Publications by authors named "Akinobu Hamada"

112 Publications

Phase I study of tamibarotene monotherapy in pediatric and young adult patients with recurrent/refractory solid tumors.

Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Clinical Research Support Office, National Cancer Center Hospital East, Chiba, Japan.

Purpose: Tamibarotene is a synthetic retinoid that inhibits proliferation and induces differentiation of malignant cells by binding to the retinoic acid receptor α/β. Previous in vitro studies have shown that some pediatric solid tumors with retinoic acid receptors differentiate in response to retinoic acid. We conducted a phase I dose-escalation study to determine the recommended dose of tamibarotene for further study in pediatric and young adult patients with recurrent/refractory solid tumors.

Methods: Pediatric and young adult patients with recurrent/refractory solid tumors were administered tamibarotene at 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 mg/m/day for 14 or 21 days of a 28 day cycle. Safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of tamibarotene were evaluated.

Results: Twenty-two patients (median age 8 years) were enrolled in this study. No dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was encountered, and tamibarotene was generally well tolerated. Two patients experienced severe adverse events (AEs), leading to discontinuation of the treatment. One grade 4 venous thrombosis and one grade 2 erythema multiforme were observed, which promptly resolved after tamibarotene discontinuance. The grade 4 venous thrombosis was a severe AE but not DLT because it occurred after the evaluation period. Pharmacokinetic analyses showed a dose-dependent increase in the maximum drug concentration (C) and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC). None of the patients achieved a complete response or partial response. Seven patients had stable disease lasting longer than 18 weeks.

Conclusions: The recommended dose for phase II study of tamibarotene in pediatric and young adult patients with refractory solid tumors is 12 mg/m/day for 21 days in a 28 day cycle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00280-021-04271-9DOI Listing
April 2021

A Therapeutic Strategy to Combat HIV-1 Latently Infected Cells With a Combination of Latency-Reversing Agents Containing DAG-Lactone PKC Activators.

Front Microbiol 2021 17;12:636276. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

National Center for Global Health and Medicine Research Institute, Tokyo, Japan.

Advances in antiviral therapy have dramatically improved the therapeutic effects on HIV type 1 (HIV-1) infection. However, even with potent combined antiretroviral therapy, HIV-1 latently infected cells cannot be fully eradicated. Latency-reversing agents (LRAs) are considered a potential tool for eliminating such cells; however, recent and studies have raised serious concerns regarding the efficacy and safety of the "shock and kill" strategy using LRAs. In the present study, we examined the activity and safety of a panel of protein kinase C (PKC) activators with a diacylglycerol (DAG)-lactone structure that mimics DAG, an endogenous ligand for PKC isozymes. YSE028, a DAG-lactone derivative, reversed HIV-1 latency when tested using HIV-1 latently infected cells (e.g., ACH2 and J-Lat cells) and primary cells from HIV-1-infected individuals. The activity of YSE028 in reversing HIV-1 latency was synergistically enhanced when combined with JQ1, a bromodomain and extra-terminal inhibitor LRA. DAG-lactone PKC activators also induced caspase-mediated apoptosis, specifically in HIV-1 latently infected cells. In addition, these DAG-lactone PKC activators showed minimal toxicity and . These data suggest that DAG-lactone PKC activators may serve as potential candidates for combination therapy against HIV-1 latently infected cells, especially when combined with other LRAs with a different mechanism, to minimize side effects and achieve maximum efficacy in various reservoir cells of the whole body.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.636276DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8010149PMC
March 2021

Characterization of the large-scale Japanese patient-derived xenograft (J-PDX) library.

Cancer Sci 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Director, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1, Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

The use of patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) has recently attracted attention as a drug discovery platform with a high predictive clinical efficacy and a preserved tumor heterogeneity. Given the racial differences in genetic variations, it would be desirable to establish a PDX library from Japanese cancer patients in a large scale. We thus tried to construct the Japanese PDX (J-PDX) library with a detailed clinical information for further clinical utilization. Between August 2018 and May 2020, a total of 1,126 cancer specimens from 1,079 patients were obtained at the National Cancer Center Hospital and National Cancer Center Hospital East, Japan, and were immediately transplanted to immunodeficient mice at National Cancer Center Research Institute. A total of 298 cross-cancer PDXs were successfully established. The time to engraftment varied greatly by cancer subtypes, especially in the first passage. The engraftment rate was strongly affected by the clinical stage and survival time of the original patients. Approximately one year was needed from tumor collection to the time when co-clinical trials were conducted to test the clinical utility. The one-year survival rates of the patients who were involved in establishing the PDX differed significantly, from 95.6% for colorectal cancer to 56.3% for lung cancer. The J-PDX library consisting of a wide range of cancer subtypes has been successfully established as a platform for drug discovery and development in Japan. When conducting co-clinical trials, it is necessary to consider the target cancer type, stage, and engraftment rate in light of this report.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cas.14899DOI Listing
March 2021

Activity and Immune Correlates of Programmed Death-1 Blockade Therapy in Patients With Advanced Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma.

Clin Lung Cancer 2021 Feb 8. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Department of Diagnostic Pathology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: The efficacy of anti-programmed death receptor 1 (PD-1) therapy in patients with large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) remains unclear. We investigated the outcome of anti-PD-1 therapy and its predictive markers by evaluating the immune-related tumor microenvironment.

Patients: We retrospectively reviewed patients with advanced LCNEC treated with systemic chemotherapy. We also evaluated PD ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression (clone: 22C3), CD8-positive tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), and the mutational profiles.

Results: Seventy patients were enrolled, and 13 of 70 patients received anti-PD-1 therapy. The progression-free survival (PFS) and objective response rate (ORR) of the anti-PD-1 therapy were 4.2 months and 39%, respectively. The overall survival of patients treated with anti-PD-1 therapy (n = 13) was significantly better than those treated without anti-PD-1 therapy (n = 57) (25.2 months vs 10.9 months; P = .02). Among the 13 patients treated with anti-PD-1 therapy, 10 patients (90%) had PD-L1-negative tumors. Patients with a high density of tumoral CD8-positive TILs (≥38/mm) had a significantly better ORR and PFS than those with a low density of tumoral CD8-positive TILs (ORR: P = .02; PFS: P = .003). Additionally, all 3 patients with TP53 mutation co-occurring with PIK3CA mutation (2 of 8 patients) or RB1 mutation (1 of 8 patients) responded to anti-PD-1 therapy.

Conclusions: Anti-PD-1 therapy was effective regardless of PD-L1 positivity in patients with advanced LCNEC. Our investigation might suggest that the density of tumoral CD8-positive TILs and the presence of co-occurring mutations are predictors of the efficacy of anti-PD-1 therapy in patients with advanced LCNEC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cllc.2021.02.003DOI Listing
February 2021

A novel highly quantitative and reproducible assay for the detection of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgM antibodies.

Sci Rep 2021 03 4;11(1):5198. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Division of Molecular Pharmacology, National Cancer Center Research Institute, Tokyo, Japan.

The quantitative range and reproducibility of current serological tests for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) are not optimized. Herein, we developed a diagnostic test that detects SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgM with high quantitativeness and reproducibility and low interference. The system was based on the high-sensitivity chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (HISCL) platform and detects IgG and IgM specific to SARS-CoV-2 spike and nucleocapsid proteins. Quantification accuracy and reproducibility were evaluated using serially diluted samples from 60 SARS-CoV-2-infected patients. Assay performance was evaluated using serum samples from the SARS-CoV-2-infected patients and 500 SARS-CoV-2-negative serum samples collected before the emergence of SARS-CoV-2. The system showed high quantification accuracy (range, 10), high reproducibility (within 5%), and no cross-reaction between SARS1- and MERS-S proteins. Detection accuracy was 98.3% and 93.3% for IgG and IgM against spike proteins and 100% and 71.7% for IgG and IgM against nucleocapsid proteins, respectively. Mean antibody levels were > 10 times that in negative samples upon admission and > 100 times that at convalescent periods. Clinical severity upon admission was not correlated with IgG or IgM levels. This highly quantitative, reproducible assay system with high clinical performance may help analyze temporal serological/immunological profiles of SARS-CoV-2 infection and SARS-CoV-2 vaccine effectiveness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-84387-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7933429PMC
March 2021

Protocol for a multi-site, cluster-randomized, phase III, comparative clinical trial of geriatric assessment of older patients with non-small-cell lung cancer: the ENSURE-GA study.

BMC Geriatr 2021 Jan 22;21(1):74. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Medical Oncology & Respiratory Medicine, Shimane University Faculty of Medicine, 89-1 Enya-cho, 693-8501, Izumo, Shimane, Japan.

Background: In Japan, approximately half of all lung cancer patients are aged > 75 years, and the proportion of older patients is increasing. In older patients, it is necessary to consider comorbidities and concomitant drug use to ensure optimal cancer treatment; however, geriatric assessment (GA) is not widely performed. We plan to conduct a study (ENSURE-GA) of GA in older lung cancer patients to determine whether GA with intervention improves patient satisfaction with their treatment.

Methods: The study will be a phase III comparative clinical trial with a cluster-randomized design, and it will be conducted at 81 sites distributed throughout Japan. Approximately 1000 lung cancer patients aged ≥ 75 years will be enrolled in the study. All participants will undergo a standardized GA before starting treatment (using an iPad). At the intervention sites, the GA results and intervention method recommended on the basis of the GA results will be returned as an instant report to guide the physician's choice of intervention. At the control sites, the physician will decide on interventions based on standard practice. All participants will complete a patient satisfaction survey before treatment initiation (after the GA) and 3 months later.

Discussion: The purpose of the ENSURE-GA study is to evaluate whether GA with interventions improves patient satisfaction with treatment outcomes. The study may lead to the increased use of GA and improved treatment of cancer in older adults. The results will also be used to prepare guidelines for treating older cancer patients and will provide a foundation for the development of a standardized geriatric oncology system.

Trial Registration: The study has been registered in the University Hospital Medical Information Network database (no. UMIN000037590). The registration date is August 4, 2019, and the protocol version is 2.0. ( https://upload.umin.ac.jp/cgi-open-bin/ctr/ctr_view.cgi?recptno=R000042853 .).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12877-021-02028-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7821507PMC
January 2021

Use of an alternative signature peptide during development of a LC-MS/MS assay of plasma nivolumab levels applicable for multiple species.

J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2021 Jan 8;1162:122489. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Division of Molecular Pharmacology, National Cancer Center Research Institute, Tokyo, Japan; Department of Medical Oncology and Translational Research, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan. Electronic address:

Recently, immune checkpoint inhibitors, including anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) antibodies, have dramatically changed treatment strategies for several cancers. In pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic studies, experiments using a variety of animal species are assumed. We have identified optimal multiple reaction monitoring transitions for signature candidate peptides of nivolumab in human, mouse, and rat plasma and developed a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to quantify nivolumab (an anti-PD-1 antibody) using trastuzumab as the internal standard. Calibration curves were linear in the range of 1-200 µg/mL. The intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy in human plasma fulfilled Food and Drug Administration guideline criteria for bioanalytical validation. There was no need to change the measurement method in mouse plasma. On the other hand, in rat plasma, an interference peak was observed at a retention time similar to that of the surrogate peptide ASGITFSNSGMHWVR (550.75 > 661.50) employed in human and mouse plasma. Therefore, we confirmed that ASQSVSSYLAWYQQKPGQAPR (785.0 > 940.2) can be used as an alternate nivolumab surrogate peptide in rat plasma at the same concentration range as used in human and mouse plasma. Using our method, the concentration range and a gradual increase in trough value were confirmed in clinical samples from two antibody-treated patients, including one with gastric cancer and one with non-small-cell lung cancer. The time course and blood concentration transition also were evaluated in nivolumab administration experiments in mouse and rat. The present study showed that the selection of the optimal peptide is essential for accurate LC-MS/MS measurement of nivolumab concentration in human, mouse, and rat plasma. The method developed here is expected to be of use in non-clinical and clinical pharmacokinetic studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchromb.2020.122489DOI Listing
January 2021

A Multicenter Study of Docetaxel at a Dose of 100 mg/m in Japanese Patients with Advanced or Recurrent Breast Cancer.

Intern Med 2020 Nov 16. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Departments of Breast and Endocrine Surgery, Okayama University Hospital, Japan.

Objective This study examined the pharmacokinetics, safety and anti-tumor activity of docetaxel at a dose of 100 mg/m in Japanese patients with advanced or recurrent breast cancer. Methods Japanese patients with advanced or recurrent breast cancer received docetaxel at a dose of 100 mg/m intravenously every three weeks. The pharmacokinetics were assessed during the first cycle. The patients were allowed to receive supportive care drugs based on the indications and dosages in Japan. Results Six eligible patients aged 39-65 years old and 27 treatment cycles were analyzed. All patients experienced one or more adverse events (AEs). The common AEs were neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, alopecia, rash, diarrhea, neuropathy (sensory), fatigue, nausea, fever, hypoalbuminemia, ALT increased, constipation, and taste alteration. Grade 3 or 4 AEs included neutropenia, leukopenia, anemia, lymphopenia, decreased appetite, γ-GTP increased, AST increased, ALT increased, hypertension and cellulitis which were all reversible. There were no cases of febrile neutropenia, serious AEs or deaths. The median number of cycles was six. Dose reductions were not observed and most cycles were administered at their intended doses. No complete response and three partial responses were observed in four assessable patients with evaluable lesions. The maximum concentration and area under the blood concentration-time curve were 3,417.5 ng/mL and 4.35 μg・hr/mL (mean), respectively. Conclusion Docetaxel at a dose of 100 mg/m was tolerable with acceptable safety profiles and effective for Japanese patients with advanced or recurrent breast cancer with appropriate supportive therapies, and PK profiles which corresponded approximately with the findings of previous clinical studies. Clinical Trial Information UMIN000015820.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2169/internalmedicine.5089-20DOI Listing
November 2020

Phase II study of amrubicin plus erlotinib in previously treated, advanced non-small cell lung cancer with wild-type epidermal growth factor receptor (TORG1320).

Invest New Drugs 2021 Apr 7;39(2):530-536. Epub 2020 Nov 7.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Kitasato University School of Medicine, 1-15-1, Kitasato, Minami-ku, Sagamihara city, Kanagawa, 252-0375, Japan.

Background Amrubicin (AMR) is a completely synthetic 9-aminoanthracycline and clinically active against non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We conducted a phase I study of AMR and erlotinib (ERL) combination therapy in previously treated patients with advanced NSCLC and have already reported the safety and effectiveness. Methods We conducted a multi-center, single-arm phase II trial to evaluate the efficacy of AMR and ERL combination therapy in patients with previously treated, advanced NSCLC harboring wild-type EGFR, PS 0-1 and < 75 years of age. Patients were treated at 3-week intervals with AMR plus ERL. The primary endpoint was the PFS, and the secondary endpoints were the response rate (RR), disease control rate (DCR), overall survival (OS) and toxicity. The trough ERL concentration (C) was measured as an exploratory study to analyze the relationship between the efficacy/safety and pharmacokinetics. Results From June 2013 to July 2016, 25 patients were enrolled in this trial. The PFS according to the central test was 3.6 months (95% confidence interval 2.1-5.1). The RR and DCR were 24.0% and 64.0%, respectively. We had no treatment-related deaths in this study. Conclusions The PFS of AMR and ERL combination therapy was superior to that of AMR monotherapy in the historical setting, but the primary endpoint was not met in this trial. In our study, the pharmacokinetic analysis showed that the C of ERL was elevated with combination therapy. This combination therapy might be a viable treatment for previously treated NSCLC patients without a driver oncogene mutation. Clinical trial information UMIN 000010582.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10637-020-01031-zDOI Listing
April 2021

Visualization of the distribution of nanoparticle-formulated AZD2811 in mouse tumor model using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry imaging.

Sci Rep 2020 09 23;10(1):15535. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Division of Molecular Pharmacology, National Cancer Center Research Institute, Tokyo, Japan.

Penetration of nanoparticles into viable tumor regions is essential for an effective response. Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a novel method for evaluating the intratumoral pharmacokinetics (PK) of a drug in terms of spatial distribution. The application of MSI for analysis of nanomedicine PK remains in its infancy. In this study, we evaluated the applicability of MALDI-MSI for nanoparticle-formulated drug visualization in tumors and biopsies, with an aim toward future application in clinical nanomedicine research. We established an analytic method for the free drug (AZD2811) and then applied it to visualize nanoparticle-formulated AZD2811. MSI analysis demonstrated heterogeneous intratumoral drug distribution in three xenograft tumors. The intensity of MSI signals correlated well with total drug concentration in tumors, indicating that drug distribution can be monitored quantitatively. Analysis of tumor biopsies indicated that MSI is applicable for analyzing the distribution of nanoparticle-formulated drugs in tumor biopsies, suggesting clinical applicability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-72665-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7511311PMC
September 2020

Erlotinib for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer with Leptomeningeal Metastases: A Phase II Study (LOGIK1101).

Oncologist 2020 12 11;25(12):e1869-e1878. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

Department of Thoracic Oncology, National Hospital Organization Kyushu Cancer Center, Fukuoka, Japan.

Lessons Learned: This phase II trial evaluated the efficacy of erlotinib for patients with non-small cell lung cancer with leptomeningeal metastasis. The 17 cerebrospinal fluid specimens that were available for epidermal growth factor receptor mutation analysis were all negative for the resistance-conferring T790M mutation. The cytological objective clearance rate was 30.0% (95% confidence interval: 11.9%-54.3%). The median time to progression was 2.2 months. The rate of cerebrospinal fluid penetration among these patients was equivalent to those in previous reports regarding leptomeningeal metastasis.

Background: Leptomeningeal metastases (LM) occur in approximately 5% of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and are associated with a poor prognosis. However, no prospective study has identified an active chemotherapeutic drug in this setting.

Methods: Patients were considered eligible to receive erlotinib if they had NSCLC with cytologically confirmed LM. The objective cytological clearance rate, time to LM progression (TTP), overall survival (OS), quality of life outcomes, and pharmacokinetics were analyzed. This study was closed because of slow accrual at 21 of the intended 32 patients (66%).

Results: Between December 2011 and May 2015, 21 patients (17 with activating epidermal growth factor receptor [EGFR] mutations) were enrolled. The 17 cerebrospinal fluid specimens available were all negative for the T790M mutation, which confers erlotinib resistance. The clearance rate was 30.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 11.9%-54.3%), the median TTP was 2.2 months, and the median OS was 3.4 months. Significantly longer TTP and OS times were observed in patients with mutant EGFR (p = .0113 and p < .0054, respectively). The mean cerebrospinal fluid penetration rate was 3.31% ± 0.77%. There was a good correlation between plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations, although there was no clear correlation between pharmacokinetic parameters and clinical outcome.

Conclusion: Erlotinib was active for LM and may be a treatment option for patients with EGFR-mutated NSCLC and LM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1634/theoncologist.2020-0640DOI Listing
December 2020

Report of the use of patient-derived xenograft models in the development of anticancer drugs in Japan.

Cancer Sci 2020 Sep 28;111(9):3386-3394. Epub 2020 Jul 28.

Exploratory Oncology Research & Clinical Trial Center, National Cancer Center, Kashiwa, Japan.

Cell line-derived xenograft (CDX) models created by implanting cancer cell lines into immunodeficient mice have contributed largely to the development of cancer drug therapies. However, cell lines often lose their original biological characteristics through many passages and cancer tissues in CDX models have many cancer cells and few cancer stromal cells, therefore CDX models are currently considered not suitable for predicting the results of clinical studies. Conversely, patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models are gaining importance, as human cancer biological characteristics and microenvironments are recreated by implanting tumor tissue into immunodeficient mice. These highly expected, evidently beneficial PDX models have been used in some basic research and are becoming more generalized. However, quality control and quality assurance criteria have not been established for them, and challenges and problems in the utilization of valuable PDX models in drug development have yet to be clarified. In this report, we conducted a questionnaire survey among researchers in Japanese academic institutions and pharmaceutical companies to understand the current status of PDX models in Japan. Based on the questionnaire results, we summarized the situations surrounding respondent's utilization and quality control in the development of anticancer drugs and proposed several measures to facilitate the utilization of PDX models in the development of anticancer drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cas.14564DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7469811PMC
September 2020

Low-Dose Erlotinib Treatment in Elderly or Frail Patients With EGFR Mutation-Positive Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Multicenter Phase 2 Trial.

JAMA Oncol 2020 07 9;6(7):e201250. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Respiratory Medicine and Medical Oncology, Yokohama Municipal Citizen's Hospital, Yokohama, Japan.

Importance: Although the efficacy of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors for EGFR gene mutation-positive non-small cell lung cancer is well established, optimal dosing remains to be established, especially in elderly or frail patients.

Objective: To investigate the efficacy and safety of low-dose erlotinib in elderly or frail patients with EGFR mutation-positive non-small cell lung cancer.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Single-arm phase 2 trial with the Southwest Oncology Group (SWOG) 2-stage design that enrolled frail patients from 21 Japanese institutions after meeting the inclusion criteria. Chemotherapy-naive patients with EGFR-activating mutation-positive non-small cell lung cancer who were considered frail based on age, the Charlson Comorbidity Index, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status were eligible for the study.

Interventions: Patients were initially administered 50 mg/d erlotinib for 4 weeks, which was modified based on response or adverse events. Dose increase was permitted for patients with stable disease after 4 weeks.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary end point was the independent review committee-confirmed objective response rate (ORR) at the dose of 50 mg/d. The study also evaluated the pharmacokinetics of low-dose erlotinib and influence of ABCB1 gene polymorphisms.

Results: Eighty patients were enrolled, with a median (range) age of 80 (49-90) years; 54 (68%) were men. An independent review committee confirmed a significant ORR of 60.0% (90% CI, 50.2%-69.2%). The disease control rate was 90.0% (90% CI, 82.7%-94.9%), median progression-free survival was 9.3 months (95% CI, 7.2-11.4 months), and median overall survival was 26.2 months (95% CI, 21.9-30.4 months). Mild adverse events were observed in some participants, with few patients exhibiting grade 3 or greater adverse events. Low-dose erlotinib treatment was temporarily suspended for 10 patients owing to adverse events. Five of 80 patients (6%) had their erlotinib dose reduced to 25 mg because of oral mucositis, paronychia, erythema multiforme, diarrhea, and anorexia. Two patients discontinued treatment because of adverse events (cutaneous ulcer and bone infection, and oral mucositis, respectively). There were no cases of interstitial lung disease or treatment-related deaths. The median (range) erlotinib plasma concentration was measured at 685 (153-1950) ng/mL. Seventy-three patients discontinued study treatment owing to disease progression (n = 60), death (n = 3), AEs (n = 4), and patient requests (n = 6). No clear association was observed between the pharmacokinetics of low-dose erlotinib and the treatment outcome.

Conclusions And Relevance: Low-dose erlotinib appears to be safe and effective in elderly or frail patients with EGFR mutation-positive non-small cell lung cancer and can be a valid treatment option.

Trial Registration: UMIN-CTR Identifier: UMIN000015949.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2020.1250DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7226294PMC
July 2020

[Drug Development Based on Intracellular Pharmacokinetic Analysis of Molecular Target Drug in Mice Bearing Patient-derived Xenograft Model].

Authors:
Akinobu Hamada

Yakugaku Zasshi 2020 ;140(5):641-648

Division of Molecular Pharmacology, National Cancer Center Research Institute.

Traditionally, anticancer drug discovery research has been conducted based on immortalized cancer cell lines, either cultured in vitro or grown in vivo. In the USA and Europe, patient derived xenograft (PDX) model is rapidly expelling traditional in vitro and in vivo models due to the good predictability of clinical outcome and its nature of retaining characteristics and heterogeneity in the original tumor. Furthermore, a significant association was also reported between drug responses in patient and corresponding PDX as high as 87%. We are preparing a PDX model for Japanese cancer patients including drug resistance examples and rare cancers. Using the established PDX model, we confirmed the possibility that the tumor microenvironment might affect the efficacy and distribution of drugs even if the target receptor is expressed in tumor sites as compared to the cell line (CDX) model, which has been widely used in drug discovery. Interestingly, although expressing a target receptor in viable tumor cells, we also have found a PDX model with a lower distribution of molecular target drug. Therefore we will evaluate the usefulness of the PDX model in drug development by exploring new biomarkers and elucidating the mechanisms of drug resistance in target tumors. Moreover, pharmaco-imaging system will allow us to visualize the exposure and distribution of drugs in tumors at macro and micro levels. Finally, we evaluate relations between distribution of drugs in the tumor microenvironment including target tumor cells, neovessels, stromal cells, immune cells, and fibroblasts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1248/yakushi.19-00218-5DOI Listing
September 2020

Phosphoethanolamine Accumulation Protects Cancer Cells under Glutamine Starvation through Downregulation of PCYT2.

Cell Rep 2019 10;29(1):89-103.e7

Laboratory for Systems Biology and Medicine, RCAST, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 153-8904, Japan. Electronic address:

Tolerance to severe tumor microenvironments, including hypoxia and nutrient starvation, is a common feature of aggressive cancer cells and can be targeted. However, metabolic alterations that support cancer cells upon nutrient starvation are not well understood. Here, by comprehensive metabolome analyses, we show that glutamine deprivation leads to phosphoethanolamine (PEtn) accumulation in cancer cells via the downregulation of PEtn cytidylyltransferase (PCYT2), a rate-limiting enzyme of phosphatidylethanolamine biosynthesis. PEtn accumulation correlated with tumor growth under nutrient starvation. PCYT2 suppression was partially mediated by downregulation of the transcription factor ELF3. Furthermore, PCYT2 overexpression reduced PEtn levels and tumor growth. In addition, PEtn accumulation and PCYT2 downregulation in human breast tumors correlated with poor prognosis. Thus, we show that glutamine deprivation leads to tumor progression by regulating PE biosynthesis via the ELF3-PCYT2 axis. Furthermore, manipulating glutamine-responsive genes could be a therapeutic approach to limit cancer progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2019.08.087DOI Listing
October 2019

Risk of CYP2C9 induction analyzed by a relative factor approach with human hepatocytes.

Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2019 Oct 15;34(5):325-333. Epub 2019 Jul 15.

Department of Medical Oncology and Translational Research, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, 5-1 Oe-Honmachi, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 862-0973, Japan; National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045, Japan. Electronic address:

By using the Relative Factor (RF) method-a method that can simply assess cytochrome P450 (CYP) induction risk based on a maximum induction effect model-we evaluated the risk of CYP2C9 induction and examined its relationship with risk of CYP3A4 induction. In cryopreserved human hepatocytes, the magnitude of CYP2C9 induction by eight drugs known to induce CYP3A4 was lower than the magnitude of CYP3A4 induction, but the magnitudes of induction of both were correlated. The RF values determined for CYP2C9 had a one-to-one linear relationship with values determined for CYP3A4, supporting reports that the induction mechanism of both enzymes is the same. Furthermore, clinical CYP2C9 induction data of compounds reported to induce CYP2C9 clinically were shown to be lower than those of CYP3A4. The thresholds for CYP2C9 induction risk assessment by the RF approach were determined to be at higher steady-state plasma concentrations than those for CYP3A4. Based on these results, induction of CYP2C9 was correlated with that of CYP3A4, and induction risk could be evaluated by the RF method using hepatocytes. The CYP2C9 induction risk of a compound was confirmed to be lower than its CYP3A4 induction risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dmpk.2019.07.002DOI Listing
October 2019

Comparison of Bevacizumab Quantification Results in Plasma of Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Using Bioanalytical Techniques Between LC-MS/MS, ELISA, and Microfluidic-based Immunoassay.

AAPS J 2019 08 20;21(6):101. Epub 2019 Aug 20.

Division of Molecular Pharmacology, National Cancer Center Research Institute, Tokyo, Japan.

The development of analytical techniques to study therapeutic monoclonal antibodies is expected to be useful for pharmacokinetic analysis and for the development of therapeutic indexes to determine dosage standards. To date, the blood concentration of antibody drugs has been analyzed by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). However, with the development of mass spectrometry and microfluidization technologies, the assay implication is drastically changing. We have developed an analytical validation method for many monoclonal antibodies and Fc-fusion proteins using Fab-selective proteolysis nSMOL coupled with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). However, the correlation between the analyzed data characterization and the referable value from individual measurement techniques has not been adequately discussed. Therefore, in this study, we discussed in detail the relationship of the bioanalytical data from three different techniques, LC-MS/MS, ELISA, and microfluidic immunoassay, using 245 clinical plasma samples from non-small cell lung cancer patients treated with bevacizumab. The quantified concentration data of bevacizumab in human plasma indicated that the results obtained were almost the same correlation regardless of which technique was used. And the referable value from LC-MS/MS and microfluidic immunoassay were similar and correlated compared with ELISA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1208/s12248-019-0369-zDOI Listing
August 2019

Gene Alterations in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Patients in a Phase I/II Study of Eribulin and Olaparib Combination Therapy.

Transl Oncol 2019 Oct 2;12(10):1386-1394. Epub 2019 Aug 2.

Department of Breast and Medical Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: We conducted a phase I/II clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of eribulin and olaparib in a tablet form (EO study) for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients. We hypothesized that somatic BRCA mutations and homologous recombination repair (HRR)-related gene alterations might affect efficacy.

Methods: Our analyses identified mutations in HRR-related genes and BRCA1/2, and we subsequently evaluated their association to response by the EO study participants. Tissue specimens were obtained from primary or metastatic lesion. Tissue specimens were examined for gene mutations or protein expression using a Foundation Medicine gene panel and immunohistochemistry.

Results: In the 32 tissue specimens collected, we detected 33 gene mutations, with the most frequent nonsynonymous mutations found in TP53. The objective response rates (ORRs) in patients with and without HRR-related gene mutation were 33.3% and 40%, respectively (P = .732), and the ORRs in patients with and without somatic BRCA mutations were 60% and 33.3%, respectively (P = .264), with the ORR numerically higher in the somatic BRCA-mutation group but not statistically significant. There was no correlation between immunohistochemistry status and response or between BRCA status or HRR-related gene mutation and survival. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that EGFR-negative patients had a tendency for better progression-free survival (log-rank P = .059) and significantly better overall survival (log-rank P = .046); however, there was no correlation between the status of other immunohistochemistry markers and survival.

Conclusion: These findings suggested somatic BRCA mutation and EGFR-negativity as a potential biomarker for predicting the efficacy of eribulin/olaparib combination therapy. (UMIN000018721).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tranon.2019.07.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6698310PMC
October 2019

Applications of MALDI mass spectrometry imaging for pharmacokinetic studies during drug development.

Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2019 Aug 24;34(4):209-216. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Division of Molecular Pharmacology, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo, 104-0045, Japan; Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Fundamental Innovative Oncology Core, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo, 104-0045, Japan. Electronic address:

The concentration and distribution of a drug or its metabolites in tissues are key factors for understanding drug efficacy or toxicity. Conventional pharmacokinetic studies show that the plasma concentration of a drug is often unrelated to the intra-tissue concentration. Moreover, it is difficult to predict the distribution of a drug in tissues, particularly those with complex structures, even though the overall tissue concentration is measured by using homogenizing procedures. Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) enables visualization of the spatial distribution and quantities of drugs in tissue sections without labeling, which can significantly impact on the development of new drugs and translational research. Recent advances in instrument technology and the knowledge accumulated to date could further improve the sensitivity, spatial resolution, and reproducibility of MSI. Here we present current applications of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-MSI in pharmacokinetic imaging (PK-imaging) studies, give an overview of MALDI-MSI procedures, highlight the importance of internal standards, and give details of quantitative approaches. We also point out the need for standardizing MALDI-MSI techniques. PK-imaging using standardized MALDI-MSI methods, independent of instrument or technician expertise, is expected to contribute to acquiring reliable data in drug development and translational research in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dmpk.2019.04.006DOI Listing
August 2019

Eribulin penetrates brain tumor tissue and prolongs survival of mice harboring intracerebral glioblastoma xenografts.

Cancer Sci 2019 Jul 10;110(7):2247-2257. Epub 2019 Jun 10.

Division of Brain Tumor Translational Research, National Cancer Center Research Institute, Tokyo, Japan.

Glioblastoma is one of the most devastating human malignancies for which a novel efficient treatment is urgently required. This pre-clinical study shows that eribulin, a specific inhibitor of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT)-RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, is an effective anticancer agent against glioblastoma. Eribulin inhibited the growth of 4 TERT promoter mutation-harboring glioblastoma cell lines in vitro at subnanomolar concentrations. In addition, it suppressed the growth of glioblastoma cells transplanted subcutaneously or intracerebrally into mice, and significantly prolonged the survival of mice harboring brain tumors at a clinically equivalent dose. A pharmacokinetics study showed that eribulin quickly penetrated brain tumors and remained at a high concentration even when it was washed away from plasma, kidney or liver 24 hours after intravenous injection. Moreover, a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging analysis revealed that intraperitoneally injected eribulin penetrated the brain tumor and was distributed evenly within the tumor mass at 1 hour after the injection whereas only very low levels of eribulin were detected in surrounding normal brain. Eribulin is an FDA-approved drug for refractory breast cancer and can be safely repositioned for treatment of glioblastoma patients. Thus, our results suggest that eribulin may serve as a novel therapeutic option for glioblastoma. Based on these data, an investigator-initiated registration-directed clinical trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of eribulin in patients with recurrent GBM (UMIN000030359) has been initiated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cas.14067DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6609810PMC
July 2019

A phase I/II trial of olaparib tablet in combination with eribulin in Japanese patients with advanced or metastatic triple-negative breast cancer previously treated with anthracyclines and taxanes.

Eur J Cancer 2019 03 28;109:84-91. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Department of Breast and Medical Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, National Cancer Center, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo, 104-0045, Japan.

Background: We conducted a multicenter phase I/II trial of olaparib plus eribulin in Japanese patients with advanced or metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) to determine the recommended phase II dose (RP2D) (phase I) and to examine the efficacy and safety (phase II) (UMIN00009498) of the combined therapy.

Patients And Methods: In phase I, olaparib tablet was orally administered twice daily from level 1:25 mg BID to level 7:300 mg BID, with 1.4 mg/m of eribulin on days 1 and 8. In phase II, patients were treated with RP2D to assess the response rate (independent review). The planned sample size was 24 with a threshold of 10%.

Results: One of the 24 patients enrolled in phase I experienced dose-limiting toxicity. The RP2D was established as 300 mg twice daily for olaparib and 1.4 mg/m for eribulin. Among the 24 patients in phase II, the median number of administered courses was 5.5 (range: 1-28). Grade ≥III adverse events included neutropenia (83.3%), leucopenia (83.3%), anaemia (41.7%), febrile neutropenia (33.3%) and thrombosis (8.3%). The response rate was 29.2% (independent; N = 7/24; 90% confidence interval [CI]; 14.6-47.9). Median progression-free survival and overall survival were 4.2 (95% CI, 3.0-7.4) and 14.5 (95% CI, 4.8-22.0) months, respectively. Germline BRCA1/2 mutation status was observed in three patients in phase I and 2 patients in phase II, respectively. The C and area under the curve for olaparib increased in a dose-dependent manner, and these parameters for eribulin and olaparib were not influenced by each other.

Conclusions: Combination therapy of olaparib with eribulin shows antitumour activity against advanced or metastatic TNBC, but caution must be exercised in the presence of febrile neutropenia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2018.11.014DOI Listing
March 2019

Exploration of germline variants responsible for adverse events of crizotinib in anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive non-small cell lung cancer by target-gene panel sequencing.

Lung Cancer 2019 02 4;128:20-25. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Departments of Thoracic Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo, Japan; Department of Experimental Therapeutics, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Objectives: Crizotinib is a standard treatment for advanced anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)- or ROS1-fusion-gene-positive non-small cell lung cancer; however, serious adverse events (AEs), including elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT)/aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and interstitial lung disease (ILD), develop occasionally. Here, we evaluated relationships between clinically significant crizotinib-associated AEs and germline variations.

Materials And Methods: DNA obtained from 75 patients allowed selection of 147 genes according to function, exon identification and sequencing, and determination of germline single nucleotide variants (SNVs). Correlations between clinically significant AEs and presence of germline variants were estimated by Fisher's exact test.

Results: We defined clinically significant AEs as grade 4 hematological toxicity, grade ≥3 non-hematological toxicity, and any grade of ILD. These AEs were observed in 26 patients (35%), with elevated AST/ALT (15%) the most common, followed by neutropenia (5%), ILD (4%), and thromboembolic events (4%). Nonsynonymous SNVs in epoxide hydrolase 1 (EPHX1) [odds ratio (OR): 3.86; p = 0.0009) and transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) (OR: 2.51; p = 0.025) were associated with the presence of clinically significant AEs.

Conclusion: Nonsynonymous EPHX1 and TCF7L2 SNVs might be associated with clinically significant crizotinib-associated AEs. These data indicated that target-gene sequencing could be feasible for predicting anticancer-agent toxicity, and that germline multi-gene information might be useful for predicting patient-specific AEs to promote precision medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lungcan.2018.12.002DOI Listing
February 2019

A Low Crizotinib Concentration in the Cerebrospinal Fluid Causes Ineffective Treatment of Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase-positive Non-small Cell Lung Cancer with Carcinomatous Meningitis.

Intern Med 2019 Mar 17;58(5):703-705. Epub 2018 Oct 17.

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Clinical Oncology and Respiratory Medicine, Shimane University Faculty of Medicine, Japan.

The central nervous system is a common site of relapse in patients receiving crizotinib, which is presumed to be associated with the low concentration of crizotinib in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Our patient received surgical treatment for anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive stage IIA lung adenocarcinoma. His cancer recurred with brain metastases and carcinomatous meningitis. We started whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) and subsequently administered crizotinib. The concentration of crizotinib on day 15 in the plasma was 158 ng/mL, and that in the spinal fluid was 4.32 ng/mL. WBRT may elevate the CSF/plasma crizotinib concentration ratio; clinicians may therefore consider performing WBRT prior to crizotinib initiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2169/internalmedicine.1072-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6443566PMC
March 2019

PIK3CA mutation profiling in patients with breast cancer, using a highly sensitive detection system.

Cancer Sci 2018 Aug 28;109(8):2558-2566. Epub 2018 Jul 28.

Department of Breast and Medical Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo.

PIK3CA mutations are common activating mutations associated with breast cancer (occurring in 20-30% of all cases) and are potent predictive markers for responses to PI3K inhibitors. Thus, it is important to develop sensitive methods to detect these mutations. We established a novel detection method using a quenching probe (QP) system to identify PIK3CA mutations, using DNA from 309 breast cancer tissues. In a developmental cohort, we determined the optimal detection threshold of the QP system with human tumor DNA from 119 freshly frozen tumor samples. We found a 96% concordance rate with the QP system between DNA from 26 matching fresh-frozen specimens and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) specimens from the same patients, and known PIK3CA mutation status in the developmental cohort. In a validation cohort, we evaluated whether the threshold for judging mutations using the QP system with frozen specimen-derived DNA was applicable with FFPE-derived DNA. In the validation cohort, 30 DNA samples from 190 FFPE-derived DNA samples with known PIK3CA mutation status were analyzed by direct sequencing (DS) and droplet digital PCR, in a blinded manner. The sensitivity and specificity of the droplet digital PCR results were 100% and 100% (QP system), and 60% and 100% (DS), respectively. We also analyzed the relationship between clinical outcomes and the PIK3CA mutational status of 309 breast cancer samples, including the developmental cohort and validation cohort samples. Multivariate analysis suggested that PIK3CA mutations, especially H1047R, were prognostic factors of relapse-free survival. Our novel detection system could be more useful than DS for detecting clinical PIK3CA mutations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cas.13696DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6113507PMC
August 2018

Distribution of erlotinib in rash and normal skin in cancer patients receiving erlotinib visualized by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging.

Oncotarget 2018 Apr 6;9(26):18540-18547. Epub 2018 Apr 6.

Division of Medical Oncology/Hematology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Hyogo, Japan.

Background: The development of skin rashes is the most common adverse event observed in cancer patients treated with epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as erlotinib. However, the pharmacological evidence has not been fully revealed.

Results: Erlotinib distribution in the rashes was more heterogeneous than that in the normal skin, and the rashes contained statistically higher concentrations of erlotinib than adjacent normal skin in the superficial skin layer (229 ± 192 vs. 120 ± 103 ions/mm; = 0.009 in paired -test). LC-MS/MS confirmed that the concentration of erlotinib in the skin rashes was higher than that in normal skin in the superficial skin layer (1946 ± 1258 vs. 1174 ± 662 ng/cm; = 0.028 in paired -test). The results of MALDI-MSI and LC-MS/MS were well correlated (coefficient of correlation 0.879, < 0.0001).

Conclusions: Focal distribution of erlotinib in the skin tissue was visualized using non-labeled MALDI-MSI. Erlotinib concentration in the superficial layer of the skin rashes was higher than that in the adjacent normal skin.

Methods: We examined patients with advanced pancreatic cancer who developed skin rashes after treatment with erlotinib and gemcitabine. We biopsied both the rash and adjacent normal skin tissues, and visualized and compared the distribution of erlotinib within the skin using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI). The tissue concentration of erlotinib was also measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with laser microdissection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.24928DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5915091PMC
April 2018

Population Pharmacokinetics and Adverse Events of Erlotinib in Japanese Patients with Non-small-cell Lung Cancer: Impact of Genetic Polymorphisms in Metabolizing Enzymes and Transporters.

Biol Pharm Bull 2018 ;41(1):47-56

Department of Medical Oncology and Translational Research, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University.

Determinants of interindividual variability in erlotinib pharmacokinetics (PK) and adverse events remain to be elucidated. This study with 50 Japanese non-small-cell lung cancer patients treated with oral erlotinib at a standard dose of 150 mg aimed to investigate whether genetic polymorphisms affect erlotinib PK and adverse events. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes encoding metabolizing enzymes (CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, UGT1A1, UGT2B7, GSTM1, and GSTT1) or efflux transporters (ABCB1, and ABCG2) were analyzed as covariates in a population PK model. The ABCB1 1236C>T (rs1128503) polymorphism, not ABCB1*2 haplotype (1236TT-2677TT-3455TT, rs1128503 TT-rs2032582 TT-rs1045642 TT), was a significant covariate for the apparent clearance (CL/F), with the TT genotype showing a 29.4% decrease in CL/F as compared with the CC and the CT genotypes. A marginally higher incidence of adverse events (mainly skin rash) was observed in the TT genotype group; however, patients with high plasma erlotinib exposure did not always experience skin rash. None of the other SNPs affected PK or adverse events. The ABCB1 genotype is a potential predictor for erlotinib adverse events. Erlotinib might be used with careful monitoring of adverse events in patients with ABCB1 polymorphic variants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1248/bpb.b17-00521DOI Listing
August 2018

MALDI mass spectrometry imaging of erlotinib administered in combination with bevacizumab in xenograft mice bearing B901L, EGFR-mutated NSCLC cells.

Sci Rep 2017 12 1;7(1):16763. Epub 2017 Dec 1.

Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Translational Research, Exploratory Oncology Research and Clinical Trial Center, National Cancer Center, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo, 104-0045, Japan.

Combination therapy of erlotinib plus bevacizumab improves progression-free survival of patients with epidermal growth factor receptor-mutated (EGFR-mutated) advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) compared with erlotinib alone. Although improved delivery and distribution of erlotinib to tumours as a result of the normalization of microvessels by bevacizumab is thought to be one of the underlying mechanisms, there is insufficient supporting evidence. B901L cells derived from EGFR-mutated NSCLC were subcutaneously implanted into mice, and mice were treated with bevacizumab or human IgG followed by treatment with erlotinib. The distribution of erlotinib in their tumours at different times after erlotinib administration was analysed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI MSI). We also analysed the distribution of erlotinib metabolites and the distribution of erlotinib in tumours refractory to erlotinib, which were established by long-term treatment with erlotinib. We found that erlotinib was broadly diffused in the tumours from B901L-implanted xenograft mice, independently of bevacizumab treatment. We also found that erlotinib metabolites were co-localized with erlotinib and that erlotinib in erlotinib-refractory tumours was broadly distributed throughout the tumour tissue. Multivariate imaging approaches using MALDI MSI as applied in this study are of great value for pharmacokinetic studies in drug development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-17211-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5711937PMC
December 2017

Antibody drug quantitation in coexistence with anti-drug antibodies on nSMOL bioanalysis.

Anal Biochem 2018 01 9;540-541:30-37. Epub 2017 Nov 9.

Leading Technology of Bioanalysis and Protein Chemistry, SHIMADZU Corporation, Kuwabara-cho, Nishino-kyo, Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto 604-8511, Japan. Electronic address:

Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are developed for treatment of diverse cancers and autoimmune diseases. For expansion of mAbs approval against unapproved diseases and pharmaceutical development, pharmacokinetics study is very important. Bioanalysis provides one of the most essential index against pharmacokinetics information. So far, we developed useful method for bioanalysis of mAbs in plasma or serum, nSMOL: nano-surface and molecular-orientation limited proteolysis. This method can provide accurate and reproducible value of mAbs content in plasma. Quantification of mAbs using ELISA is strongly influenced by endogenous ligand or anti-drug antibodies. In this report, we exhibited the role of nSMOL proteolysis coupled to LC-MS/MS analysis against quantification of mAbs bound to some binding molecules. The ligands against mAbs do not affect quantification of mAbs concentration in plasma using nSMOL proteolysis. On the other hands, some anti-drug antibodies (ADA), such as idiotypic antibodies, inhibit quantification of mAbs using nSMOL proteolysis. Acid dissociation has some efficacy in accurate value of quantitation of ADA binding mAbs using nSMOL proteolysis coupled to LC-MS/MS analysis. Accordingly, we consider that nSMOL method will contribute to understanding of mAb PK data and therapeutic reference combining with ADA measurements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ab.2017.11.002DOI Listing
January 2018

Heterogeneous distribution of alectinib in neuroblastoma xenografts revealed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry imaging: a pilot study.

Br J Pharmacol 2018 01 6;175(1):29-37. Epub 2017 Nov 6.

Division of Molecular Pharmacology, National Cancer Center Research Institute, Tokyo, Japan.

Background And Purpose: The penetration of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitor alectinib in neuroblastomas and the relationship between alectinib and ALK expression are unknown. The aim of this study was to perform a quantitative investigation of the inter- and intra-tumoural distribution of alectinib in different neuroblastoma xenograft models using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization MS imaging (MALDI-MSI).

Experimental Approach: The distribution of alectinib in NB1 (ALK amplification) and SK-N-FI (ALK wild-type) xenograft tissues was analysed using MALDI-MSI. The abundance of alectinib in tumours and intra-tumoural areas was quantified using ion signal intensities from MALDI-MSI after normalization by correlation with LC-MS/MS.

Key Results: The distribution of alectinib was heterogeneous in neuroblastomas. The penetration of alectinib was not significantly different between ALK amplification and ALK wide-type tissues using both LC-MS/MS concentrations and MSI intensities. Normalization with an internal standard increased the quantitative property of MSI by adjusting for the ion suppression effect. The distribution of alectinib in different intra-tumoural areas can alternatively be quantified from MS images by correlation with LC-MS/MS.

Conclusion And Implications: The penetration of alectinib into tumour tissues may not be homogenous or influenced by ALK expression in the early period after single-dose administration. MALDI-MSI may prove to be a valuable pharmaceutical method for elucidating the mechanism of action of drugs by clarifying their microscopic distribution in heterogeneous tissues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.14067DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5740247PMC
January 2018

Evaluation of the heterogeneous tissue distribution of erlotinib in lung cancer using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry imaging.

Sci Rep 2017 10 3;7(1):12622. Epub 2017 Oct 3.

Division of Molecular Pharmacology, National Cancer Center Research Institute, National Cancer Center, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo, 104-0045, Japan.

Although drug distribution in tumor tissues has a significant impact on efficacy, conventional pharmacokinetic analysis has some limitations with regard to its ability to provide a comprehensive assessment of drug tissue distribution. Erlotinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor that acts on the epidermal growth factor receptor; however, it is unclear how this drug is histologically distributed in lung cancer. We used matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to analyze erlotinib distribution in the tumor and normal lung tissues of a mouse xenograft model and patient with non-small cell lung cancer. LC-MS/MS showed that the erlotinib tissue concentration in the xenograft tumor tissue was clearly lower than that in the normal tissue at the time of maximum blood concentration. MALDI-MSI showed the heterogeneous distribution of erlotinib at various levels in the murine tissues; interestingly, erlotinib was predominantly localized in the area of viable tumor compared to the necrotic area. In the patient-derived tissue, MALDI-MSI showed that there were different concentrations of erlotinib distributed within the same tissue. For drug development and translational research, the imaging pharmacokinetic study used the combination of MALDI-MSI and LC-MS/MS analyses may be useful in tissues with heterogeneous drug distribution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-13025-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5626687PMC
October 2017