Publications by authors named "Akihisa Sawada"

51 Publications

Treatment Outcomes of Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis: A Retrospective Study.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2021 Apr 7;57(4). Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Kindai University Hospital, Osaka-Sayama City, Osaka 589-8511, Japan.

: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disease characterized by the infiltration of one or more organs by Langerhans cell-like dendritic cells. LCH often involves the bone, and its clinical evidence is limited. The purpose of this study is to report on the treatment of LCH at our institution and to add to the evidence for LCH. : We reviewed six cases of LCH treated in our hospital between November 2005 and February 2016. Patient age at the first visit, sex, site of origin, symptoms, image tools used for diagnosis, biopsy site, complications, treatment, and final clinical outcome were evaluated. The median follow-up period was 41 months. : The median patient age at the first visit was 13.5 years. Three male and three female individuals were enrolled. Multiple lesions were observed in five cases, and a solitary lesion was observed in one case. Pain was the chief complaint in five cases. Radiography was the most commonly used imaging tool. Bone scintigraphy or magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography-computed tomography were also used to diagnose systematic LCH. Biopsy of the femur was performed in two cases, and biopsy of the tibia, lumbar vertebrae, rib, and radius was performed in one case each. Regarding comorbidities, one case of hepatitis B and one case of autism were observed. Chemotherapy was initiated in two patients. The other four patients were observed naturally. Continuous disease-free survival was observed in five patients. One patient remained alive but not without disease during the final follow-up examination. : LCH should be diagnosed as early as possible to treat it appropriately.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/medicina57040356DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8067819PMC
April 2021

Clinical outcome of patients with recurrent or refractory localized Ewing's sarcoma family of tumors: A retrospective report from the Japan Ewing Sarcoma Study Group.

Cancer Rep (Hoboken) 2021 Jan 16:e1329. Epub 2021 Jan 16.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, Japan.

Background: Patients with Ewing's sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT) who experience relapse or progression have a poor prognosis.

Aim: This study aimed to identify the prognostic and therapeutic factors affecting overall survival (OS) of patients with recurrent or refractory localized ESFT.

Methods And Results: Thirty-eight patients with localized ESFT who experienced first relapse or progression between 2000 and 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. The 5-year OS rate of the entire cohort was 48.3% (95% confidence interval, 29.9%-64.5%). Multivariate analysis of OS identified time to relapse or progression, but not stem cell transplantation (SCT), as the sole independent risk factor (hazard ratio, 35.8; P = .002). Among 31 patients who received salvage chemotherapy before local treatment, 21 received chemotherapy regimens that are not conventionally used for newly diagnosed ESFT. The objective response rate to first-line salvage chemotherapy was 55.2% in the 29 evaluable patients. Time to relapse or progression was significantly associated with response to first-line salvage chemotherapy (P = .006).

Conclusions: The present study fails to demonstrate significant clinical benefit of SCT for recurrent or refractory localized ESFT. Recently established chemotherapy regimens may increase the survival rate of patients with recurrent or refractory localized ESFT while attenuating the beneficial effect of SCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cnr2.1329DOI Listing
January 2021

Nationwide survey of systemic chronic active EBV infection in Japan in accordance with the new WHO classification.

Blood Adv 2020 07;4(13):2918-2926

Department of Hematology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU), Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

Systemic chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection (sCAEBV) was defined as a T- or NK-cell neoplasm in the 2017 World Health Organization (WHO) classification. To clarify the clinical features of sCAEBV under this classification and review the effects of chemotherapy, we performed a nationwide survey in Japan from 2016 through 2018 of patients with sCAEBV newly diagnosed from January 2003 through March 2016. One hundred cases were evaluated. The patients were aged 1 to 78 years (median, 21) and included 53 males and 47 females. Spontaneous regression was not observed in patients with active disease. In the childhood-onset group (age, <9 years), 78% of the patients were male. In contrast, 85% of the patients in the elderly-onset group (age, >45 years) were female. The prognosis of the childhood-onset group was better than those of the adolescent/adult- and elderly-onset groups. The main chemotherapies used were a combination of cyclosporine A, steroids, and etoposide (cooling therapy) in 52 cases and cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone (CHOP) in 45 cases. The rate of complete response (CR), defined as complete resolution of disease activity, was 17% for cooling therapy and 13% for CHOP. Virological CR was not observed. The 3-year overall survival rates in patients treated with chemotherapy only (n = 20), chemotherapy followed by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT; n = 47), and allo-HSCT only (n = 12) were 0%, 65%, and 82%, respectively. Distinct characteristics were observed between childhood- and elderly-onset sCAEBV, and they appeared to be different disorders. Chemotherapy is currently insufficient to resolve disease activity and eradicate infected cells. The development of an effective treatment is urgently needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020001451DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7362364PMC
July 2020

Impact of melphalan dose during reduced-intensity conditioning on engraftment of cord blood transplantation for chronic Epstein-Barr virus-associated T or NK cell lymphoproliferative diseases.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2020 09 21;67(9):e28536. Epub 2020 Jun 21.

Department of Hematology/Oncology, Osaka Women's and Children's Hospital, Osaka, Japan.

The rejection rate in cord blood transplants for chronic Epstein-Bar virus-associated T or natural killer cell lymphoproliferative diseases using our standard reduced-intensity conditioning "LPAM140 regimen," which includes fludarabine, melphalan (LPAM), etoposide, and antithymocyte globulin, has been high. To ensure better engraftment, we increased the LPAM dose to 210 mg/m ("LPAM210 regimen"). Patient data (n = 22; LPAM140, n = 7; LPAM210, n = 15) were analyzed retrospectively. The engraftment rate after the LPAM210 regimen (100.0%) was significantly higher than that after the LPAM140 regimen (57.1%; P = .002). Fludarabine combined with melphalan (210 mg/m ) had a favorable impact on engraftment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.28536DOI Listing
September 2020

Clinical practice recommendations for the diagnosis and management of human herpesvirus-6B encephalitis after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: the Japan Society for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 06 19;55(6):1004-1013. Epub 2019 Nov 19.

Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Reactivation of human herpesvirus (HHV)-6B is relatively common after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and HHV-6B diseases may consequently develop. Among them, HHV-6B encephalitis is a serious and often fatal complication. The aim of these clinical practice recommendations is to provide diagnostic and therapeutic guidance for HHV-6B encephalitis after allogeneic HSCT. In this evidence-based review, we critically evaluated data from the published literature. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology was used to assist in generating recommendations. We have summarized the findings that contribute to decision-making and we have provided our recommendations. In cases where rigorous clinical data are unavailable, recommendations have been developed in discussions with physicians who have relevant expertize.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-019-0752-5DOI Listing
June 2020

Disordered hemostasis associated with severely depressed fibrinolysis demonstrated using a simultaneous thrombin and plasmin generation assay during L-asparaginase induction therapy in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2020 01 25;67(1):e28016. Epub 2019 Sep 25.

Department of Pediatrics, Nara Medical University, Kashihara, Japan.

Background: L-asparaginase (L-Asp)-associated thromboembolisms are serious complications in pediatrics patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), especially at ≥10.0 years old, but the pathogenesis remains to be clarified.

Procedure: We conducted a multicenter, prospective study of 72 patients with ALL aged 1.0 to 15.2 years treated with either a Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster (BFM) 95-ALL oriented regimen or Japan Association of Childhood Leukemia Study ALL-02 protocol. We divided patients into each treatment protocol and investigated the dynamic changes in coagulation and fibrinolysis using simultaneous thrombin and plasmin generation assay. Patients' plasma samples were collected at the prephase (T0), intermittent phase (T1), and postphase of L-Asp therapy (T2), and postinduction phase (T3). Measurements of endogenous thrombin potential (T-EP) and plasmin peak height (P-Peak) were compared to normal plasma.

Results: None of the cases developed thromboembolisms. Median ratios of T-EP and P-Peak for the controls in the JACLS group were 1.06 and 0.87 (T0), 1.04 and 0.71 (T1), 1.02 and 0.69 (T2), and 1.20 and 0.92 (T3), respectively, while those in the BFM group were 1.06 and 1.00 (T0), 1.04 and 0.64 (T1), 1.16 and 0.58 (T2), and 1.16 and 0.85 (T3), respectively. In particular, P-Peak ratios were depressed at T1 and T2 compared to T0 in the BFM group (P < .01). Moreover, P-Peak ratios in patients ≥10.0 years old were lower at T1 in the BFM group (P = .02).

Conclusions: The results demonstrated that hemostatic dynamics appeared to shift to a hypercoagulable state with marked hypofibrinolysis associated with L-Asp therapy, especially in patients ≥10.0 years old following the BFM regimen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.28016DOI Listing
January 2020

Prenatally diagnosed congenital hemangioma with elevated middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity mimicking the Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon: A case report.

J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2019 Dec 9;45(12):2456-2460. Epub 2019 Sep 9.

Department of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Osaka Women's and Children's Hospital, Osaka, Japan.

Congenital hemangioma is a rare vascular tumor that develops prenatally, and a large congenital hemangioma may be accompanied by the Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon. We present a case of prenatally diagnosed fetal congenital hemangioma through ultrasound and maternal anti-Jr(a) antibody alloimmunization with elevated middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity. To investigate fetal anemia and hemostatic condition, we performed percutaneous umbilical blood sampling, which revealed no symptom of either Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon or sensitization to anti-Jr(a) antibody. Consequently, pregnancy could be continued without further intervention. After birth, congenital hemangioma was found on the infant's left thigh, and Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon was not shown. Percutaneous umbilical blood sampling could provide precise information prenatally in case of congenital hemangioma with maternal alloimmunization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jog.14121DOI Listing
December 2019

Viral DNA Loads in Various Blood Components of Patients With Epstein-Barr Virus-Positive T-Cell/Natural Killer Cell Lymphoproliferative Diseases.

J Infect Dis 2019 09;220(8):1307-1311

Department of Pediatrics, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

To evaluate diagnostic values for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA loads in different blood components of patients with EBV-positive T-cell/natural killer cell lymphoproliferative diseases, EBV DNA loads were compared among disease categories in each blood component from 59 patients. Plasma viral loads were significantly higher in "active" disease in chronic active EBV infection. EBV DNA was not detected in the plasma from 7 patients in whom EBV DNA was detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and whole blood. Diagnostic cutoff values for whole blood EBV DNA loads of patients with chronic active EBV infection compared with those of infectious mononucleosis was 104.2 (15 800) IU/mL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiz315DOI Listing
September 2019

Publisher Correction: Defective Epstein-Barr virus in chronic active infection and haematological malignancy.

Nat Microbiol 2019 Mar;4(3):544

Center for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine, Division of Advanced Biomedical Engineering Research, Institute of Research, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan.

In the version of this Letter originally published, in the sentence beginning "The major driver role of DDX3X mutations...", the citation "Fig. 2a-f" should have been "Fig. 2". In addition, in the sentence beginning "Another finding of interest was the presence of identical driver mutations...", the citation "Fig. 3a,b and Fig. 4" should have been "Fig. 3". This has now been amended in all versions of the Letter.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41564-019-0387-8DOI Listing
March 2019

Defective Epstein-Barr virus in chronic active infection and haematological malignancy.

Nat Microbiol 2019 03 21;4(3):404-413. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Center for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine, Division of Advanced Biomedical Engineering Research, Institute of Research, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan.

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is highly prevalent in humans and is implicated in various diseases, including cancer. Chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV) is an intractable disease classified as a lymphoproliferative disorder in the 2016 World Health Organization lymphoma classification. CAEBV is characterized by EBV-infected T/natural killer (NK) cells and recurrent/persistent infectious mononucleosis-like symptoms. Here, we show that CAEBV originates from an EBV-infected lymphoid progenitor that acquires DDX3X and other mutations, causing clonal evolution comprising multiple cell lineages. Conspicuously, the EBV genome in CAEBV patients harboured frequent intragenic deletions (27/77) that were also common in various EBV-associated neoplastic disorders (28/61), including extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma and EBV-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, but were not detected in infectious mononucleosis or post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (0/47), which suggests a unique role of these mutations in neoplastic proliferation of EBV-infected cells. These deletions frequently affected BamHI A rightward transcript microRNA clusters (31 cases) and several genes that are essential for producing viral particles (20 cases). The deletions observed in our study are thought to reactivate the lytic cycle by upregulating the expression of two immediate early genes, BZLF1 and BRLF1, while averting viral production and subsequent cell lysis. In fact, the deletion of one of the essential genes, BALF5, resulted in upregulation of the lytic cycle and the promotion of lymphomagenesis in a xenograft model. Our findings highlight a pathogenic link between intragenic EBV deletions and EBV-associated neoplastic proliferations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41564-018-0334-0DOI Listing
March 2019

Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for the Treatment of Epstein-Barr Virus-Associated T- or NK-Cell Lymphoproliferative Diseases and Associated Disorders.

Front Pediatr 2018 6;6:334. Epub 2018 Nov 6.

Department of Hematology/Oncology, Osaka Women's and Children's Hospital, Izumi, Japan.

Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection (CAEBV) is a prototype of EBV-associated T- and/or NK-cell (EBV T/NK-cell) lymphoproliferative disorders. Most subtypes of these are lethal. We established a unified treatment strategy composed of step 1 (immunochemotherapy: steroids, cyclosporine A, and etoposide), step 2 (multi-drug block chemotherapy), and step 3 (allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; HSCT) for CAEBV and its related diseases. Allogeneic HSCT is the only cure for CAEBV with few exceptions. Primary-EBV infection-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (primary-EBV HLH) is also an EBV T/NK-cell lymphoproliferation. The nature of EBV T/NK cells in CAEBV and those in primary-EBV HLH differ. In primary-EBV HLH, most patients need step 1 only and some require step 2 for the successful induction of apoptosis in EBV-infected T cells; however, some exceptional patients require HSCT. We herein present our single institutional experience of CAEBV and primary-EBV HLH, together with that of post-transplant EBV T/NK-cell lymphoproliferative disease. We also discuss some practical points on HCST with a review of the literature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2018.00334DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6232123PMC
November 2018

Intrathecal Infusion of Haploidentical Nondonor Lymphocytes for Central Nervous System Leukemic Relapse After Haploidentical Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2018 03;40(2):e129-e132

Department of Hematology/Oncology, Osaka Medical Center and Research Institute for Maternal and Child Health, Osaka, Japan.

Leukemic relapse in the central nervous system (CNS) after conventional treatment is associated with a poor prognosis. The effectiveness and safety of IV infusion of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-mismatched lymphocytes for leukemia, and intrathecal (IT) infusion of HLA-mismatched lymphocytes for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dissemination of medulloblastoma have been reported. A 13-year-old girl (HLA-A31) was diagnosed as relapsing from Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute leukemia in the CNS after receiving chemotherapy, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from her father (HLA-A31), and craniospinal irradiation. We performed an IT infusion of haploidentical lymphocytes from her mother. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from her mother (HLA-A31) were administered by IT infusion weekly. Examination of CSF 1 week after first IT showed that lymphocyte counts had increased markedly and the breakpoint cluster region/abelson-bearing cells had disappeared. Furthermore, CD3 T cells in the CSF were negative for HLA-A31, and expressed high HLA-DR. These results indicate the infused non-HSCT-donor lymphocytes did not survive, and that the HSCT donor(father)-derived lymphocytes migrated to the CSF and were activated. The patient showed partial remission for 2 months following this therapy. Serious adverse reactions and graft versus host disease were not observed. To control leukemic CNS dissemination, haploidentical nondonor lymphocytes might contribute to a graft versus leukemia effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MPH.0000000000000937DOI Listing
March 2018

Epstein-Barr Virus-Associated Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis and Guillain-Barre Syndrome in a 16-Month-Old Child.

Child Neurol Open 2016 Jan-Dec;3:2329048X15620641. Epub 2016 Apr 4.

Department of Hematology/Oncology, Osaka Medical Center and Research Institute for Maternal and Child Health, Osaka, Japan.

A 16-month-old girl was diagnosed with Epstein-Barr virus hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and transferred to our hospital on the 58th day of the hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis after treatment failure according to the Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis-2004 protocol. On admission to our hospital, she had a flaccid paralysis of her lower limbs. Nerve conduction studies showed a acute motor axonal neuropathy, and a diagnosis of Guillain-Barre syndrome was established. Intravenous immunoglobulin G was started on the 57th day of the Guillain-Barre syndrome. To date, her neurological recovery is incomplete. For hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, after treatment failure of THP-COP regimen (pirarubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone) and 2 courses of ESCAP regimen (etoposide, prednisone, cytarabine, L-asparaginase), we are now in the process of coordinating unrelated umbilical cord blood transplantation. To the best of our knowledge, we report the youngest case of Guillain-Barre syndrome accompanied by Epstein-Barr virus hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Rapid progression of Guillain-Barre syndrome, the electrophysiological subtype of Guillain-Barre syndrome, and treatment delay possibly led to poor neurological outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2329048X15620641DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5417294PMC
April 2016

How we treat chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection.

Int J Hematol 2017 Apr 16;105(4):406-418. Epub 2017 Feb 16.

Department of Hematology/Oncology, Osaka Medical Center and Research Institute for Maternal and Child Health, 840 Murodo, Izumi City, Osaka, 594-1101, Japan.

Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection (CAEBV) is a prototype of the EBV-associated T- or NK-cell lymphoproliferative diseases, which also include hypersensitivity to mosquito bites and severe-type hydroavacciniforme. The manifestations of CAEBV are often self-limiting with minimum supportive care or only prednisolone and cyclosporine A with or without etoposide. However, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only cure, without which patients with CAEBV die within several years. A severe hypercytokinemia and hemophagocytic syndrome, which may occur suddenly, often results in a fatal clinical course. At out institute, we have established a 3-step strategy, including allogeneic HSCT, for the treatment of CAEBV. Seventy-nine patients with CAEBV and related diseases have been treated to date. The 3-year overall survival rate (3y-OS) is currently 87.3 ± 4.2% after planned allogeneic HSCT. However, 3y-OS in patients with uncontrolled active disease is only 16.7 ± 10.8%. To maximize survival rates with minimized late sequelae, we recommend earlier initiation and completion of the 3-step treatment without watchful waiting. We present six illustrative and difficult cases (including severe hypercytokinemia or emergent HSCT) and discuss them together with 73 residual cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12185-017-2192-6DOI Listing
April 2017

Epstein-Barr virus infection and related hematological diseases.

Authors:
Akihisa Sawada

Rinsho Ketsueki 2016 ;57(10):2267-2274

Hematology/Oncology, Osaka Medical Center and Research Institute for Maternal and Child Health.

Once the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has infected a person, it then latently infects B cells. This latent infection lasts a lifetime. However, EBV can infect T or NK cells (T/NK cells) in rare cases. Therefore, EBV causes various hematological diseases. Among these diseases, CAEBV is regarded as the most problematic because, although it is not particularly uncommon, the diagnostic tests for this disease are not covered by health insurance, a serious illness in the "non-active" periods is lacking, and the appropriate motivation for early initiation of treatment can easily be lost. However, the symptoms may suddenly change; and if the manifestations are resistant when such exacerbation occurs, CAEBC is potentially lethal. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only cure. Once the diagnosis has been made, earlier treatment initiation, safer bridging to allogeneic HSCT with multi-drug chemotherapy, and then, planned HSCT can be completed more safely and thereby achieve a better outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11406/rinketsu.57.2267DOI Listing
February 2017

Outcome differences between children and adolescents and young adults with non-Hodgkin lymphoma following stem cell transplantation.

Int J Hematol 2017 Mar 27;105(3):369-376. Epub 2016 Oct 27.

Shimane University Hospital Cancer Center, Oncology/Hematology, Izumo, Japan.

Several studies of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia who received stem cell transplantation (SCT) have reported that adolescents and young adults (AYAs) experience higher transplant-related mortality than that in younger children. However, to the best of our knowledge, there have been no reports of a similar comparison of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) patients who received SCT. We analyzed 918 patients aged 30 years and younger who received their first stem cell transplantation for NHL. Of the allogeneic transplant patients, children and AYAs did not significantly differ in survival rate, event-free survival rate, relapse rate, or transplant-related mortality. However, 5-year transplant-related mortality after autologous transplantation was significantly higher in children than in AYAs (5.1% in children vs. 0.8% in AYAs, P = 0.0043). The cause of transplant-related death in three of four children was interstitial pneumonitis. In NHL patients, transplantation results in AYAs were not inferior than those in children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12185-016-2120-1DOI Listing
March 2017

Feasibility of Cancer Immunotherapy with WT1 Peptide Vaccination for Solid and Hematological Malignancies in Children.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2016 Feb 15;63(2):234-41. Epub 2015 Oct 15.

Department of Hematology/Oncology, Osaka Medical Center and Research Institute for Maternal and Child Health, Osaka, Japan.

Background: Advances in cancer immunotherapy in the pediatric field are needed in order to improve the prognosis of children with malignancies. We conducted a prospective phase I/II study of WT1 peptide vaccination for children with relapsed or refractory malignancies.

Methods: The main eligibility criteria were affected tissues or leukemic cells expressing the WT1 gene, and patients (and donors for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation) having HLA-A*24:02. Vaccination using the WT1 peptide (CYTWNQMNL), which was modified for higher affinity to this HLA-type molecule with the adjuvant Montanide ISA51, was performed weekly 12 times.

Results: Twenty-six patients were enrolled and 13 (50.0%) completed the vaccination 12 times. Evidence for the induction of WT1-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses without severe systemic side effects was obtained. Two out of 12 patients with bulky disease exhibited a transient clinical effect (one mixed response and one stable disease), three out of six patients with minimal residual disease achieved transient molecular remission, and five out of eight patients without a detectable level of the molecular marker, but with a high risk of relapse, had the best outcome of long-term continuous complete remission.

Conclusions: WT1 vaccination is a safe immunotherapy and induced WT1-specific CTL responses in children; however, as a single agent, vaccination only provided patients in remission, but with a high risk of relapse, with "long-term benefits" in the context of its use for relapse prevention. WT1 peptide-based treatments in combination with other modalities, such as anti-tumor drugs or immunomodulating agents, need to be planned.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.25792DOI Listing
February 2016

Comparison of Outcomes for Pediatric Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission and Undergoing Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation With Myeloablative Conditioning Regimens Based on Either Intravenous Busulfan or Total Body Irradiation: A Report From the Japanese Society for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2015 Dec 10;21(12):2141-2147. Epub 2015 Aug 10.

Human Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

Pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) mainly receive myeloablative conditioning regimens based on busulfan (BU) or total body irradiation (TBI) before allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT); however, the optimal conditioning regimen remains unclear. To identify which of these regimens is better for pediatric patients, we performed a retrospective analysis of nationwide registration data collected in Japan between 2006 and 2011 to assess the outcomes of patients receiving these regimens before a first allo-HCT. Myeloablative conditioning regimens based on i.v. BU (i.v. BU-MAC) (n = 69) or TBI (TBI-MAC) (n = 151) were compared in pediatric AML patients in first or second complete remission (CR1/CR2). The incidences of sinusoid obstruction syndrome, acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease, and early nonrelapse mortality (NRM) before day 100 were similar for both conditioning groups; however, the incidence of bacterial infection during the acute period was higher in the TBI-MAC group (P = .008). Both groups showed a similar incidence of NRM, and there was no significant difference in the incidence of relapse between the groups. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed no significant differences in the 2-year relapse-free survival rates for the i.v. BU-MAC and TBI-MAC groups in the CR1/CR2 setting (71% versus 67%, P = .36; hazard ratio, .73; 95% CI, .43 to 1.24, respectively). TBI-MAC was no better than i.v. BU-MAC for pediatric AML patients in remission. Although this retrospective registry-based analysis has several limitations, i.v. BU-MAC warrants further evaluation in a prospective trial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2015.08.011DOI Listing
December 2015

Comparison of chemotherapeutic agents as a myeloablative conditioning with total body irradiation for pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia: A study from the pediatric ALL working group of the Japan Society for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2015 Oct 5;62(10):1844-50. Epub 2015 Jun 5.

Department of Hematology and Oncology, Children's Medical Center, Japanese Red Cross Nagoya First Hospital, Nagoya, Japan.

Background: As a partner of total body irradiation (TBI) in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), various cytotoxic agents are used, but the optimal combination is still unclear.

Procedure: We retrospectively analyzed 767 children who received TBI-based myeloablative allogeneic HSCT in complete remission (CR), using nationwide registry data of the Japan Society for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation. Combinations of chemotherapy were categorized as follows: cyclophosphamide (CY) (n = 74), melphalan (L-PAM) (n = 139), CY + etoposide (VP16) (n = 408), CY + cytarabine (AraC) (n = 73), and others (n = 73).

Results: Event-free survival (EFS) at 5 years after HSCT was 62.2% for CY, 71.4% for L-PAM, 67.6% for CY + VP16, 52.6% for CY + AraC, and 59.1% for others (P = 0.009). Further detailed comparison of LPAM and CY + VP16 demonstrated superior EFS for LPAM (83.2 ± 6.7%), with a marked difference compared with CY + VP16 (66.7 ± 4.9%) when limited to HSCT from a matched related donor (MRD), and this result was reproduced regardless of disease status (CR1 or CR2). However, EFS for CY + VP16 (68.3 ± 2.8%) was comparable to that for LPAM (64.5 ± 5.7%, P = 0.37) in HSCT from alternative donors, because higher non-relapse mortality attenuated the advantage of LPAM.

Conclusions: For pediatric ALL in remission, LPAM could provide superior EFS for HSCT from MRD; however, compared to LPAM, CY + VP16 has similar EFS for HSCT from an alternative donor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.25602DOI Listing
October 2015

Comparison of continuous and twice-daily infusions of cyclosporine A for graft-versus-host-disease prophylaxis in pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2015 02 12;62(2):291-298. Epub 2014 Oct 12.

Department of Hematology and Oncology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan.

Background: Cyclosporine A (CsA) is used widely for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT); however, the optimal schedule of its administration has not been established. Although comparative studies of adult patients undergoing HSCT have demonstrated enhanced efficacy and safety of twice-daily infusion (TD) compared with continuous infusion (CIF) of CsA, to our knowledge, similar studies have not yet been performed in pediatric groups.

Procedure: A self-administered questionnaire was used to retrospectively compare the clinical outcome and incidence of CsA-associated adverse events of 70 pediatric acute myelogenous leukemia patients who were receiving CsA by TD (n = 36) or CIF (n = 34) as GVHD prophylaxis for their first allogeneic HSCT.

Results: The cumulative incidences of grade II-IV acute GVHD and chronic GVHD, as well as the overall survival and event-free survival rates, did not differ significantly between the TD and CIF groups; however, the incidence of severe hypertension was significantly higher in the CIF group than the TD group.

Conclusions: The analysis presented here indicates that TD and CIF administration of CsA have similar prophylactic effect on pediatric GVHD and suggest that TD is associated with a lower rate of toxicity than CIF in pediatric patients undergoing HSCT. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2015;62:291-298. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.25243DOI Listing
February 2015

Feasibility of HLA-haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide for advanced pediatric malignancies.

Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2014 Nov 17;31(8):754-64. Epub 2014 Oct 17.

Department of Hematology/Oncology, Osaka Medical Center and Research Institute for Maternal and Child Health , Izumi City, Osaka , Japan.

Background: Patients with advanced malignancies in non-complete remission (CR) have a dismal prognosis after HLA-matched hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). T-cell-replete HLA-haploidentical HSCT has remarkable anti-leukemia/tumor effects on these patients, but also a high risk of severe/extensive graft-versus-host disease (GHVD). Post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCY) is regarded as a GVHD-specific immunosuppressant in adults, but its feasibility is unknown in children.

Methods: We performed a prospective feasibility study of PTCY at 50 mg/kg on day 3 for children with advanced leukemias or malignant solid tumors: refractory to chemotherapy or relapsed after conventional allogeneic HSCT. Conditioning consisted of fludarabine (180 mg/m2) and melphalan (140-210 mg/m2).

Results: Long-term engraftments were achieved in 11 patients (73.3%) after bone marrow transplantation (BMT, n = 13) or peripheral blood (PB) stem cell transplantation (n = 2). The incidence of severe acute GHVD was 25.0% and that of extensive chronic GVHD 0.0% after evaluable BMT. CR was achieved in 6/15 and partial response in 4/15 as the best response. Finally, 11/15 experienced disease progression/relapse, 2/15 suffered treatment-related mortality without evidence of disease, and 2/15 are alive in continuous CR.

Conclusions: PTCY is feasible in children; however, for a better outcome in such patients with advanced malignancies, some modifications are anticipated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/08880018.2014.961214DOI Listing
November 2014

Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation for infant acute lymphoblastic leukaemia with KMT2A (MLL) rearrangements: a retrospective study from the paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia working group of the Japan Society for Haematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

Br J Haematol 2015 Feb 10;168(4):564-70. Epub 2014 Oct 10.

Department of Paediatrics, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; Department of Cell Therapy and Transplantation Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is still considered to play an important role as a consolidation therapy for high-risk infants with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Here, we retrospectively analysed outcomes of HSCT in infants with ALL based on nationwide registry data of the Japan Society for Haematopoietic Cell Transplantation. A total of 132 allogeneic HSCT for infant ALL with KMT2A (MLL) gene rearrangements, which were performed in first complete remission (CR1), were analysed. The 5-year overall survival rate after transplantation was 67·4 ± 4·5%). Although recent HSCT (after 2004) had a trend toward better survival, no statistical correlation was observed between outcomes and each factor, including age at diagnosis, initial leucocyte count, cytogenetics, donor types or conditioning of HSCT. Myeloablative conditioning with total body irradiation did not provide a better survival (60·7 ± 9·2%) over that with busulfan (BU; 67·8 ± 5·7%). Two of the 28 patients treated with irradiation, but none of the 90 BU-treated patients, developed a secondary malignant neoplasm. In conclusion, allogeneic HSCT using BU was a valuable option for infant ALL with KMT2A rearrangements in CR1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.13174DOI Listing
February 2015

Salvage allogeneic stem cell transplantation in patients with pediatric myelodysplastic syndrome and myeloproliferative neoplasms.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2014 Oct 29;61(10):1860-6. Epub 2014 Jun 29.

Department of Pediatrics, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; Department of Cell Therapy and Transplantation Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; Department of Hematology/Oncology, Saitama Children's Medical Center, Saitama, Japan.

Background: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only curable approach for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN); however, the event-free survival rate of patients with pediatric MDS and MPN is still only approximately 60%. Although salvage HSCT is the only curative approach for patients with the failure of previous HSCT, its safety and efficacy have yet to be determined.

Procedures: We retrospectively analyzed 51 pediatric MDS or MPN who received salvage HSCT for relapse or graft failure following HSCT using registry data of the Japan Society for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation. The indications used for salvage HSCT were relapse in 22 patients and graft failure in 29 patients.

Results: The overall survival (OS) rate for salvage HSCT in relapsed patients was 49.0 ± 10.8% at 3 years. The cumulative incidence of relapse following salvage HSCT was 29.8 ± 10.7% at 3 years, whereas the incidence of non-relapse mortality (NRM) was 28.6 ± 10.2%. No significant differences were observed in the OS after salvage HSCT between disease types. Twenty-four of 29 patients who received salvage HSCT for graft failure achieved engraftment, resulting in an engraftment probability of 81.5 ± 8.0% on day 100. The OS rate after salvage HSCT for graft failure was 56.8 ± 9.6% at 3 years.

Conclusions: Second HSCT should be considered as a valuable option for the patients with relapse and graft failure in patients with pediatric MDS or MPN after HSCT, but high NRM is an important issue that needs to be addressed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.25121DOI Listing
October 2014

Changes in the clinical impact of high-risk human leukocyte antigen allele mismatch combinations on the outcome of unrelated bone marrow transplantation.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2014 Apr 10;20(4):526-35. Epub 2014 Jan 10.

Department of Hematology and Oncology, St. Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Several high-risk HLA allele mismatch combinations (HR-MMs) for severe acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) have been identified by analyzing transplantation outcomes in Japanese unrelated hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. In this study, we analyzed the effects of HR-MMs in 3 transplantation time periods. We confirmed that the incidence of grade III to IV acute GVHD in the HR-MM group was significantly higher than that in the low-risk (LR) MM group (hazard ratio [HR], 2.74; P < .0001) in the early time period (1993 to 2001). However, the difference in the incidence of grade III to IV acute GVHD between the HR-MM and LR-MM groups was not statistically significant (HR, 1.06; P = .85 and HR, .40; P = .21, respectively) in the mid (2002 to 2007) and late (2008 to 2011) time periods. Similarly, survival in the HR-MM group was significantly inferior to that in the LR-MM group (HR, 1.46; P = .019) in the early time period, whereas the difference in survival between the 2 groups was not statistically significant in the mid and late time periods (HR, 1.06; P = .75 and HR, .82; P = .58, respectively). In conclusion, the adverse impact of HR-MM has become less significant over time. Unrelated transplantation with a single HR-MM could be a viable option in the absence of a matched unrelated donor or an unrelated donor with a single LR-MM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2014.01.003DOI Listing
April 2014

Umbilical cord blood as an alternative source of reduced-intensity hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for chronic Epstein-Barr virus-associated T or natural killer cell lymphoproliferative diseases.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2014 Feb 2;20(2):214-21. Epub 2013 Nov 2.

Department of Hematology/Oncology, Osaka Medical Center and Research Institute for Maternal and Child Health, Osaka, Japan.

Chronic Epstein-Barr virus-associated T/natural killer cell lymphoproliferative diseases represented by chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection are lethal but are curable with several courses of chemotherapy and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Recently, we reported that reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) provided better outcomes than myeloablative conditioning because RIC was less toxic. However, it was unclear whether cord blood transplantation (CBT) works in the context of RIC. We retrospectively analyzed 17 patients who underwent RIC followed by bone marrow transplantation (RIC-BMT) and 15 patients who underwent RIC followed by CBT (RIC-CBT). The representative regimen was fludarabine and melphalan based. The overall survival rates with RIC-BMT and RIC-CBT were 92.9% ± 6.9% and 93.3% ± 6.4%, respectively (P = .87). One patient died of lung graft-versus-host disease after RIC-BMT, and 1 patient died of multiple viral infections after RIC-CBT. Although cytotoxic chemotherapy was also immunosuppressive and might contribute to better donor cell engraftment after RIC-HSCT, the rate of engraftment failure after RIC-CBT was still higher than that after RIC-BMT (not significant); however, patients who had experienced graft failure were successfully rescued with a second HSCT. Unrelated cord blood can be an alternative source for RIC-HSCT if a patient has no family donor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2013.10.026DOI Listing
February 2014

Feasibility of reduced-intensity conditioning followed by unrelated cord blood transplantation for primary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: a nationwide retrospective analysis in Japan.

Int J Hematol 2013 Aug 11;98(2):223-30. Epub 2013 Jul 11.

Department of Hematology/Oncology, Osaka Medical Center and Research Institute for Maternal and Child Health, 840 Murodo, Izumi, Osaka 594-1101, Japan.

A nationwide retrospective analysis was performed on patients who received allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for primary or familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) in Japan. The present analysis investigated whether reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) followed by cord blood transplantation (CBT) (RIC-CBT) is feasible, compared to the outcomes of myeloablative conditioning and bone marrow transplantation. Based on the JSHCT data, 53 patients were analyzed. The overall survival rate (OS) was 65.4 ± 6.6 %. RIC-CBT (n = 13) was not inferior to other methods. Patients with a performance status of PS 4 (ECOG scale) with HLH-associated severe organ dysfunction during the initiation of conditioning had extremely poor outcomes. The OS rate in the RIC-CBT patients, excluding those with a performance status 4, was 80.0 ± 12.6 %. RIC may reduce treatment-related mortality; in addition, patients with engraftment failure, which is the main adverse event following RIC-CBT, were successfully rescued with secondary CBT. Unrelated cord blood may represent an alternative source if a patient has no related donor. As a RIC regimen for CBT, 140 mg/m(2) melphalan with fludarabine and anti-lymphocyte globulin or anti-thymocyte globulin may be feasible, but further dosage optimization should be performed in controlled clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12185-013-1391-zDOI Listing
August 2013

Feasibility of reduced-intensity allogeneic stem cell transplantation with imatinib in children with philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2013 Aug 6;60(8):E60-2. Epub 2013 Mar 6.

Department of Hematology/Oncology, Osaka Medical Center and Research Institute for Maternal and Child Health, Izumi City, Osaka, Japan.

Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph + ALL) in children is one of the highest-risk ALL groups. Improved outcome in combination with imatinib has been reported. However, intensive chemotherapy or myeloablative conditioning followed by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) can be associated with significant adverse late effects. We report a case series of five children with Ph + ALL underwent reduced-intensity allogeneic HSCT (RIST) after induction and consolidation in chemotherapy combined with imatinib. Four of the five patients remain first complete remission for a median of 3.1 years after RIST. These results are preliminary, but suggest the feasibility and effectiveness of RIST with imatinib.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.24507DOI Listing
August 2013

Reduced-intensity conditioning in unrelated donor cord blood transplantation for familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.

Am J Hematol 2012 Jun 10;87(6):637-9. Epub 2012 Apr 10.

Department of Pediatrics, Saga University Hospital, Saga, Japan.

Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL) is a disorder of immune homeostasis characterized by fever, cytopenias, hepatosplenomegaly, and coagulopathy. We studied the outcomes of 13 FHL patients who underwent the first unrelated cord blood transplantation (UCBT) after non-myeloablative conditionings. The major regimen consisted of fludarabine (FLU; n = 12)+melphalan (MEL; n = 11)± low-dose total body irradiation (TBI 2-4 Gy; n = 6). The median age at presentation and period to UCBT were 6 and 5 months, respectively. Central nervous system (CNS) disease developed in one infant at diagnosis, and in two others until UCBT. HLH activity was controlled in all but one at the time of UCBT. Ten patients had early engraftment on median day 21 with no grade >2 treatment-related toxicity and two controllable grade >2 acute GVHD. Two patients with early rejection successfully underwent subsequent UCBT after myeloablative conditioning. Two others had late graft failure following mixed donor chimerism. Two deaths occurred from HLH; early liver failure and late CNS disease. Of 11 FLU+MEL-conditioned patients, the frequency of disease-free complete engraftment was higher for MEL (≥120 mg/m(2) )+TBI, or high-dose MEL (180 mg/m(2) ) than for others (83% vs. 25%, p = 0.036). The FLU+MEL-based non-myeloablative regimen was acceptable for FHL infants undergoing UCBT, although further studies will be needed for confirmation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.23190DOI Listing
June 2012

EBV-associated T/NK-cell lymphoproliferative diseases in nonimmunocompromised hosts: prospective analysis of 108 cases.

Blood 2012 Jan 16;119(3):673-86. Epub 2011 Nov 16.

Departments of Virology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan.

EBV-associated T/NK-cell lymphoproliferative disease (T/NK-LPD) is defined as a systemic illness characterized by clonal proliferation of EBV-infected T or NK cells. We prospectively enrolled 108 nonimmunocompromised patients with this disease (50 men and 58 women; median onset age, 8 years; age range, 1-50 years) evidenced by expansion of EBV(+) T/NK cells in the peripheral blood; these were of the T-cell type in 64 cases and of the NK-cell type in 44, and were clinically categorized into 4 groups: 80 cases of chronic active EBV disease, 15 of EBV-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, 9 of severe mosquito bite allergy, and 4 of hydroa vacciniforme. These clinical profiles were closely linked with the EBV(+) cell immunophenotypes. In a median follow-up period of 46 months, 47 patients (44%) died of severe organ complications. During the follow-up, 13 patients developed overt lymphoma or leukemia characterized by extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma and aggressive NK-cell leukemia. Fifty-nine received hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, 66% of whom survived. Age at onset of disease (≥ 8 years) and liver dysfunction were risk factors for mortality, whereas patients who received transplantation had a better prognosis. These data depict clinical characteristics of systemic EBV(+) T/NK-LPD and provide insight into the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for distinct disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2011-10-381921DOI Listing
January 2012