Publications by authors named "Akiko Mizokami"

28 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Osteocalcin promotes proliferation, differentiation, and survival of PC12 cells.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Jun 15;557:174-179. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Division of Applied Pharmacology, Department of Health Promotion, Kyushu Dental University, 2-6-1 Manazuru, Kokurakita-ku, Kitakyushu 803-8580, Japan. Electronic address:

Involvement of the bone matrix protein osteocalcin (OC) in the development of learning and memory, and the prevention of anxiety-like behaviors in mice. However, the direct effects of OC on neurons are still unknown comparing to the mechanism how OC affects systemic energy expenditure and glucose homeostasis. In this study, we investigated the effect of OC on proliferation, differentiation, and survival of neurons using the rat pheochromocytoma cell line PC12. RT-PCR analysis for OC receptor candidates revealed that Gpr158, but not Gprc6a, mRNA was expressed in PC12 cells. The growth of PC12 cells cultured in the presence of 5-50 ng/mL of either uncarboxylated (GluOC) or carboxylated (GlaOC) OC was increased compared to cells cultured in the absence of OC. In addition, NGF-induced neurite outgrowth was enhanced by OC, and HO-induced cell death was suppressed by pretreatment with OC. All of these results were observed for both GluOC and GlaOC at comparable levels, suggesting that OC may directly affect cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival by binding to its candidate receptor, GPR158.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2021.03.146DOI Listing
June 2021

Expression of PRIP, a phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate binding protein, attenuates PI3K/AKT signaling and suppresses tumor growth in a xenograft mouse model.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 May 18;552:106-113. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3, Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima, 734-8553, Japan; Department of Cell Biology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Dental Science, Kyushu University, 3-1-1, Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, 812-8582, Japan. Electronic address:

Cancer is characterized by uncontrolled proliferation resulting from aberrant cell cycle progression. The activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling, a regulatory pathway for the cell cycle, stabilizes cyclin D1 in the G1 phase by inhibiting the activity of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) via phosphorylation. We previously reported that phospholipase C-related catalytically inactive protein (PRIP), a phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P] binding protein, regulates PI3K/AKT signaling by competitively inhibiting substrate recognition by PI3K. Therefore, in this study, we investigated whether PRIP is involved in cell cycle progression. PRIP silencing in MCF-7 cells, a human breast cancer cell line, demonstrated PI(3,4,5)P signals accumulated at the cell periphery compared to that of the control. This suggests that PRIP reduction enhances PI(3,4,5)P-mediated signaling. Consistently, PRIP silencing in MCF-7 cells exhibited increased phosphorylation of AKT and GSK3β which resulted in cyclin D1 accumulation. In contrast, the exogenous expression of PRIP in MCF-7 cells evidenced stronger downregulation of AKT and GSK3β phosphorylation, reduced accumulation of cyclin D1, and diminished cell proliferation in comparison to control cells. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that MCF-7 cells stably expressing PRIP attenuate cell cycle progression. Importantly, tumor growth of MCF-7 cells stably expressing PRIP was considerably prevented in an in vivo xenograft mouse model. In conclusion, PRIP expression downregulates PI3K/AKT/GSK3β-mediated cell cycle progression and suppresses tumor growth. Therefore, we propose that PRIP is a new therapeutic target for anticancer therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2021.03.045DOI Listing
May 2021

Adipocyte-specific GPRC6A ablation promotes diet-induced obesity by inhibiting lipolysis.

J Biol Chem 2021 Jan 8:100274. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Oral Medicine Research Center, Fukuoka Dental College, Fukuoka, Japan. Electronic address:

The G protein-coupled receptor GPRC6A regulates various physiological processes in response to its interaction with multiple ligands such as extracellular basic amino acids, divalent cations, testosterone, and the uncarboxylated form of osteocalcin (GluOC). Global ablation of GPRC6A increases the susceptibility of mice to diet-induced obesity and related metabolic disorders. However, given that GPRC6A is expressed in many tissues and responds to a variety of hormonal and nutritional signals, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the development of metabolic disorders in conventional knockout mice have remained unclear. On the basis of our previous observation that long-term oral administration of GluOC markedly reduced adipocyte size and improved glucose tolerance in wild-type mice, we examined whether GPRC6A signaling in adipose tissue might be responsible for prevention of metabolic disorders. We thus generated adipocyte-specific GPRC6A knockout mice, and we found that these animals manifested increased adipose tissue weight, adipocyte hypertrophy, and adipose tissue inflammation when fed a high-fat, high-sucrose diet compared with control mice. These effects were associated with reduced lipolytic activity due to down-regulation of lipolytic enzymes such as adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and hormone-sensitive lipase in adipose tissue of the conditional knockout mice. Given that, among GPR6CA ligands tested, GluOC and ornithine increased the expression of ATGL in cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes in a manner dependent on GPRC6A, our results suggest that the constitutive activation of GPRC6A signaling in adipocytes by GluOC or ornithine plays a key role in adipose lipid handling and the prevention of obesity and related metabolic disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbc.2021.100274DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7949034PMC
January 2021

The roles of osteocalcin in lipid metabolism in adipose tissue and liver.

Adv Biol Regul 2020 12 10;78:100752. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

Oral Medicine Research Center, Fukuoka Dental College, Fukuoka, 814-0193, Japan. Electronic address:

Bone provides skeletal support and functions as an endocrine organ by producing osteocalcin, whose uncarboxylated form (GluOC) increases the metabolism of glucose and lipid by activating its putative G protein-coupled receptor (family C group 6 subtype A). Low doses (≤10 ng/ml) of GluOC induce the expression of adiponectin, adipose triglyceride lipase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, and promote active phosphorylation of lipolytic enzymes such as perilipin and hormone-sensitive lipase via the cAMP-PKA-Src-Rap1-ERK-CREB signaling axis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Administration of high-dose (≥20 ng/ml) GluOC induces programmed necrosis (necroptosis) through a juxtacrine mechanism triggered by the binding of Fas ligand, whose expression is induced by forkhead box O1, to Fas that is expressed in adjacent adipocytes. Furthermore, expression of adiponectin and adipose triglyceride lipase in adipocytes is triggered in the same manner as following low-dose GluOC stimulation; these effects protect mice from diet-induced accumulation of triglycerides in hepatocytes and consequent liver injury through the upregulation of nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-E2-related factor-2, expression of antioxidant enzymes, and inhibition of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathway. Evaluation of these molecular mechanisms leads us to consider that GluOC might have potential as a treatment for lipid metabolism disorders. Indeed, there have been many reports demonstrating the negative correlation between serum osteocalcin levels and obesity or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, a common risk factor for which is dyslipidemia in humans. The present review summarizes the effects of GluOC on lipid metabolism as well as its possible therapeutic application for metabolic diseases including obesity and dyslipidemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbior.2020.100752DOI Listing
December 2020

Kif1c regulates osteoclastic bone resorption as a downstream molecule of p130Cas.

Cell Biochem Funct 2020 Apr 30;38(3):300-308. Epub 2019 Dec 30.

Division of Molecular Signaling and Biochemistry, Department of Health Improvement, Kyushu Dental University, Kitakyushu, Japan.

Podosome formation in osteoclasts is an important initial step in osteoclastic bone resorption. Mice lacking c-Src (c-Src ) exhibited osteopetrosis due to a lack of podosome formation in osteoclasts. We previously identified p130Cas (Crk-associated substrate [Cas]) as one of c-Src downstream molecule and osteoclast-specific p130Cas-deficient (p130Cas ) mice also exhibited a similar phenotype to c-Src mice, indicating that the c-Src/p130Cas plays an important role for bone resorption by osteoclasts. In this study, we performed a cDNA microarray and compared the gene profiles of osteoclasts from c-Src or p130Cas mice with wild-type (WT) osteoclasts to identify downstream molecules of c-Src/p130Cas involved in bone resorption. Among several genes that were commonly downregulated in both c-Src and p130Cas osteoclasts, we identified kinesin family protein 1c (Kif1c), which regulates the cytoskeletal organization. Reduced Kif1c expression was observed in both c-Src and p130Cas osteoclasts compared with WT osteoclasts. Kif1c exhibited a broad tissue distribution, including osteoclasts. Knockdown of Kif1c expression using shRNAs in WT osteoclasts suppressed actin ring formation. Kif1c overexpression restored bone resorption subsequent to actin ring formation in p130Cas osteoclasts but not c-Src osteoclasts, suggesting that Kif1c regulates osteoclastic bone resorption in the downstream of p130Cas (191 words). SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY: We previously showed that the c-Src/p130Cas (Cas) plays an important role for bone resorption by osteoclasts. In this study, we identified kinesin family protein 1c (Kif1c), which regulates the cytoskeletal organization, as a downstream molecule of c-Src/p130Cas axis, using cDNA microarray. Knockdown of Kif1c expression using shRNAs in wild-type osteoclasts suppressed actin ring formation. Kif1c overexpression restored bone resorption subsequent to actin ring formation in osteoclast-specific p130Cas-deficient (p130Cas ) osteoclasts but not c-Src osteoclasts, suggesting that Kif1c regulates osteoclastic bone resorption in the downstream of p130Cas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbf.3476DOI Listing
April 2020

GLP-1 signaling is required for improvement of glucose tolerance by osteocalcin.

J Endocrinol 2020 02;244(2):285-296

Oral Medicine Research Center, School of Dental Medicine, Fukuoka Dental College, Fukuoka, Japan.

Osteocalcin is a bone-derived hormone that in its uncarboxylated form (GluOC) plays an important role in glucose and energy metabolism by stimulating insulin secretion and pancreatic β-cell proliferation through its putative receptor GPRC6A. We previously showed that the effect of GluOC on insulin secretion is mediated predominantly by glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) released from intestinal endocrine cells in response to GluOC stimulation. Moreover, oral administration of GluOC was found to reduce the fasting blood glucose level, to improve glucose tolerance, and to increase the fasting serum insulin concentration and β-cell area in the pancreas in wild-type mice. We have now examined the effects of oral GluOC administration for at least 4 weeks in GLP-1 receptor-knockout mice. Such administration of GluOC in the mutant mice triggered glucose intolerance, enhanced gluconeogenesis and promoted both lipid accumulation in the liver as well as adipocyte hypertrophy and inflammation in adipose tissue. Furthermore, inactivation of GLP-1 receptor signaling in association with GluOC administration induced activation of the transcription factor FoxO1 and expression of its transcriptional coactivator PGC1α in the liver, likely accounting for the observed upregulation of gluconeogenic gene expression. Our results thus indicate that the beneficial metabolic effects of GluOC are dependent on GLP-1 receptor signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/JOE-19-0288DOI Listing
February 2020

Phospholipase C-related catalytically inactive protein regulates lipopolysaccharide-induced hypothalamic inflammation-mediated anorexia in mice.

Neurochem Int 2019 12 4;131:104563. Epub 2019 Oct 4.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, Division of Basic Life Sciences, Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima, 734-8553, Japan; Department of Cell Biology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Dental Science, Kyushu University, 3-1-1, Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, 812-8582, Japan. Electronic address:

Peripheral lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection induces systemic inflammation through the activation of the inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) kinase (IKK)/NF-κB signaling pathway, which promotes brain dysfunction resulting in conditions including anorexia. LPS-mediated reduction of food intake is associated with activation of NF-κB signaling and phosphorylation of the transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in the hypothalamus. We recently reported phospholipase C-related catalytically inactive protein (PRIP) as a new negative regulator of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT signaling. AKT regulates the IKK/NF-κB signaling pathway; therefore, this study aimed to investigate the role of PRIP/AKT signaling in LPS-mediated neuroinflammation-induced anorexia. PRIP gene (Prip1 and Prip2) knockout (Prip-KO) mice intraperitoneally (ip) administered with LPS exhibited increased anorexia responses compared with wild-type (WT) controls. Although few differences were observed between WT and Prip-KO mice in LPS-elicited plasma pro-inflammatory cytokine elevation, hypothalamic pro-inflammatory cytokines were significantly upregulated in Prip-KO rather than WT mice. Hypothalamic AKT and IKK phosphorylation and IκB degradation were significantly increased in Prip-KO rather than WT mice, indicating further promotion of AKT-mediated NF-κB signaling. Consistently, hypothalamic STAT3 was further phosphorylated in Prip-KO rather than WT mice. Furthermore, suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (Socs3), a negative feedback regulator for STAT3 signaling, and cyclooxogenase-2 (Cox2), a candidate molecule in LPS-induced anorexigenic responses, were upregulated in the hypothalamus in Prip-KO rather than WT mice. Pro-inflammatory cytokines were upregulated in hypothalamic microglia isolated from Prip-KO rather than WT mice. Together, these findings indicate that PRIP negatively regulates LPS-induced anorexia caused by pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in the hypothalamus, which is mediated by AKT-activated NF-κB signaling. Importantly, hypothalamic microglia participate in this PRIP-mediated process. Elucidation of PRIP-mediated neuroinflammatory responses may provide novel insights into the pathophysiology of many brain dysfunctions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuint.2019.104563DOI Listing
December 2019

Phospholipase C-related catalytically inactive protein: A novel signaling molecule for modulating fat metabolism and energy expenditure.

J Oral Biosci 2019 06 15;61(2):65-72. Epub 2019 May 15.

Fukuoka Dental College, Fukuoka, 814-0193, Japan.

Background: Overweight and obesity are defined as excessive or abnormal fat accumulation in adipose tissues, and increase the risk of morbidity in many diseases, including hypertension, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, and stroke, through pathophysiological mechanisms. There is strong evidence that weight loss reduces the risk of metabolic syndrome by limiting blood pressure and improving the levels of serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. To date, several attempts have been made to develop effective anti-obesity medication or weight-loss drugs; however, satisfactory drugs for clinical use have not yet been developed. Therefore, elucidation of the molecular mechanisms driving fat metabolism (adipogenesis and lipolysis) represents the first step in developing clinically useful drugs and/or therapeutic treatments to control obesity.

Highlight: In our previous study on intracellular signaling of phospholipase C-related catalytically inactive protein (PRIP), we generated and analyzed Prip-double knockout (Prip-DKO) mice. Prip-DKO mice showed tolerance against insulin resistance and a lean phenotype with low fat mass. Here, we therefore reviewed the involvement of PRIP in fat metabolism and energy expenditure. We conclude that PRIP, a protein phosphatase-binding protein, can modulate fat metabolism via phosphoregulation of adipose lipolysis-related molecules, and regulates non-shivering heat generation in brown adipocytes.

Conclusion: We propose PRIP as a new therapeutic target for controlling obesity or developing novel anti-obesity drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.job.2019.04.002DOI Listing
June 2019

Osteocalcin triggers Fas/FasL-mediated necroptosis in adipocytes via activation of p300.

Cell Death Dis 2018 12 13;9(12):1194. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

School of Dental Medicine, Fukuoka Dental College, Fukuoka, 814-0193, Japan.

The uncarboxylated form of osteocalcin (GluOC) regulates glucose and lipid metabolism in mice. We previously showed that low-dose (≤10 ng/ml) GluOC induces the expression of adiponectin and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) via a cAMP-PKA-ERK-CREB signaling pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We also noticed that high-dose (≥20 ng/ml) GluOC inhibits the expression of adiponectin and PPARγ in these cells. We have here explored the mechanism underlying these effects of high-dose GluOC. High-dose GluOC triggered morphological changes in 3T3-L1 adipocytes suggestive of the induction of cell death. It activated the putative GluOC receptor GPRC6A and thereby induced the production of cAMP and activation of protein kinase A (PKA), similar to signaling by low-dose GluOC with the exception that the catalytic subunit of PKA also entered the nucleus. Cytosolic PKA induced phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) at serine-133 via extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Nuclear PKA appeared to mediate the inhibitory phosphorylation of salt-inducible kinase 2 (SIK2) at serine-358 and thereby to alleviate the inhibitory phosphorylation of the CREB co-activator p300 at serine-89. The activation of CREB and p300 resulted in increased expression of the transcription factor FoxO1 and consequent upregulation of Fas ligand (FasL) at the plasma membrane. The interaction of FasL with Fas on neighboring adipocytes triggered the phosphorylation at threonine-357/serine-358 and homotrimerization of mixed-lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL), a key regulator of necroptosis, as well as Ca influx via transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7), the generation of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxides, and dephosphorylation of dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1) at serine-637, resulting in mitochondrial fragmentation. Together, our results indicate that high-dose GluOC triggers necroptosis through upregulation of FasL at the plasma membrane in a manner dependent of activation of CREB-p300, followed by the activation of Fas signaling in neighboring adipocytes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-018-1257-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6294257PMC
December 2018

Uncarboxylated Osteocalcin Induces Antitumor Immunity against Mouse Melanoma Cell Growth.

J Cancer 2017 2;8(13):2478-2486. Epub 2017 Aug 2.

Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, Faculty of Dental Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan.

Because of the poor response to chemotherapy and radiation therapy, new treatment approaches by immune-based therapy involving activated T cells are required for melanoma. We previously reported that the uncarboxylated form of osteocalcin (GluOC), derived from osteoblasts, potentially suppresses human prostate cancer cell proliferation by direct suppression of cell growth. However, the mechanisms have not been elucidated. In this study, we found that GluOC suppressed tumor growth of B16 mouse melanoma transplants in C57Bl/6N wild-type mice. Our data demonstrated that GluOC suppressed cell growth by downregulating phosphorylation levels of receptor tyrosine kinases and inducing apoptosis . Additionally, stimulation of primary mouse splenocytes with concanavalin A, a polyclonal T-cell mitogen, in the presence of GluOC increased T cell proliferation and their interferon-γ production. Taken together, we demonstrate that GluOC exerts multiple antitumor effects not only , but also through cellular immunostimulatory effects against B16 mouse melanoma cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/jca.18648DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5595077PMC
August 2017

Osteocalcin and its endocrine functions.

Biochem Pharmacol 2017 05 9;132:1-8. Epub 2017 Feb 9.

Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry and, Faculty of Dental Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan. Electronic address:

Bone has traditionally been regarded as a static structural organ that supports movement of the body and protects the internal organs. However, evidence has been accumulated in the past decade showing that bone also functions as an endocrine organ that regulates systemic glucose and energy metabolism. Osteocalcin, an osteoblast-specific secreted protein, acts as a hormone by stimulating insulin production and increasing energy expenditure and insulin sensitivity in target organs. Animal studies have shown that an increase in the circulating concentration of osteocalcin, including via exogenous application of the protein, prevents obesity and glucose intolerance. Moreover, a number of epidemiological analyses support the role of osteocalcin in the regulation of glucose and energy homeostasis in humans. Therefore, it has been suggested that osteocalcin could be a feasible preventive or therapeutic agent for metabolic disorders. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge regarding the endocrine functions of osteocalcin and its various modes of action.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bcp.2017.02.001DOI Listing
May 2017

Differential Roles of Carboxylated and Uncarboxylated Osteocalcin in Prostate Cancer Growth.

J Cancer 2016 18;7(12):1605-1609. Epub 2016 Jul 18.

1. Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, Faculty of Dental Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan.

Serum levels of osteocalcin (OC), a bone matrix non-collagenous protein secreted by osteoblasts, are correlated with pathological bone remodeling such as the bone metastasis of cancer, as well as physiological bone turnover. The pathological roles in prostate cancer growth of the two existing types of serum OC, γ-carboxylated (GlaOC) and lower- (or un-) carboxylated (GluOC), have not yet been discriminatively examined. In the present study, we demonstrate that normal prostate epithelial cell growth was promoted by both types of OC, while growth of cancer cells in the prostate was accelerated by GlaOC but suppressed by GluOC. We suggest that OC regulates prostate cancer growth depending on the γ-carboxylation, in part by triggering reduced phosphorylation of receptor tyrosine kinases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/jca.15523DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5039381PMC
July 2016

An extract from pork bones containing osteocalcin improves glucose metabolism in mice by oral administration.

Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2016 Nov 27;80(11):2176-2183. Epub 2016 Jul 27.

a Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, Faculty of Dental Science , Kyushu University , Fukuoka , Japan.

Osteocalcin (OC) is a bone-derived hormone that regulates energy metabolism. OC exists in two forms, carboxylated (GlaOC) and uncaboxylated (GluOC), but only the latter appears to have an endocrine function. In this study, we prepared an extract containing both Gla- and GluOC from boiled pork bone using 0.2 M carbonate buffer at pH 9.5, and tested whether the extract had beneficial effects on improving metabolic parameters in obese mice. The extract equivalent of 1.2 μg of GluOC/mouse was orally administrated to C57BL/6 female mice fed a high-fat, high-sucrose diet. Daily oral administration of the extract for four weeks decreased blood glucose levels and promoted glucose tolerance as well as insulin sensitivity. Our study shows for the first time that boiled pork bones are a source material for osteocalcin in the large-scale production of supplements designed to improve glucose metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09168451.2016.1214530DOI Listing
November 2016

Maternal oral administration of osteocalcin protects offspring from metabolic impairment in adulthood.

Obesity (Silver Spring) 2016 Apr 4;24(4):895-907. Epub 2016 Mar 4.

Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, Kyushu University, Japan.

Objective: Maternal diet during pregnancy has been found to influence the health of offspring. However, strategies for modulation of maternal energy metabolism without an adverse effect on the fetus have remained limited. It was recently shown that oral administration of uncarboxylated osteocalcin (GluOC) improves metabolic status in adult female mice. Whether maternal GluOC administration during gestation might improve the metabolic status of offspring was investigated.

Methods: Female C57BL/6 mice were fed a normal diet (ND) or high-fat, high-sucrose diet (HFS) and were given saline or GluOC by oral administration during pregnancy. The resulting offspring were in turn assigned to ND- or HFS-fed groups immediately after weaning, and their body weight, glucose metabolism, serum lipid parameters, and level of adipose tissue inflammation were subsequently assessed.

Results: Maternal HFS feeding during gestation had adverse effects on glucose and lipid parameters, body weight, and adipose tissue inflammation in female offspring fed the same diet, and these effects were attenuated by maternal oral GluOC administration.

Conclusions: Maternal oral administration of GluOC protects HFS-fed female offspring from metabolic disorders induced by maternal obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/oby.21447DOI Listing
April 2016

Long-term oral administration of osteocalcin induces insulin resistance in male mice fed a high-fat, high-sucrose diet.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2016 04 16;310(8):E662-E675. Epub 2016 Feb 16.

Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry,

Uncarboxylated osteocalcin (GluOC), a bone-derived hormone, regulates energy metabolism by stimulating insulin secretion, pancreatic β-cell proliferation, and adiponectin expression in adipocytes. Previously, we showed that long-term intermittent or daily oral administration of GluOC reduced the fasting blood glucose level, improved glucose tolerance, and increased the fasting serum insulin concentration as well as pancreatic β-cell area in female mice fed a normal or high-fat, high-sucrose diet. We have now performed similar experiments with male mice and found that such GluOC administration induced glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and adipocyte hypertrophy in those fed a high-fat, high-sucrose diet. In addition, GluOC increased the circulating concentration of testosterone and reduced that of adiponectin in such mice. These phenotypes were not observed in male mice fed a high-fat, high-sucrose diet after orchidectomy, but they were apparent in orchidectomized male mice or intact female mice that were fed such a diet and subjected to continuous testosterone supplementation. Our results thus reveal a sex difference in the effects of GluOC on glucose homeostasis. Given that oral administration of GluOC has been considered a potentially safe and convenient option for the treatment or prevention of metabolic disorders, this sex difference will need to be taken into account in further investigations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00334.2015DOI Listing
April 2016

Differential role of SNAP-25 phosphorylation by protein kinases A and C in the regulation of SNARE complex formation and exocytosis in PC12 cells.

Cell Signal 2016 May 23;28(5):425-437. Epub 2015 Dec 23.

Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, Faculty of Dental Science, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan. Electronic address:

The final step of regulated exocytosis, membrane fusion, is mediated by formation of the SNARE complex by syntaxin, SNAP-25 (synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa), and VAMP (vesicle-associated membrane protein). Phosphorylation of SNARE and accessory proteins contributes to regulation of exocytosis. We previously identified residues of SNAP-25 phosphorylated by protein kinase A (PKA) and PKC. However, the physiological role of SNAP-25 phosphorylation in exocytosis, in particular with regard to SNARE complex formation, has remained elusive. SNARE complex formation by purified recombinant SNAP-25, syntaxin-1, and VAMP-2 in vitro was inhibited or promoted as a result of the phosphorylation at Thr(138) by PKA or at Ser(187) by PKC, respectively. SNARE complex formation in intact PC12 cells was similarly inhibited by forskolin (activator of PKA) and promoted by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, activator of PKC). Noradrenaline secretion from PC12 cells induced by a high K(+) concentration was enhanced by forskolin or PMA. Stable depletion of SNAP-25 inhibited high-K(+)-induced noradrenaline secretion. Forced expression of WT SNAP-25 restored the secretory response of the SNAP-25-depleted cells to high-K(+), and this response was enhanced by forskolin or PMA. Expression of the nonphosphorylatable T138A or S187A mutants of SNAP-25 similarly rescued the secretory response to high-K(+), but the augmentation of this response by forskolin was more pronounced in the cells expressing SNAP-25 (T138A) than in those expressing SNAP-25 (WT), whereas that by PMA was less pronounced in those expressing SNAP-25 (S187A). Our results thus suggest that SNAP-25 phosphorylation by PKA or PKC contributes differentially to the control of exocytosis in PC12 cells by regulating SNARE complex formation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cellsig.2015.12.014DOI Listing
May 2016

Promotion of insulin-induced glucose uptake in C2C12 myotubes by osteocalcin.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2015 Apr 28;459(3):437-42. Epub 2015 Feb 28.

Division of Applied Pharmacology, Kyushu Dental University, Kitakyushu 803-8580, Japan. Electronic address:

A close relationship between the bone and systemic glucose metabolism has recently been the center of attention, since the uncarboxylated form of osteocalcin (GluOC), a bone-derived protein, but not the γ-carboxylated form, is involved in glucose metabolism. However, the analysis of GluOC effect using isolated organs and related cell lines are required to understand its roles in a whole systemic metabolic status. In the present study, we examined the effect of GluOC on cell lines derived from skeletal muscle to explore the mechanisms by which GluOC regulates glucose uptake. In the differentiated C2C12 myotubes, GluOC dose-dependently induced the phosphorylation of ERK without affecting intracellular cAMP and Ca(2+) levels. This effect was inhibited by U0126, an inhibitor of ERK kinase (MEK). Additionally, U73122, an inhibitor of phospholipase C tended to inhibit it as well. Furthermore, cell treatment with GluOC for a long period promoted insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation and glucose uptake in the myotubes, which was abolished by ERK signaling inhibition. These results indicate that GluOC does not triggered Akt phosphorylation and glucose uptake by itself but promotes insulin-induced glucose uptake in myotubes, probably by up-regulating Akt signaling through ERK activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2015.02.123DOI Listing
April 2015

Signaling pathway for adiponectin expression in adipocytes by osteocalcin.

Cell Signal 2015 Mar 3;27(3):532-44. Epub 2015 Jan 3.

Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, Faculty of Dental Science, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan. Electronic address:

In addition to providing skeletal support, the bone is an endocrine organ that produces osteocalcin, whose uncarboxylated form (GluOC) increases insulin secretion either directly or indirectly by promoting incretin secretion. We have now investigated the signaling pathway by which GluOC increases expression of adiponectin in adipocytes. Activation of its putative receptor GPRC6A by GluOC induced the intracellular accumulation of cAMP and consequent activation of protein kinase A (PKA) in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. It also induced phosphorylation of CREB (cAMP response element binding protein), but this effect appeared to be mediated indirectly by extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) rather than directly by PKA, given that it was attenuated by the ERK signaling inhibitor U0126. Activated PKA also induced activation of the tyrosine kinase Src, the small GTPase Rap1, an upstream of ERK and CREB phosphorylation. Activated CREB up-regulated the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), which in turn led to induction of adiponectin expression. Finally, intermittent oral administration of GluOC in mice reduced the size of gonadal white adipocytes as well as increased the expression of PPARγ and adiponectin in these cells. Our results have thus revealed the signaling pathway by which GluOC induces adiponectin expression in adipocytes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cellsig.2014.12.018DOI Listing
March 2015

Oral administration of osteocalcin improves glucose utilization by stimulating glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion.

Bone 2014 Dec 16;69:68-79. Epub 2014 Sep 16.

Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, Faculty of Dental Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan. Electronic address:

Uncarboxylated osteocalcin (GluOC), a bone-derived hormone, regulates energy metabolism by stimulating insulin secretion and pancreatic β-cell proliferation. We previously showed that the effect of GluOC on insulin secretion is mediated largely by glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secreted from the intestine in response to GluOC exposure. We have now examined the effect of oral administration of GluOC on glucose utilization as well as the fate of such administered GluOC in mice. Long-term intermittent or daily oral administration of GluOC reduced the fasting blood glucose level and improved glucose tolerance in mice without affecting insulin sensitivity. It also increased the fasting serum insulin concentration as well as the β-cell area in the pancreas. A small proportion of orally administered GluOC reached the small intestine and remained there for at least 24h. GluOC also entered the general circulation, and the serum GLP-1 concentration was increased in association with the presence of GluOC in the intestine and systemic circulation. The putative GluOC receptor, GPRC6A was detected in intestinal cells, and was colocalized with GLP-1 in some of these cells. Our results suggest that orally administered GluOC improved glucose handling likely by acting from both the intestinal lumen and the general circulation, with this effect being mediated in part by stimulation of GLP-1 secretion. Oral administration of GluOC warrants further study as a safe and convenient option for the treatment or prevention of metabolic disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2014.09.006DOI Listing
December 2014

Phospholipase C-related catalytically inactive protein (PRIP) regulates lipolysis in adipose tissue by modulating the phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase.

PLoS One 2014 19;9(6):e100559. Epub 2014 Jun 19.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan.

Phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and perilipin by protein kinase A (PKA) promotes the hydrolysis of lipids in adipocytes. Although activation of lipolysis by PKA has been well studied, inactivation via protein phosphatases is poorly understood. Here, we investigated whether phospholipase C-related catalytically inactive protein (PRIP), a binding partner for protein phosphatase 1 and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), is involved in lipolysis by regulating phosphatase activity. PRIP knockout (PRIP-KO) mice displayed reduced body-fat mass as compared with wild-type mice fed with standard chow ad libitum. Most other organs appeared normal, suggesting that mutant mice had aberrant fat metabolism in adipocytes. HSL in PRIP-KO adipose tissue was highly phosphorylated compared to that in wild-type mice. Starvation of wild-type mice or stimulation of adipose tissue explants with the catabolic hormone, adrenaline, translocated both PRIP and PP2A from the cytosol to lipid droplets, but the translocation of PP2A was significantly reduced in PRIP-KO adipocytes. Consistently, the phosphatase activity associated with lipid droplet fraction in PRIP-KO adipocytes was significantly reduced and was independent of adrenaline stimulation. Lipolysis activity, as assessed by measurement of non-esterified fatty acids and glycerol, was higher in PRIP-KO adipocytes. When wild-type adipocytes were treated with a phosphatase inhibitor, they showed a high lipolysis activity at the similar level to PRIP-KO adipocytes. Collectively, these results suggest that PRIP promotes the translocation of phosphatases to lipid droplets to trigger the dephosphorylation of HSL and perilipin A, thus reducing PKA-mediated lipolysis.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0100559PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4064000PMC
March 2015

Osteocalcin induces release of glucagon-like peptide-1 and thereby stimulates insulin secretion in mice.

PLoS One 2013 20;8(2):e57375. Epub 2013 Feb 20.

Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, Faculty of Dental Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

The uncarboxylated form (ucOC), but not the γ-carboxylated form (GlaOC), of the bone-derived protein osteocalcin stimulates insulin secretion and regulates energy metabolism in insulin target tissues. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an insulin secretagogue that is released from the gut in response to food intake. We have now found that Gprc6a, a putative ucOC receptor, is expressed in epithelial cells of the mouse small intestine as well as in STC-1 enteroendocrine cells. Secretion of GLP-1 by STC-1 cells was stimulated by ucOC but not by GlaOC. The serum GLP-1 concentration in mice was increased by intraperitoneal or oral administration of ucOC, whereas GlaOC was effective in this regard only after oral application. Serum insulin levels were also increased by ucOC, and this effect was potentiated by an inhibitor of dipeptidyl peptidase IV and blocked by a GLP-1 receptor antagonist. Intravenous injection of ucOC in mice increased the serum GLP-1 concentration, and also increased the serum level of insulin. Our results suggest that ucOC acts via Gprc6a to induce GLP-1 release from the gut, and that the stimulatory effect of ucOC on insulin secretion is largely mediated by GLP-1.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0057375PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3577726PMC
August 2013

Phospholipase C-related catalytically inactive protein, a novel microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3-binding protein, negatively regulates autophagosome formation.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2013 Mar 9;432(2):268-74. Epub 2013 Feb 9.

Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, Faculty of Dental Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan.

Upon starvation, cells undergo autophagy, an intracellular bulk-degradation process, to provide the required nutrients. Here, we observed that phospholipase C-related catalytically inactive protein (PRIP) binds to microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3), a mammalian autophagy-related initiator that regulates the autophagy pathway. Then, we examined the involvement of PRIP in the nutrient depletion-induced autophagy pathway. Enhanced colocalization of PRIP with LC3 was clearly seen in nutrient-starved mouse embryonic fibroblasts under a fluorescent microscope, and interaction of the proteins was revealed by immunoprecipitation experiments with an anti-LC3 antibody. Under starvation conditions, there were more green fluorescent protein fused-LC3 dots in mouse embryonic fibroblasts from PRIP-deficient mice than in fibroblasts from wild type cells. The formation of new dots in a single cell increased, as assessed by time-lapse microscopy. Furthermore, the increase in autophagosome formation in PRIP-deficient cells was notably inhibited by exogenously overexpressed PRIP. Taken together, PRIP is a novel LC3-binding protein that acts as a negative modulator of autophagosome formation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2013.01.119DOI Listing
March 2013

Involvement of PRIP, phospholipase C-related, but catalytically inactive protein, in bone formation.

J Biol Chem 2011 Sep 11;286(35):31032-31042. Epub 2011 Jul 11.

Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan. Electronic address:

PRIP (phospholipase C-related, but catalytically inactive protein) is a novel protein isolated in this laboratory. PRIP-deficient mice showed increased serum gonadotropins, but decreased gonadal steroid hormones. This imbalance was similar to that for the cause of bone disease, such as osteoporosis. In the present study, therefore, we analyzed mutant mice with special reference to the bone property. We first performed three-dimensional analysis of the femur of female mice. The bone mineral density and trabecular bone volume were higher in mutant mice. We further performed histomorphometrical assay of bone formation parameters: bone formation rate, mineral apposition rate, osteoid thickness, and osteoblast number were up-regulated in the mutant, indicating that increased bone mass is caused by the enhancement of bone formation ability. We then cultured primary cells isolated from calvaria prepared from both genotypes. In mutant mice, osteoblast differentiation, as assessed by alkaline phosphatase activity and the expression of osteoblast differentiation marker genes, was enhanced. Moreover, we analyzed the phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 in response to bone morphogenetic protein, with longer phosphorylation in the mutant. These results indicate that PRIP is implicated in the negative regulation of bone formation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M111.235903DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3162462PMC
September 2011

GABA(A) receptor subunit alteration-dependent diazepam insensitivity in the cerebellum of phospholipase C-related inactive protein knockout mice.

J Neurochem 2010 Jul 19;114(1):302-10. Epub 2010 Apr 19.

Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, Faculty of Dental Science, and Station for Collaborative Research, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

The GABA(A) receptor, a pentamer composed predominantly of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits, mediates fast inhibitory synaptic transmission. We have previously reported that phospholipase C-related inactive protein (PRIP) is a modulator of GABA(A) receptor trafficking and that knockout (KO) mice exhibit a diazepam-insensitive phenotype in the hippocampus. The alpha subunit affects diazepam sensitivity; alpha1, 2, 3, and 5 subunits assemble with any form of beta and the gamma2 subunits to produce diazepam-sensitive receptors, whereas alpha4 or alpha6/beta/gamma2 receptors are diazepam-insensitive. Here, we investigated how PRIP is implicated in the diazepam-insensitive phenotype using cerebellar granule cells in animals expressing predominantly the alpha6 subunit. The expression of alpha1/beta/gamma2 diazepam-sensitive receptors was decreased in the PRIP-1 and 2 double KO cerebellum without any change in the total number of benzodiazepine-binding sites as assessed by radioligand-binding assay. Since levels of the alpha6 subunit were increased, the alpha1/beta/gamma2 receptors might be replaced with alpha6 subunit-containing receptors. Then, we further performed autoradiographic and electrophysiologic analyses. These results suggest that the expression of alpha6/delta receptors was decreased in cerebellar granule neurons, while that of alpha6/gamma2 receptors was increased. PRIP-1 and 2 double KO mice exhibit a diazepam-insensitive phenotype because of a decrease in diazepam-sensitive (alpha1/gamma2) and increase in diazepam-insensitive (alpha6/gamma2) GABA(A) receptors in the cerebellar granule cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-4159.2010.06754.xDOI Listing
July 2010

Regulation of GABA(A)-receptor surface expression with special reference to the involvement of GABARAP (GABA(A) receptor-associated protein) and PRIP (phospholipase C-related, but catalytically inactive protein).

J Pharmacol Sci 2007 Aug 10;104(4):285-92. Epub 2007 Aug 10.

Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, Faculty of Dental Science and Station for Collaborative Research, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

GABA(A) receptors are heteropentameric ligand-gated chloride channels composed of a variety of subunits, including alpha1 - 6, beta1 - 3, gamma1 - 3, delta, epsilon, theta, and pi, and play a key role in controlling inhibitory neuronal activity. Modification of the efficacy of the synaptic strength is produced by changes in both the number of neuronal surface receptors and pentameric molecular assembly, leading to differences of sensitivity to neurotransmitters and neuromimetic drugs. Therefore, it is important to understand the molecular mechanisms regulating the so-called "life cycle of GABA(A) receptors" including sequential pentameric assembly at the site synthesized, intracellular transport through the Golgi apparatus and the cytoplasm, insertion into the cell membrane, functional modulation at the cell surface, and finally internalization, followed by either recycling back to the surface membrane or lysosomal degradation. This review is focused on events related to the surface expression of the receptor containing the gamma2 subunit and clathrin/AP2 complex-mediated phospho-regulated endocytosis of the receptor, with special reference to the function of novel GABA(A) receptor modulators, GABARAP (GABA(A) receptor-associated protein) and PRIP (phospholipase C-related, but catalytically inactive protein).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1254/jphs.cp0070063DOI Listing
August 2007

Phospholipase C-related inactive protein is involved in trafficking of gamma2 subunit-containing GABA(A) receptors to the cell surface.

J Neurosci 2007 Feb;27(7):1692-701

Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, Faculty of Dental Science, and Station for Collaborative Research, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan.

The subunit composition of GABA(A) receptors is known to be associated with distinct physiological and pharmacological properties. Previous studies that used phospholipase C-related inactive protein type 1 knock-out (PRIP-1 KO) mice revealed that PRIP-1 is involved in the assembly and/or the trafficking of gamma2 subunit-containing GABA(A) receptors. There are two PRIP genes in mammals; thus the roles of PRIP-1 might be compensated partly by those of PRIP-2 in PRIP-1 KO mice. Here we used PRIP-1 and PRIP-2 double knock-out (PRIP-DKO) mice and examined the roles for PRIP in regulating the trafficking of GABA(A) receptors. Consistent with previous results, sensitivity to diazepam was reduced in electrophysiological and behavioral analyses of PRIP-DKO mice, suggesting an alteration of gamma2 subunit-containing GABA(A) receptors. The surface numbers of diazepam binding sites (alpha/gamma2 subunits) assessed by [3H]flumazenil binding were reduced in the PRIP-DKO mice as compared with those of wild-type mice, whereas the cell surface GABA binding sites (alpha/beta subunits, assessed by [3H]muscimol binding) were increased in PRIP-DKO mice. The association between GABA(A) receptors and GABA(A) receptor-associated protein (GABARAP) was reduced significantly in PRIP-DKO neurons. Disruption of the direct interaction between PRIP and GABA(A) receptor beta subunits via the use of a peptide corresponding to the PRIP-1 binding site reduced the cell surface expression of gamma2 subunit-containing GABA(A) receptors in cultured cell lines and neurons. These results suggest that PRIP is implicated in the trafficking of gamma2 subunit-containing GABA(A) receptors to the cell surface, probably by acting as a bridging molecule between GABARAP and the receptors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3155-06.2007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6673751PMC
February 2007

Phospholipase C-related inactive protein is implicated in the constitutive internalization of GABAA receptors mediated by clathrin and AP2 adaptor complex.

J Neurochem 2007 May 24;101(4):898-905. Epub 2007 Jan 24.

Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, Faculty of Dental Science, and Station for Collaborative Research, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

A mechanism for regulating the strength of synaptic inhibition is enabled by altering the number of GABA(A) receptors available at the cell surface. Clathrin and adaptor protein 2 (AP2) complex-mediated endocytosis is known to play a fundamental role in regulating cell surface GABA(A) receptor numbers. Very recently, we have elucidated that phospholipase C-related catalytically inactive protein (PRIP) molecules are involved in the phosphorylation-dependent regulation of the internalization of GABA(A) receptors through association with receptor beta subunits and protein phosphatases. In this study, we examined the implications of PRIP molecules in clathrin-mediated constitutive GABA(A) receptor endocytosis, independent of phospho-regulation. We performed a constitutive receptor internalization assay using human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells transiently expressed with GABA(A) receptor alpha/beta/gamma subunits and PRIP. PRIP was internalized together with GABA(A) receptors, and the process was inhibited by PRIP-binding peptide which blocks PRIP binding to beta subunits. The clathrin heavy chain, mu2 and beta2 subunits of AP2 and PRIP-1, were complexed with GABA(A) receptor in brain extract as analyzed by co-immunoprecipitation assay using anti-PRIP-1 and anti-beta2/3 GABA(A) receptor antibody or by pull-down assay using beta subunits of GABA(A) receptor. These results indicate that PRIP is primarily implicated in the constitutive internalization of GABA(A) receptor that requires clathrin and AP2 protein complex.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-4159.2006.04399.xDOI Listing
May 2007