Publications by authors named "Akhtar Fahim"

3 Publications

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Prospective nonrandomized study with early steroid withdrawal (Day 5) postrenal transplant in low immunological risk patients: A singlecenter experience at prince sultan military medical city Riyadh.

Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2019 Nov-Dec;30(6):1398-1406

Department of Nephrology, Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Steroids remain an essential part of immunosuppressive therapy for renal transplant patients since the start of transplant era. Different immunosuppressive regimens are prescribed so as to minimize the side effects. The purpose of our study is to compare the outcome of early steroid withdrawal with steroid maintenance protocol. It is a prospective nonrandomized study. All patients that received renal transplants from January 2011 to December 2013 were included in the study. Early steroid withdrawal at day 5 was done in low immunological risk patients, and the results were compared with the steroid maintenance group, at one-year, posttransplant. Outcome measures included acute rejection (AR), slow graft function and delayed graft function (SGF and DGF), patient and graft survival, and new-onset diabetes after transplant (NODAT), dyslipidemia, hypertension, and obesity. A total of 249 patients were divided into two groups - 105 patients had early steroid withdrawal and 144 patients were maintained on steroid therapy. Outcome measures were compared one-year posttransplant. There was no significant difference in AR, patient and graft survival, creatinine level, and weight gain. However, a significant difference in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, lipid profile, NODAT, SGF, and DGF was found in the steroid group. Our study shows that early steroid withdrawal is a safe standard of care in low immunological risk patients.
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August 2020

Management of acute myeloid leukaemia--5 years experience at Armed Forces Bone Marrow Transplant Centre, Rawalpindi.

J Pak Med Assoc 2007 Sep;57(9):434-9

Department of Haematology, Armed Forces Bone Marrow Transplant Centre, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

Objective: To evaluate the outcome in denovo AML patients treated with different remission induction and consolidation chemotherapy regimens in our population.

Methods: A retrospective study on acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) patients was carried out at Armed Forces Bone Marrow Transplant Centre Rawalpindi Pakistan between July 2001 and June 2006. During 5 years period 46 patients received treatment for AML at our centre. Twenty nine patients were males and 17 were females. Median age of patients was 21 years (range: 7-56 years). These 46 patients were categorized into two groups on the basis of type of leukaemia and chemotherapy given. In group-I 40 patients (group Ia: 23 patients of M1-M6, less M3 group Ib: 17 patients of AML M3) received anthracycline and cytarabin based chemotherapy. In group-II, six patients (AML- M3) received all trans retinoic acid (ATRA) based chemotherapy.

Results: In group Ia, out of 23 patients, 14 patients (60.8%) achieved complete remission (CR) after remission induction chemotherapy, 10 patients remained in CR after 3rd and 4th consolidation. Eleven patients died and five patients relapsed during treatment and follow up. In this group overall CR, relapse rate (RR) and mortality was 30.4% (7/23), 21.7% (5/23) & 48% (11/23) respectively. In group Ib out of 17 patients, 9 patients (53%) achieved CR after remission induction. Eleven patients died during treatment while one patient relapsed in this group. Overall CR, RR & mortality was 29.4% (5/17), 6% (1/17) & 55% (11/17) respectively. In group II all patients achieved CR (100%) after 1st course of chemotherapy. Two of these patients unfortunately died of uncontrolled sepsis during 1st consolidation, while remaining 4 patients 66.6% are on maintenance chemotherapy and are still in CR.

Conclusion: Overall CR, RR and mortality in all groups was 35% (16/46), 13% (6/46) and 52% (24/46) respectively at a median follow-up of 36 + 8 months. Survival in AML-M3 patients treated with ATRA based chemotherapy is significantly superior than anthracycline based chemotherapy (66.6% vs. 29.4%). Infection and chemotherapy toxicity being major causes of mortality.
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September 2007

Post-transplant infections: single center experience from the developing world.

Int J Infect Dis 2008 Mar 24;12(2):203-14. Epub 2007 Oct 24.

Armed Forces Bone Marrow Transplant Centre, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

Objective: To describe our experience of post-transplant infections in allogeneic stem cell transplants at the Armed Forces Bone Marrow Transplant Centre, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

Methods: From July 2001 to September 2006, patients with malignant and non-malignant hematological disorders having human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched sibling donors were selected for transplant. Pre-transplant infection surveillance was carried out, and strict prophylaxis against infection was observed. After admission to the hospital, patients were kept in protective isolation rooms, equipped with a HEPA filter positive-pressure laminar airflow ventilation system. Bone marrow and/or peripheral blood stem cells were used as the stem cell source. Cyclosporin and prednisolone were used as prophylaxis against graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). The engraftment was monitored with cytogenetic/molecular analysis and change of blood group. Survival was calculated from the date of transplant to death or last follow-up.

Results: One hundred and fifty-four patients received allogeneic stem cell transplants from HLA-matched siblings for various hematological disorders at the Armed Forces Bone Marrow Transplant Centre, Rawalpindi, Pakistan between July 2001 and September 2006. Indications for transplant included aplastic anemia (n=66), beta-thalassemia major (n=40), chronic myeloid leukemia (n=33), acute leukemia (n=8), and miscellaneous disorders (n=7). One hundred and twenty patients were male and 34 were female. The median age of the patient cohort was 14 years (range 1 1/4-54 years). One hundred and thirty-six patients and 135 donors were cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgG-positive. One hundred and forty patients (90.9%) developed febrile episodes in different phases of post-transplant recovery. Infective organisms were isolated in 150 microbiological culture specimens out of 651 specimens from different sites of infections (23.0% culture positivity). Post-transplant infections were confirmed in 120 patients (77.9%) on the basis of clinical assessment and microbiological, virological, and histopathological examination. Mortality related to infections was 13.0%. Fatal infections included CMV disease (100% mortality, 6/6), disseminated aspergillosis (66.7% mortality, 4/6), pseudomonas septicemia (42.9% mortality, 9/21), and tuberculosis (25% mortality, 1/4).

Conclusions: More than 90% of our patients developed febrile episodes with relatively low culture yield. The majority of infections were treated effectively, however CMV, aspergillosis, and pseudomonas infections remained problematic with high mortality.
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March 2008