms of omalizumab in eosinophilic airway inflammation have not been fully elucidated. Twenty-five patients with ECRS and severe asthma who were refractory to conventional treatments and who received omalizumab were evaluated. Nineteen of twenty-five patients were responsive to omalizumab according to physician-assessed global evaluation of treatment effectiveness. In the responders, the levels of peripheral blood eosinophils and fractionated exhaled nitric oxide (a marker of eosinophilic inflammation) and of CCL4 and soluble CD69 (markers of eosinophil activation) were reduced concomitantly with the restoration of corticosteroid sensitivity. Omalizumab restored the eosinophil-peroxidase-mediated PP2A inactivation and steroid insensitivity in BEAS-2B. In addition, the local inflammation simulant model using BEAS-2B cells incubated with diluted serum from each patient confirmed omalizumab's effects on restoration of corticosteroid sensitivity via PP2A activation; thus, omalizumab could be a promising therapeutic option for refractory eosinophilic airway inflammation with corticosteroid resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9070787DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8301363PMC
July 2021

Treg and IL-1 receptor type 2-expressing CD4 T cell-deleted CD4 T cell fraction prevents the progression of age-related hearing loss in a mouse model.

J Neuroimmunol 2021 08 8;357:577628. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Kansai Medical University, Hirakata, Osaka, Japan.

We investigated the association between cellular immunity and age-related hearing loss (ARHL) development using three CD4 T cell fractions, namely, naturally occurring regulatory T cells (Treg), interleukin 1 receptor type 2-expressing T cells (I1R2), and non-Treg non-I1R2 (nTnI) cells, which comprised Treg and I1R2-deleted CD4 T cells. Inoculation of the nTnI fraction into a ARHL murine model, not only prevented the development of ARHL and the degeneration of spiral ganglion neurons, but also suppressed serum nitric oxide, a source of oxidative stress. Further investigations on CD4 T cell fractions could provide novel insights into the prevention of aging, including presbycusis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroim.2021.577628DOI Listing
August 2021

Low Level of Serum Cadmium in Relation to Blood Pressures Among Japanese General Population.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2021 Feb 26. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Department of Mibyo Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki University, 5 Zaifu, Hirosaki city, Aomori Prefecture, 036-8562, Japan.

Hypertension (HT) is an important risk factor for mortality and morbidity. Previous studies showed that cadmium (Cd) was associated with increased blood pressures and the prevalence of HT. This study hypothesized that Cd, regardless of its level, may increase blood pressures/HT. The objective of this study was to examine the associations between a low level of serum Cd concentration and blood pressures/HT among a general population in the Iwaki area, Japan. This was a cross-sectional study, conducted in the Aomori prefecture with 1144 volunteers aged over 19 years old, who were participants of the Iwaki health check-up in 2014. The study assessed questionnaire survey, body composition, and serum Cd concentrations. Median serum Cd concentration was 0.06 ng/mL (interquartile range 0.05-0.08 ng/mL) among our study population. Compared to the lowest quintile of serum Cd concentration group, the highest quintile of serum Cd concentration group had 4.9 mmHg higher systolic blood pressure (SBP) (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.53-8.31, p < 0.01) and 2.4 mmHg higher diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (95% CI 0.36-4.34, p < 0.05), compared to the lowest quintile group. Similarly, the highest quintile of serum Cd concentration group had 1.7 times higher prevalence of HT (95% CI 1.10-2.51, p < 0.05) than the lowest quintile group. This study identified that higher serum Cd concentration was significantly, positively, associated with SBP and DBP and HT prevalence. This study provided evidence for the associations between environmental exposure to Cd and blood pressures/HT which should be considered for future preventive measures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-021-02648-8DOI Listing
February 2021

Long-term sublingual immunotherapy provides better effects for patients with Japanese cedar pollinosis.

Auris Nasus Larynx 2021 Aug 29;48(4):646-652. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Kansai Medical University, shinmachi 2-5-1, Hirakata, Osaka, Japan.

Objective: Japanese cedar pollinosis is an endemic disease affecting a large proportion of Japan's population. Five seasons have passed since sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) for Japanese cedar pollinosis was included in the public insurance coverage in Japan. In this study, we evaluated the clinical effects of long-term SLIT for Japanese cedar pollinosis on upper respiratory symptoms primarily represented by nasal symptoms and inflammation of the respiratory tract in the 2019 season, in which considerable amount of cedar pollen was dispersed.

Methods: This study involved 95 patients who were undergoing SLIT for Japanese cedar pollinosis after the initiation at some point between 2014 and 2018, and this group of patients was compared with a control group comprising 21 patients receiving preseasonal prophylactic treatment (with a second-generation antihistaminic drug). We evaluated the patients' nasal/eye symptoms, total nasal symptom and medication score (TNSMS), and quality of life according to relevant guidelines. In addition, the levels of peripheral blood eosinophils, serum total IgE, Japanese cedar antigen-specific IgE, Cryj1-specific IgG4, and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) were measured as objective indices.

Results: From the fourth season (SLIT4), nasal discharge, sneezing, nasal obstruction symptoms, and TNSMS significantly decreased compared with those in the preseasonal prophylactic treatment and SLIT1 groups. In the patients suspected to have eosinophilic airway inflammation (with a baseline FENO ≥25 ppb), the interannual variability of FENO levels significantly reduced after 5 years of treatment.

Conclusion: The efficacy of SLIT was noted from the first year of treatment, even in a year when pollen profusely dispersed. Thus, long-term continuous treatment with SLIT may alleviate nasal symptoms as well as eosinophilic airway inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anl.2021.01.003DOI Listing
August 2021

Prevalence of whiplash injury and its association with quality of life in local residents in Japan: A cross sectional study.

J Orthop Sci 2021 Jan 7. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, 5 Zaifu-cho, Hirosaki, Aomori, 036-8562, Japan.

Background: Associations between whiplash injuries and quality of life (QOL) have been previously published by conducting surveys among patients. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of whiplash injuries in a Japanese community, and the association between whiplash injuries and QOL was also determined.

Methods: In all, 1140 volunteers participated in this study, filled out a questionnaire about whether they had experienced a whiplash injury, or had any neck pain or neck-shoulder stiffness in the previous 3 months, and completed the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey. QOL was evaluated from the eight domain scores, and the Physical Component Summary (PCS) and Mental Component Summary (MCS) scores. We compared the characteristics, habits, history, medication, body mass index, and health-related QOL (eight domains, PCS and MCS scores) between the groups with whiplash injuries and no whiplash injuries for each sex. Multiple linear regressions with the forced-entry procedure were performed to evaluate the effects of a whiplash injury on the PCS and MCS. A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: The prevalence of whiplash injuries was 7.7% and 9.6% in men and women, respectively. The percentage of those who experienced whiplash injuries with symptoms persisting for more than 3 months was 34.3% and 24.2% in men and women, respectively. The prevalence of neck symptoms was significantly higher in the whiplash injury group than in the non-whiplash injury group. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that, although whiplash injuries were associated with poor health-related QOL in men, age was more associated with health-related QOL than whiplash injuries in both sexes.

Conclusion: The prevalence of whiplash injuries was 7.7% and 9.6% in men and women in local residents in Japan, respectively. Whiplash injuries were poorly associated with a poor health-related QOL in men (P = 0.015).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jos.2020.12.007DOI Listing
January 2021

The multiple functions and subpopulations of eosinophils in tissues under steady-state and pathological conditions.

Allergol Int 2021 Jan 24;70(1):9-18. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Kansai Medical University, Osaka, Japan.

Eosinophils not only play a critical role in the pathogenesis of eosinophil-associated diseases, but they also have multiple important biological functions, including the maintenance of homeostasis, host defense against infections, immune regulation through canonical Th1/Th2 balance modulation, and anti-inflammatory and anti-tumorigenic activities. Recent studies have elucidated some emerging roles of eosinophils in steady-state conditions; for example, eosinophils contribute to adipose tissue metabolism and metabolic health through alternatively activated macrophages and the maintenance of plasma cells in intestinal tissue and bone marrow. Moreover, eosinophils exert tissue damage through eosinophil-derived cytotoxic mediators that are involved in eosinophilic airway inflammation, leading to diseases including asthma and chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps characterized by fibrin deposition through excessive response by eosinophils-induced. Thus, eosinophils possessing these various effects reflect the heterogenous features of these cells, which suggests the existence of distinct different subpopulations of eosinophils between steady-state and pathological conditions. Indeed, a recent study demonstrated that instead of dividing eosinophils by classical morphological changes into normodense and hypodense eosinophils, murine eosinophils from lung tissue can be phenotypically divided into two distinct subtypes: resident eosinophils and inducible eosinophils gated by Siglec-F CD62L CD101 and Siglec-F CD62L CD101, respectively. However, it is difficult to explain every function of eosinophils by rEos and iEos, and the relationship between the functions and subpopulations of eosinophils remains controversial. Here, we overview the multiple roles of eosinophils in the tissue and their biological behavior in steady-state and pathological conditions. We also discuss eosinophil subpopulations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.alit.2020.11.001DOI Listing
January 2021

Combination therapy with lenvatinib and radiation significantly inhibits thyroid cancer growth by uptake of tyrosine kinase inhibitor.

Exp Cell Res 2021 01 21;398(1):112390. Epub 2020 Nov 21.

Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Kansai Medical University, 2-5-1 Shin-machi, Hirakata, Osaka, 573-1010, Japan.

Although surgical treatment cures >90% of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients, the remaining patients, including advanced DTC cases, have poor clinical outcomes. These patients with inoperable disease have only two choices of radioactive iodine therapy and tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as lenvatinib, which have a high incidence of treatment-related adverse events and can only prolong progression free survival by approximately 5-15 months. In this study, we investigated the antitumor effects of combination therapy with lenvatinib and radiation (CTLR) for DTC. CTLR synergistically inhibited cell replication and colony formation in vitro and tumor growth in nude mice without apparent toxicities and suppressed the expression of proliferation marker (Ki-67). CTLR also induced apoptosis and G2/M phase cell cycle arrest. Moreover, quantitative analysis of the intracellular uptake of lenvatinib using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry demonstrated that intracellular uptake of lenvatinib was significantly increased 48 h following irradiation. These data suggest that increased membrane permeability caused by irradiation increases the intracellular concentration of levatinib, contributing to the synergistic effect. This mechanism-based potential of combination therapy suggests a powerful new therapeutic strategy for advanced thyroid cancer with fewer side effects and might be a milestone for developing a regimen in clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yexcr.2020.112390DOI Listing
January 2021

Reduced Local Response to Corticosteroids in Eosinophilic Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Asthma.

Biomolecules 2020 02 18;10(2). Epub 2020 Feb 18.

Airway Disease Section, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Kansai Medical University, Hirakata, Osaka 573-1010, Japan.

Eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (ECRS), a subgroup of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps, is recognized as a refractory eosinophilic disorder characterized by both upper and lower airway inflammation. In some severe cases, disease control is poor, likely due to local steroid insensitivity. In this study, we focused on protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), a key factor regulating glucocorticoid receptor (GR) nuclear translocation, and examined its association with local responses to corticosteroids in eosinophilic airway inflammation. Our results indicated reduced responses to corticosteroids in nasal epithelial cells from ECRS patients with asthma, which were also associated with decreased PP2A mRNA expression. Eosinophil peroxidase stimulates elevated PP2A phosphorylation levels, reducing PP2A protein expression and activity. In addition, mRNA levels of inflammatory mediators (TSLP, IL-25, IL-33, CCL4, CCL5, CCL11, and CCL26) associated with eosinophilic airway inflammation in epithelial cells were increased in nasal polyps (eosinophil-rich areas) compared with those in uncinate process tissues (eosinophil-poor areas) from the same patients. PP2A reduction by siRNA reduced GR nuclear translocation, whereas PP2A overexpression by plasmid transfection, or PP2A activation by formoterol, enhanced GR nuclear translocation. Collectively, our findings indicate that PP2A may represent a promising therapeutic target in refractory eosinophilic airway inflammation characterized by local steroid insensitivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10020326DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7072408PMC
February 2020

Increased CD69 expression on activated eosinophils in eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis correlates with clinical findings.

Allergol Int 2020 Apr 10;69(2):232-238. Epub 2020 Jan 10.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head & Neck Surgery, Kansai Medical University, Osaka, Japan.

Background: Eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (ECRS) is a subtype of chronic rhinosinusitis associated with asthma. CD69 is an important marker of activation for eosinophils. But, whether a correlation exist between the CD69 expression on eosinophils and clinical findings is unclear.

Methods: We performed quantitative PCR and/or flow cytometry using tissue and purified eosinophils from the blood and nasal polyps of 12 patients with ECRS and from 8 patients without ECRS (controls). We assessed clinical findings including nasal polyp (NP) scores, sinus CT findings, and pulmonary function test results, and examined their possible association with the CD69 expression. We also performed CD69 cross-linking experiments in mouse eosinophils to investigate the functional role of CD69.

Results: Levels of cytokine mRNAs (IL-4, -5, -10, and -13) were significantly higher in purified NP eosinophils and tissues from patients with ECRS than the levels of those in controls. The expressions of major basic protein (MBP), eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP), eosinophilic-derived neurotoxin (EDN), eosinophil peroxidase (EPX) in cytotoxic granules, and CD69 mRNA were significantly higher in purified eosinophils from NPs than in those from blood. We also found a correlation between expression of CD69 and clinical findings. Moreover, we found EPX release from mouse eosinophils following CD69 cross-linking.

Conclusions: These data suggest that increased CD69 expression by eosinophils is not only a biomarker for nasal obstruction and pulmonary dysfunction, but also a potential therapeutic target for patients with ECRS and asthma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.alit.2019.11.002DOI Listing
April 2020

Multiple Biological Aspects of Eosinophils in Host Defense, Eosinophil-Associated Diseases, Immunoregulation, and Homeostasis: Is Their Role Beneficial, Detrimental, Regulator, or Bystander?

Biol Pharm Bull 2020 ;43(1):20-30

Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Kansai Medical University.

Eosinophils are innate immune leukocytes and play important roles as terminal effector cells owing to their mediators, such as tissue-destructive cationic proteins, cytokines, chemokines, and lipid mediators. Historically, they are not only considered an important player in host defense against parasitic, viral, fungal, and bacterial infections but also implicated in the pathogenesis of eosinophil-associated diseases, such as allergic rhinitis, asthma, eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis, esophagitis, atopic dermatitis, myopathies, and hypereosinophilic syndrome. Moreover, recent studies have shown that eosinophils have an immune regulatory and homeostatic function. Interestingly, there is emerging evidence that eosinophils are accumulated through adoptive T-helper 2 (Th2) and innate Th2 responses, mechanisms of the classical allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated response, and group 2 innate lymphoid cell-derived interleukin-5, respectively. Furthermore, in agreement with current concepts of eosinophil subtypes, it has been shown that resident and phenotypically distinct eosinophils, i.e., resident and recruited inflammatory eosinophils, exist in inflamed sites, and each has different functions. Thus, the classical and novel studies suggest that eosinophils have multiple functions, and their roles may be altered by the environment. In this article, we review multiple biological aspects of eosinophils (novel and classical roles), including their beneficial and detrimental effects, immunoregulation, and homeostatic function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1248/bpb.b19-00892DOI Listing
November 2020

Eosinophilic Cholecystitis Occurred in a Patient With Refractory Eosinophilic Airway Inflammation: A Case Report.

Allergy Rhinol (Providence) 2019 Jan-Dec;10:2152656719869607. Epub 2019 Aug 19.

Department of Otolaryngology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka, Japan.

Background: Eosinophilic cholecystitis (EC) is a rare condition that presents in a manner comparable to acute cholecystitis. The diagnosis is based on classical symptoms of cholecystitis with excessive eosinophilic infiltration within the gallbladder. EC has been reported alone or in combination with manifestations, such as eosinophilic gastrointestinal tract inflammation. However, association with airway inflammation in patients with EC is rare. We report the case of a 65-year-old man who had refractory eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis with bronchial asthma. A second endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) was performed as treatment for recurrent nasal polyps. EC occurred while inhaled corticosteroids were reduced after ESS. Pathologic examination of the excised gallbladder demonstrated submucosal infiltration with a number of eosinophils. Furthermore, immunohistostaining revealed many galectin-10-positive cells in both the gallbladder mucosa and the paranasal sinus mucosa. Galectin-10 is a major constituent of human eosinophils, also known as the Charcot-Leyden crystal protein, which has been linked with eosinophilic inflammation. Interestingly, nasal polyps were reduced without any additional treatments 1 month after the cholecystectomy.

Conclusions: We experienced a rare case wherein EC onset occurred in a patient with refractory eosinophilic airway inflammation during inhaled corticosteroid tapering. Galectin-10 might help diagnose rare cases of eosinophilic inflammation in multiple organs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2152656719869607DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6700860PMC
August 2019

A Novel Approach for Investigating Upper Airway Hyperresponsiveness Using Micro-CT in Eosinophilic Upper Airway Inflammation such as Allergic Rhinitis Model.

Biomolecules 2019 06 27;9(7). Epub 2019 Jun 27.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Kansai Medical University, Hirakata 573-1010, Japan.

Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) has been proposed as a feature of pathogenesis of eosinophilic upper airway inflammation such as allergic rhinitis (AR). The measurement system for upper AHR (AHR) in rodents is poorly developed, although measurements of nasal resistance have been reported. Here we assessed UAHR by direct measurement of swelling of the nasal mucosa induced by intranasal methacholine (MCh) using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). Micro-CT analysis was performed in both naïve and ovalbumin-induced AR mice following intranasal administration of MCh. The nasal cavity was segmented into two-dimensional horizontal and axial planes, and the data for nasal mucosa were acquired for the region of interest threshold. Then, a ratio between the nasal mucosa area and nasal cavity area was calculated as nasal mucosa index. Using our novel method, nasal cavity structure was clearly identified on micro-CT, and dose-dependent increased swelling of the nasal mucosa was observed upon MCh treatment. Moreover, the nasal mucosa index was significantly increased in AR mice compared to controls following MCh treatment, while ovalbumin administration did not affect swelling of the nasal mucosa in either group. This UAHR following MCh treatment was completely reversed by pretreatment with glucocorticoids. This novel approach using micro-CT for investigating UAHR reflects a precise assessment system for swelling of the nasal mucosa following MCh treatment; it not only sheds light on the mechanism of AR but also contributes to the development of new therapeutic drugs in AR patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom9070252DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6681309PMC
June 2019

Critical role of CCL4 in eosinophil recruitment into the airway.

Clin Exp Allergy 2019 06 29;49(6):853-860. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Department of General Medical Practice and Laboratory Diagnostic Medicine, Akita University Graduate School of Medicine, Akita, Japan.

Background: Excessive eosinophil airway infiltration is a clinically critical condition in some cases. Eosinophilic pneumonia (EP) is a pulmonary condition involving eosinophil infiltration of the lungs. Although several chemokines, including eotaxin-1 (CCL11), RANTES (CCL5) and macrophage inflammatory protein 1β (MIP-1β or CCL4), have been detected in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from patients with EP, the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying EP, including potential relationships between eosinophils and CCL4, have not been fully elucidated.

Objective: To examine the involvement of CCL4 in eosinophilic airway inflammation.

Methods: We analysed supernatants of activated eosinophils and BALF from 16 patients with eosinophilic pneumonia (EP). Further, we examined the effects of CCL4 on eosinophil functions in vitro and those of anti-CCL4 neutralizing antibody in an in vivo model.

Results: We found that purified human eosinophils stimulated with IL-5 predominantly secreted CCL4 and that patients with EP had elevated CCL11 and CCL4 levels in BALF compared with samples from individuals without EP. Because CCL4 levels were more strongly correlated with eosinophil count and expression of eosinophil granule proteins than CCL11, in vitro experiments using purified eosinophils concentrated on the former chemokine. Interestingly, CCL4 acted as a chemoattractant for eosinophils. In a mouse model, administration of a CCL4-neutralizing antibody attenuated eosinophilic airway infiltration and airway hyperresponsiveness.

Conclusions And Clinical Relevance: Overall, these findings highlight an important role of CCL4 in the mechanisms underlying eosinophil recruitment into the airway and may provide a novel insight into this potential therapeutic target.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cea.13382DOI Listing
June 2019

Eosinophilic Upper Airway Inflammation in a Murine Model Using an Adoptive Transfer System Induces Hyposmia and Epithelial Layer Injury with Convex Lesions.

Med Sci (Basel) 2019 Feb 5;7(2). Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Kansai Medical University, Hirakata 573-1010, Japan.

Background: Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is a refractory upper airway disease, accompanied mainly by eosinophilia and/or asthma. In addition, the disease correlates with a high rate of hyposmia, following a marked infiltration of eosinophils into the inflamed site, the paranasal sinus. Although eosinophils are known to contribute to the development of hyposmia and CRSwNP pathology, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate whether eosinophilic upper airway inflammation induces hyposmia and CRSwNP in a murine model using an adoptive transfer system.

Methods: To induce eosinophilic rhinosinusitis, splenocytes, including a high proportion (over 50%) of activated eosinophils (SPLhEos), were collected from interleukin-5 transgenic mice following double intraperitoneal injections of antigens, such as ovalbumin, house dust mite, or fungus. Activated SPLhEos with corresponding antigens were then transferred into the nasal cavity of recipient mice, which were sensitized and challenged by the corresponding antigen four times per week. Olfactory function, histopathological, and computed tomography (CT) analyses were performed 2 days after the final transfer of eosinophils.

Results: Hyposmia was induced significantly in mice that received SPLhEos transfer compared with healthy and allergic mice, but it did not promote morphological alteration of the paranasal sinus. Pathological analysis revealed that epithelial layer injury and metaplasia similar to polyps, with prominent eosinophil infiltration, was induced in recipient tissue. However, there was no nasal polyp development with interstitial edema that was similar to those recognized in human chronic rhinosinusitis.

Conclusions: This study supports the previously unsuspected contribution of eosinophils to CRS development in the murine model and suggests that murine-activated eosinophilic splenocytes contribute to the development of hyposmia due to more mucosal inflammation than physical airway obstruction and epithelial layer injury with convex lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/medsci7020022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6409781PMC
February 2019

Regulation of Interaction between the Upper and Lower Airways in United Airway Disease.

Med Sci (Basel) 2019 Feb 11;7(2). Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Kansai Medical University, Hirakata, 573-1010, Japan.

The concept of united airway disease comprises allergic rhinitis (AR) with asthma, and eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (ECRS) with asthma. It embodies a comprehensive approach to the treatment of upper and lower airway inflammation. The treatment of upper airway inflammation reduces asthma symptoms and decreases the dose of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) necessary to treat asthma. However, little is known about the mechanisms of interaction between upper and lower airway inflammation. Here we review these mechanisms, focusing on neural modulation and introduce a novel therapeutic approach to united airway disease using a fine-particle ICS. Our understanding of the relationship between the upper and lower airways and its contribution to T helper 2 (Th2)-skewed disease, such as AR and/or ECRS with asthma, has led us to this novel therapeutic strategy for a comprehensive approach to the treatment of upper airway inflammation with asthma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/medsci7020027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6410259PMC
February 2019

HFA-BDP Metered-Dose Inhaler Exhaled Through the Nose Improves Eosinophilic Chronic Rhinosinusitis With Bronchial Asthma: A Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Study.

Front Immunol 2018 25;9:2192. Epub 2018 Sep 25.

Airway Disease Section, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka, Japan.

Eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (ECRS) is a subtype of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps in Japanese. ECRS highly associated with asthma is a refractory eosinophilic airway inflammation and requires comprehensive care as part of the united airway concept. We recently reported a series of ECRS patients with asthma treated with fine-particle inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) exhalation through the nose (ETN). To evaluate fine-particle ICS ETN treatment as a potential therapeutic option in ECRS with asthma. Twenty-three patients with severe ECRS under refractory to intranasal corticosteroid treatment were randomized in a double-blind fashion to receive either HFA-134a-beclomethasone dipropionate (HFA-BDP) metered-dose inhaler (MDI) ETN ( = 11) or placebo MDI ETN ( = 12) for 4 weeks. Changes in nasal polyp score, computed tomographic (CT) score, smell test, and quality of life (QOL) score from baseline were assessed. Fractionated exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) was measured as a marker of eosinophilic airway inflammation. Response to corticosteroids was evaluated before and after treatment. Additionally, deposition of fine-particles was visualized using a particle deposition model. To examine the role of eosinophils on airway inflammation, BEAS-2B human bronchial epithelial cells were co-incubated with purified eosinophils to determine corticosteroid sensitivity. HFA-BDP MDI ETN treatment improved all assessed clinical endpoints and corticosteroid sensitivity without any deterioration in pulmonary function. FENO and blood eosinophil number were reduced by HFA-BDP MDI ETN treatment. The visualization study suggested that ETN at expiratory flow rates of 10-30 L/min led to fine particle deposition in the middle meatus, including the sinus ostia. Co-incubation of eosinophils with BEAS-2B cells induced corticosteroid resistance. Additional HFA-BDP MDI ETN treatment was beneficial in patients with ECRS and should be considered as a potential therapeutic option for eosinophilic airway inflammation such as ECRS with asthma. (UMIN-CTR: R000019325) (http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/index.htm).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2018.02192DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6178134PMC
October 2019

A comparison of short-term outcomes of neck dissection for head and neck cancers using Thunderbeat™, LigaSure™ or treatment without an energy-based device: A case controlled study.

Int J Surg 2018 Oct 21;58:60-64. Epub 2018 Sep 21.

Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Kansai Medical University Hospital, Japan.

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the new energy-based device Thunderbeat in neck dissection (ND) for head and neck cancer.

Materials And Methods: We retrospectively examined 95 consecutive patients who underwent ND for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma between April 2013 and March 2018. The patients were divided into three groups: ND without the energy-based device (control group), ND using the LigaSure Small Jaw (LS group), and ND using the Thunderbeat Open Fine Jaw (TB group). The outcomes were compared among the three groups, as measured by the duration of ND (dissection time), blood loss during ND, and postoperative complications. We also analyzed the factors that may influence dissection time using multivariate analysis.

Results: Compared to the control group, dissection time was found to be significantly shorter in both energy-based device groups (LS group and TB group) (96.4, 71.1, and 66.0 min, respectively, p = 0.0015) by univariate analysis. Blood loss during ND did not differ significantly among the three groups. Multivariate analysis showed that ND using the Thunderbeat as well as elderly patients (70 years and over), less extensive surgery (3 or fewer neck levels), and absence of extracapsular invasion were independently and significantly associated with shorter dissection time (p = 0.0069, 0.0337, <0.0001, and 0.0015, respectively). The incidence of postoperative complications in the LS group (20%) tended to be higher than those in the other groups (5.6% in the control group and 3.4% in the TB group), although the differences were not significant.

Conclusion: ND for head and neck cancers using the Thunderbeat is a safe and reliable method in terms of duration of dissection without increasing postoperative complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsu.2018.09.009DOI Listing
October 2018

Cells Expressing Prominin-1 in Neonatal Murine Inferior Colliculus Differentiate into Neurons and Glia.

Mol Neurobiol 2018 Jun 9;55(6):4998-5005. Epub 2017 Aug 9.

Department of Public Health, Kansai Medical University, Osaka, Japan.

Inferior colliculus (IC) is a major center for the integration and processing of acoustic information from ascending auditory pathways. Damage to the IC as well as normal aging can impair auditory function. Novel strategies such as stem cell (SC)-based regenerative therapy are required for functional recovery because mature neural cells have a minimal regenerative capacity after an injury. However, it is not known if there are neural stem cells (NSCs) in the IC. Herein, we screened for NSCs by surface marker analysis using flow cytometry. Isolated IC cells expressing prominin-1 (CD133) exhibited the cardinal NSC properties self-renewal capacity, expression of known NSC markers (SOX2 and nestin), and multipotency. Prominin-1-expressing cells from neonatal IC generated neurospheres, and culture of these neurospheres in differentiation-conditioned medium gave rise to gamma-aminobutyric acid-ergic (GABAergic) neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. The presence of NSC-like cells in the IC has important implications for understanding IC development and for potential regenerative therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-017-0701-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5948249PMC
June 2018

Residual Recurrent Nerve Paralysis After Esophagectomy is Associated with Preoperative Lower Serum Albumin.

Dysphagia 2017 08 24;32(4):520-525. Epub 2017 Apr 24.

Department of Otolaryngology Head & Neck Surgery, Kansai Medical University, 2-5-1 Shinmachi, Hirakata, Osaka, 573-1010, Japan.

Esophagectomy for esophageal cancer is invasive thoracic surgery with a high incidence rate of postoperative complications and prolongation of hospitalization, even if the standardized clinical pathway improves the outcome (mortality and morbidity). Postoperative recurrent nerve paralysis (RNP) is related to respiratory complications concomitant with prolonged hospitalization. However, it has not been elucidated which factors affect the incidence and recovery of RNP. To detect the predictive factor for postoperative RNP, we focused on preoperative serum albumin. Patients who had esophageal cancer with standard esophagectomy were evaluated. In total, 94 patients were divided into three groups depending on the presence of RNP (46 in patients without RNP, 29 in those with transient RNP who recovered within 6 months follow-up and 19 in those with residual RNP). We retrospectively investigated factors associated with residual RNP. Preoperative lower serum albumin was associated with residual RNP. In addition, days to the resumption of oral intake and duration of stay in the hospita postoperatively were delayed in the group of residual RNP. Multiple regression analysis indicated that preoperative serum albumin was a predictive factor for residual RNP. Preoperative lower serum albumin level might be linked to residual RNP which could prolong the resumption of postoperative oral intake and shorten the period of stay at the hospital after esophagectomy, leading to unfavorable outcomes for patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00455-017-9793-3DOI Listing
August 2017

Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma Presenting as a Cervical Lymph Node Metastasis of Unknown Primary Site: A Case Report.

Case Rep Oncol 2017 Jan-Apr;10(1):192-198. Epub 2017 Feb 15.

Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Kansai Medical University Hospital, Hirakata, Japan.

Background: Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a pathological entity arising in the salivary glands first described by Skalova et al. [Am J Surg Pathol 2010;34: 599-608]. Here, we report the first case of MASC presenting as a cervical lymph node metastasis of unknown primary site together with a brief review of the literature.

Case Report: We present a 74-year-old male with a painless lump in his left neck. Based on the fine-needle aspiration cytological findings, a possible malignant tumor was suspected. No evidence of a primary lesion was observed using imaging modalities including positron emission tomography/computed tomography. The patient underwent an ipsilateral modified radical neck dissection. Immunohistochemical staining showed that the neoplastic cells were positive for S100 protein and GATA3. A rearrangement of the ETV6 gene was noted during fluorescence in situ hybridization, and the final histopathological diagnosis was MASC.

Conclusion: We encountered a MASC presenting as a cervical lymph node metastasis of unknown primary site. No adjuvant therapy was administered, and no local recurrence or metastatic disease has been detected during a follow-up period of 9 months. This is the first case report of MASC presenting as a cervical lymph node metastasis of unknown primary site and suggests the new properties of MASC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000457949DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5346937PMC
February 2017

Impaired Dual-Specificity Protein Phosphatase DUSP4 Reduces Corticosteroid Sensitivity.

Mol Pharmacol 2017 05 10;91(5):475-481. Epub 2017 Mar 10.

Airway Disease Section, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom (Y.K., K.I., N.M., P.J.B.); and Airway Disease Section, Department of Otolaryngology, Kansai Medical University, Moriguchi, Osaka, Japan (Y.K., A.K., K.T.)

We have reported that phosphorylation of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) at Ser reduces GR nuclear translocation, resulting in corticosteroid insensitivity in patients with severe asthmas. A serine/threonine protein phosphatase 2A, which regulates c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) 1 and GR-Ser signaling, is involved in this mechanism. Here, we further explored protein kinase dual-specificity phosphatases (DUSPs) with the ability to dephosphorylate JNK, and identified DUSP4 as a phosphatase involved in the regulation of corticosteroid sensitivity. The effects of knocking down DUSPs (DUSP1, 4, 8, 16, and 22) by small interfering RNA (siRNA) were evaluated in a monocytic cell line (U937). Corticosteroid sensitivity was determined by dexamethasone enhancement of FK506-binding protein 51 or inhibition of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced interferon and interleukin 8 expression and GR translocation from cell cytoplasm to nucleus. The nuclear/cytoplasmic GR, phosphorylation levels of GR-Ser and JNK1, coimmunoprecipitated GR-JNK1-DUSP4, and DUSP4 expression were analyzed by western blotting and/or imaging flow cytometry. Phosphatase activity of immunoprecipitated (IP)-DUSP4 was measured by fluorescence-based assay. Knockdown of DUSP4 enhanced phosphorylation of GR-Ser and JNK1 and reduced GR nuclear translocation and corticosteroid sensitivity. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments showed that DUSP4 is associated with GR and JNK1. In peripheral blood mononuclear cells from severe asthmatics, DUSP4 expression was reduced versus healthy subjects and negatively correlated with phosphorylation levels of GR-Ser and JNK1. Formoterol enhanced DUSP4 activity and restored corticosteroid sensitivity reduced by DUSP4 siRNA. In conclusion, DUSP4 regulates corticosteroid sensitivity via dephosphorylation of JNK1 and GR-Ser DUSP4 activation by formoterol restores impaired corticosteroid sensitivity, indicating that DUSP4 is crucial in regulating corticosteroid sensitivity, and therefore might be a novel therapeutic target in severe asthma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/mol.116.107656DOI Listing
May 2017

Replacement of SFC-DPI with SFC-MDI exhaled through the nose improves eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis in patients with bronchial asthma.

Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 2017 Jan;55(1):89-94

Objective: Eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (ECRS), a subgroup of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps, is a refractory disease closely associated with bronchial asthma. We recently reported on the efficacy of ultra-fine particle inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) (hydrofluoroalkane-134a-beclomethasone dipropionate: HFA-BDP) exhalation through the nose (ETN) treatment for mild-to-moderate asthmatics with ECRS. However, the effect of HFA-BDP ETN was found to be transient in some cases with severe ECRS and asthma, requiring treatment with higher-dose ICS and long-acting β2-agonists (LABA). Here, we present a case of refractory ECRS with severe asthma treated with a combination of high-dose ICS and LABA ETN, and we discuss the mechanisms for its effectiveness.

Methods: A 57-year-old man was treated with the combined regimen of HFA-BDP ETN and salmeterol/fluticasone combination (SFC) dry powder inhaler (DPI) for his refractory ECRS with severe asthma. For better control, we replaced SFC-DPI with SFC metered-dose inhaler (MDI) ETN and evaluated the clinical effect and corticosteroid sensitivity. We also examined the flow and deposition of fine particles released by SFC-MDI ETN.

Results: After switching to SFC-MDI ETN, the patient's conditions markedly resolved with the restoration of corticosteroid sensitivity and PP2A activity. The fine particles released by SFC-MDI ETN at least partially flowed out through the external nares and seemed to be deposited on the ethmoid sinus.

Conclusion: Fine particle ICS/LABA ETN might be an additional therapeutic option for refractory ECRS with severe asthma and corticosteroid insensitivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5414/CP202633DOI Listing
January 2017

IL-22/IL-22R1 signaling regulates the pathophysiology of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps via alteration of MUC1 expression.

Allergol Int 2017 Jan 5;66(1):42-51. Epub 2016 Aug 5.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, Japan.

Background: IL-22 is an IL-10-family cytokine that regulates chronic inflammation. We investigated the role of IL-22 and its receptor, IL-22R1, in the pathophysiology of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP).

Methods: IL-22 and IL-22R1 protein and mRNA expression in NP and in uncinate tissues (UT) from CRS and non-CRS patients was examined using immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR, respectively. Dispersed NP and UT cells were cultured with the Staphylococcus aureus exotoxins, staphylococcal enterotoxin B and alpha-toxin, following which exotoxin-induced IL-22 levels and their association with clinicopathological factors were analyzed. Effects of IL-22 on MUC1 expression and cytokine release in NP cells were also determined.

Results: IL-22 and IL-22R1 in NP were mainly expressed in infiltrating inflammatory cells and in epithelial cells, respectively. IL-22 mRNA levels in NP were significantly higher than those in UTs from non-CRS patients whereas IL-22R1 levels were conversely lower in NPs. NP cells produced substantial amounts of IL-22 in response to exotoxins. Exotoxin-induced IL-22 production by NP cells significantly and negatively correlated with the degree of local eosinophilia and postoperative computed tomography (CT) score, whereas conversely it positively correlated with the forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV)/forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio. IL-22 significantly enhanced MUC1 mRNA expression in NP cells. IL-22-induced MUC1 mRNA levels were significantly and positively correlated with IL-22R1 mRNA levels in NPs.

Conclusions: These data suggest that imbalance of IL-22/IL-22R1 signaling regulates the pathogenesis of CRSwNP, including local eosinophilia, via alteration of MUC1 expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.alit.2016.04.017DOI Listing
January 2017

Protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP-RR regulates corticosteroid sensitivity.

Respir Res 2016 Mar 24;17:30. Epub 2016 Mar 24.

Airway Disease Section, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, Guy Scadding Building, Royal Brompton Campus, Dovehouse Street, London, SW3 6LY, UK.

Background: We have recently reported that protein phosphate 2A (PP2A) inactivation resulted in increased phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) and glucocorticoid receptors (GR) at Ser(226), thereby reducing GR nuclear translocation and causing corticosteroid insensitivity in severe asthmatics. Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are also known to be critically involved in the regulation of MAPKs, such as JNK and therefore potentially associated with GR function. The aim of study was to elucidate the involvement of MAPK-PTPs (PTP-RR, PTP-N5 and PTP-N7), which can dephosphorylate MAPKs, in the regulation of corticosteroid sensitivity.

Methods: Corticosteroid sensitivity, GR nuclear translocation, phosphorylation levels of GR-Ser(226), JNK1 and PP2A catalytic subunit (PP2AC)-Tyr(307) and protein expression levels and activities of PTP-RR and PP2AC were evaluated in U937 cells and/or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Knock-down effects of MAPK-PTPs using siRNA were also evaluated.

Results: Knock-down of PTP-RR, but not of PTP-N5 or PTP-N7 impaired corticosteroid sensitivity, induced GR-Ser(226) phosphorylation and reduced GR nuclear translocation. Under IL-2/IL-4-induced corticosteroid insensitivity, PTP-RR expression, activity and associations with JNK1 and GR were reduced but PTP-RR activity was restored by formoterol. Also in PBMCs from severe asthmatic patients, PTP-RR and JNK1 expression were reduced and GR-Ser(226) phosphorylation increased. Furthermore, PTP-RR was associated with PP2A. PTP-RR reduction enhanced PP2AC-Tyr(307) phosphorylation leading to impairment of PP2A expression and activity.

Conclusions: We demonstrated that with corticosteroid insensitivity PTP-RR fails to reduce phosphorylation of JNK1 and GR-Ser(226), resulting in down-regulation of GR nuclear translocation. Reduced PTP-RR may represent a novel cause of corticosteroid insensitivity in severe asthmatics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12931-016-0349-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4806463PMC
March 2016

The Peptide Vaccine Combined with Prior Immunization of a Conventional Diphtheria-Tetanus Toxoid Vaccine Induced Amyloid β Binding Antibodies on Cynomolgus Monkeys and Guinea Pigs.

J Immunol Res 2015 11;2015:786501. Epub 2015 Oct 11.

Venture Science Laboratories, R&D Division, Daiichi-Sankyo Co., Ltd., 1-2-58 Hiromachi, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 140-8710, Japan.

The reduction of brain amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides by anti-Aβ antibodies is one of the possible therapies for Alzheimer's disease. We previously reported that the Aβ peptide vaccine including the T-cell epitope of diphtheria-tetanus combined toxoid (DT) induced anti-Aβ antibodies, and the prior immunization with conventional DT vaccine enhanced the immunogenicity of the peptide. Cynomolgus monkeys were given the peptide vaccine subcutaneously in combination with the prior DT vaccination. Vaccination with a similar regimen was also performed on guinea pigs. The peptide vaccine induced anti-Aβ antibodies in cynomolgus monkeys and guinea pigs without chemical adjuvants, and excessive immune responses were not observed. Those antibodies could preferentially recognize Aβ 40, and Aβ 42 compared to Aβ fibrils. The levels of serum anti-Aβ antibodies and plasma Aβ peptides increased in both animals and decreased the brain Aβ 40 level of guinea pigs. The peptide vaccine could induce a similar binding profile of anti-Aβ antibodies in cynomolgus monkeys and guinea pigs. The peptide vaccination could be expected to reduce the brain Aβ peptides and their toxic effects via clearance of Aβ peptides by generated antibodies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/786501DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4619934PMC
August 2016

Th2-activated eosinophils release Th1 cytokines that modulate allergic inflammation.

Allergol Int 2015 Sep 1;64 Suppl:S71-3. Epub 2015 May 1.

Inserm U1011, Lille, France; Institut Pasteur de Lille, Lille, France; Université Lille 2, Lille, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.alit.2015.03.006DOI Listing
September 2015

Residual exhaled nitric oxide elevation in asthmatics is associated with eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis.

J Asthma 2015 18;52(10):1060-4. Epub 2015 Aug 18.

b Department of Airway Medicine , Mitsubishi Kyoto Hospital , Kyoto , Japan.

Objective: Eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (ECRS) is as a subgroup of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) with nasal polyps. ECRS is a refractory disease closely related to bronchial asthma. Fractionated exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) levels were reportedly elevated in some asthmatics with CRS after adequate treatment, suggesting that residual eosinophilic airway inflammation or ECRS might affect FeNO levels.

Methods: To investigate the association between asthma with ECRS and FeNO levels, we examined FeNO levels in 133 asthmatics (99 with ECRS and 34 without ECRS) and 13 patients with ECRS without asthma. The severity of asthma was defined by the Global Initiative for Asthma guidelines and that of sinusitis was evaluated by the sinus CT score based on the Lund-Mackay scale.

Results And Conclusions: FeNO levels were elevated even in well-controlled asthmatics with ECRS, whereas asthmatics without ECRS and ECRS patients without asthma did not have high FeNO levels (>50 ppb). Although FeNO levels were not correlated with asthma severity, they were positively correlated with the sinus CT score. In asthmatics with ECRS, patients with higher FeNO levels had more severe ECRS and asthma. There is a possibility of having comorbid ECRS, particularly in asthmatics with high FeNO levels even after adequate treatment, including ICS, suggesting that asthma and ECRS may be closely associated as one airway disease with eosinophilic inflammation. Continual awareness of the coexistent ECRS is ideally recommended for asthmatics with high FeNO levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/02770903.2015.1054404DOI Listing
April 2016

A novel therapeutic use of HFA-BDP metereddose inhaler for asthmatic patients with rhinosinusitis: Case series.

Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 2014 Oct;52(10):914-9

Objective: Most asthmatics have been found to have rhinosinusitis (RS). Patients with ethmoid sinusitis, in particular, often suffer from an impaired sense of smell; this is clinically important and necessitates concurrent treatment for both asthma and RS. As a rational therapeutic strategy, we focused on a fine particle HFA-134abeclomethasone dipropionate (HFA-BDP) metered-dose inhaler. Because of its small size, the medication is still present in the exhaled breath after inhalation.

Methods: Five mild-to-moderate asthmatics with ethomoidpredominant sinusitis characterized by an impaired sense of smell and mild peripheral blood eosinophilia received a single-agent treatment with orally-inhaled HFA-BDP which was then exhaled through the nose. In addition, the stained small particles were created by an ultrasonic nebulizer and flow image of them during oral inhalation and nasal exhalation was evaluated by using nasal endoscopy.

Results: After treatment, the sense of smell was restored in all cases with a concomitant improvement in sinusitis as confirmed by computerized tomography. In addition, amelioration of peripheral blood eosinophilia as well as small airway obstruction as indicated by pulmonary function tests was observed. Macroscopical imaging revealed that small particles flow toward olfactory cleft during both the inhalation and exhalation phases.

Conclusion: We have presented 5 cases of asthmatic patients with RS treated with a concurrent single therapy, HFA-BDP exhaled through the nose (ETN). A clinical trial must be considered to establish this new therapeutic strategy based on the concept of "one airway, one disease."
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5414/CP202100DOI Listing
October 2014

Discovery of DF-461, a Potent Squalene Synthase Inhibitor.

ACS Med Chem Lett 2013 Oct 4;4(10):932-6. Epub 2013 Sep 4.

R&D Division, Daiichi Sankyo Co., Ltd. , 1-2-58 Hiromachi, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 140-8710, Japan.

We report the development of a new trifluoromethyltriazolobenzoxazepine series of squalene synthase inhibitors. Structure-activity studies and pharmacokinetics optimization on this series led to the identification of compound 23 (DF-461), which exhibited potent squalene synthase inhibitory activity, high hepatic selectivity, excellent rat hepatic cholesterol synthesis inhibitory activity, and plasma lipid lowering efficacy in nonrodent repeated dose studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ml400151cDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4027440PMC
October 2013
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