Publications by authors named "Akbar Gholampour"

17 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Acute responses of airway oxidative stress, inflammation, and hemodynamic markers to ambient PM and their trace metal contents among healthy adolescences: A panel study in highly polluted versus low polluted regions.

Environ Pollut 2021 Jul 16;288:117797. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Health Office, Education Department of East Azerbaijan, Tabriz, Iran.

Particulate air pollutants are known contributors to global cardiorespiratory mortality through several pathways. We examined the effects of varied exposure to PM and trace metals on biological markers of airway inflammation, oxidative stress, and hemodynamic function of young individuals living in two different exposure settings. We enrolled and followed a panel of 97 healthy nonsmoking participants aged 15-18 years living in a highly polluted metropolitan city of Tabriz (TBZ) and a much less polluted semi-urban town of Hadishahr (HDS). For five consecutive months, the subjects were examined by a physician, and fractional exhaled nitric oxide levels (FE) were measured. Samples of exhaled breath condensation (EBC) were obtained for measuring interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and total nitric oxide (NO). We measured daily outdoor PM mass concentration in a fixed station in each location for all this period. The PM-metal content was analyzed by ICP-MS. The linear mixed-effects regression models were applied for data analysis. The averages of PM mass and total metals in TBZ were nearly two and four times higher than in HDS, respectively. In TBZ, an increased IQR of PM mass during 0-5 days was -correlated with a significant rise in diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, TNF-α, FE, and NO and reduction of IL-6. Moreover, exposure to low PM concentration is significantly -correlated with an elevation in diastolic blood pressure in HDS. We also observed that exposure to metal constituents in the highly polluted region is correlated with increased TNF-α and IL-6 with 131.80% (95% CI: 56.01, 244.39) and 47.51% (95% CI: 33.01, 62.05) per IQR of Hg, respectively. This study suggests that exposure to ambient PM and their metal contents in highly polluted areas may incite significant changes in airway inflammation, oxidative stress, and hemodynamic parameters in healthy subjects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117797DOI Listing
July 2021

Source apportionment and deposition of dustfall-bound trace elements around Tabriz, Iran.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jan 6. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Health and Environment Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

The monthly and spatial variations of atmospheric dustfall (DF) and their elemental components were determined. The DF sampling was performed using the ASTM method D-1739 from April 2017 to March 2018 in four urban and suburb sampling sites around Tabriz, Iran. The ICP-OES was utilized for the determination of the elemental components of DF.The results showed that the level of DF varied from 1.3 to 27.6 (8.0 ± 3.4) g/m.month during the sampling period, and the level of DF was higher in warm seasons than cold seasons. Also, it was revealed that the mean DF has a direct and significant relationship with temperature, wind speed, and relative humidity.The elements of Fe (11,997-17,093 mg/Kg and 71-81%) and Al (2903-6852 mg/Kg and 14-25%), which are the main elements of the Earth crust, were the dominant metals of DF among the analyzed elements. The lowest average value of the enrichment factor (EF) was for Al and was < 1, while the highest EF belonged to Hg, Pb, Cu, Sr, Mn, Co, Ni, and Cr, which were > 10 in all the sites, indicating that anthropogenic emission sources spread a considerable amount of trace elements in DF compared to the Lake Urmia bed or soil. The EF values for various elements (except than Cu and Hg) in cold seasons considerably increased compared to warm seasons.In all the study sites, Fe (540-1307 mg/m.yr) had the highest deposition rates among the metals. This study revealed that the Earth crust is the main source of DF in the region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-12173-1DOI Listing
January 2021

Spatial homogeneity and heterogeneity of ambient air pollutants in Tehran.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Dec 26;697:134123. Epub 2019 Aug 26.

Centre for Air Pollution Research (CAPR), Institute for Environmental Research (IER), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

To investigate spatial inequality of ambient air pollutants and comparison of their heterogeneity and homogeneity across Tehran, the following quantitative indicators were utilized: coefficient of divergence (COD), the 90 percentile of the absolute differences between ambient air pollutant concentrations and coefficient of variation (CV). Real-time hourly concentrations of particulate matter (PM) and gaseous air pollutants (GAPs) of twenty-two air quality monitoring stations (AQMSs) were obtained from Tehran Air Quality Control Company (TAQCC) in 2017. Annual mean concentrations of PM, PM, and PM (PM) ranged from 21.7 to 40.5, 37.3 to 75.0 and 58.0 to 110.4 μg m, respectively. Annual mean PM and PM concentrations were higher than the World Health Organization air quality guideline (WHO AQG) and national standard levels. NO, O, SO and CO annual mean concentrations ranged from 27.0 to 76.8, 15.5 to 25.1, 4.6 to 12.2 ppb, and 1.9 to 3.8 ppm over AQMSs, respectively. Our generated spatial maps exhibited that ambient PM concentrations increased from the north into south and south-western areas as the hotspots of ambient PM in Tehran. O hotspots were observed in the north and south-west, while NO hotspots were in the west and south. COD values of PM demonstrated more results lower than the 0.2 cut off compared to GAPs; indicating high to moderate spatial homogeneity for PM and moderate to high spatial heterogeneity for GAPs. Regarding CV approach, the spatial variabilities of air pollutants followed in the order of O (87.3%) > SO (65.2%) > CO (61.8%) > PM (52.5%) > PM (48.9%) > NO (48.1%) > PM (42.9%), which were mainly in agreement with COD results, except for NO. COD values observed a statistically (P < 0.05) positive correlation with the values of the 90 percentile across AQMSs. Our study, for the first time, highlights spatial inequality of ambient PM and GAPs in Tehran in detail to better facilitate establishing new intra-urban control policies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.134123DOI Listing
December 2019

Temporal and spatial variations of deposition and elemental composition of dust fall and its source identification around Tabriz, Iran.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2019 Jun 14;17(1):29-40. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

1Health and Environment Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Coarse particles are primarily deposited via sedimentation, commonly referred as dust fall (DF). This study presented the monthly and spatial variations of atmospheric DF and their elemental components (Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, Ti, V, Si, and Hg). Dust samples were collected from four urban and suburban sampling sites around Tabriz, Iran, by using the ASTM method D-1739 during April to September 2017. Moreover, the ICP-OES was used to determine metal components of the DF. The obtained results showed that the DF amount ranged between 1.8-27.6 (7.4 ± 5.6) g/m.month. The elements of Fe (11863-13,906 mg/Kg and 85%-89%), Al (858-1205 mg/Kg and 4%-8%), and Si (274-386 mg/Kg) were the dominant elemental concentrations of the DF. The average value of enrichment factor (EF) for Hg, Pb, Cu, Sr, Co, Ni, Mn, and V was greater than 10 in all the samples, showing that anthropogenic sources emit a considerable amount of elements in DF rather than the soil or Urmia lake bed. The result of correlations between the concentration of dust fall with humidity, temperature, wind speed, and precipitation showed that there was a direct relationship between the amount of dust fall and wind speed while humidity, precipitation, and temperature were inversely proportional to the amount of dust fall. This study revealed that earth crust and anthropogenic activities such as vehicle traffic, combustion of fossil fuel, and different industrial activities were the main sources of the DF in the studied areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40201-018-00323-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6582000PMC
June 2019

Physiochemical characteristics and oxidative potential of ambient air particulate matter (PM) during dust and non-dust storm events: a case study in Tehran, Iran.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2018 Dec 29;16(2):147-158. Epub 2018 Jun 29.

7Health and Environment Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

In the present study, we investigated the characteristics of metal(loid)s, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and oxidative potential (OP) in PM during dust and non-dust days in a rural and an urban area in Tehran. Water-soluble ions, metal(loid)s, PAHs, and OP were measured using ion chromatography (IC), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and dithiothreitol (DTT) assay respectively. The results showed that the average concentrations of ambient PM were 284 ± 90.4 and 123 ± 31.4 μg m on dusty and regular days in urban areas respectively, and were 258 ± 48.3 and 124 ± 41.4 μg m on dusty and regular days in rural areas, respectively; these values were 95% above the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline level. The crustal elements Na, Mg, Ca, Al, Si, Fe and Ti were the dominant for PM on dusty days, and NO and SO were dominant for PM on regular days. The average ± SD concentrations of total PAHs were 34.3 ± 22.5 and 55.1 ± 28.3 ng m on dusty and regular days, respectively, with the maximum value occurring on inversion days. The average OP was 8.90 ± 7.15 and 1.41 ± 0.35 and was 11.4 ± 3.97 and 19.9 ± 8.67 (nmol min μg PM ) for water and methanol extracts on dusty and regular days, respectively, with the lowest value occurring on dusty days. The OP was highly associated with Cu and Mn. Briefly; the results of this study demonstrate that OP is mass independent and consequence a promising proxy for PM mass.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40201-018-0303-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6277329PMC
December 2018

Long-term trends and health impact of PM and O in Tehran, Iran, 2006-2015.

Environ Int 2018 05 22;114:37-49. Epub 2018 Feb 22.

Center for Air Pollution Research (CAPR), Institute for Environmental Research (IER), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

The main objectives of this study were (1) investigation of the temporal variations of ambient fine particulate matter (PM) and ground level ozone (O) concentrations in Tehran megacity, the capital and most populous city in Iran, over a 10-year period from 2006 to 2015, and (2) estimation of their long-term health effects including all-cause and cause-specific mortality. For the first goal, the data of PM and O concentrations, measured at 21 regulatory monitoring network stations in Tehran, were obtained and the temporal trends were investigated. The health impact assessment of PM and O was performed using the World Health Organization (WHO) AirQ+ software updated in 2016 by WHO European Centre for Environment and Health. Local baseline incidences in Tehran level were used to better reveal the health effects associated with PM and O. Our study showed that over 2006-2015, annual mean concentrations of PM and O varied from 24.7 to 38.8 μg m and 35.4 to 76.0 μg m, respectively, and were significantly declining in the recent 6 years (2010-2015) for PM and 8 years (2008-2015) for O. However, Tehran citizens were exposed to concentrations of annual PM exceeding the WHO air quality guideline (WHO AQG) (10 μg m), U.S. EPA and Iranian standard levels (12 μg m) during entire study period. We estimated that long-term exposure to ambient PM contributed to between 24.5% and 36.2% of mortality from cerebrovascular disease (stroke), 19.8% and 24.1% from ischemic heart disease (IHD), 13.6% and 19.2% from lung cancer (LC), 10.7% and 15.3% from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 15.0% and 25.2% from acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI), and 7.6% and 11.3% from all-cause annual mortality in the time period. We further estimated that deaths from IHD accounted for most of mortality attributable to long-term exposure to PM. The years of life lost (YLL) attributable to PM was estimated to vary from 67,970 to 106,706 during the study period. In addition, long-term exposure to O was estimated to be responsible for 0.9% to 2.3% of mortality from respiratory diseases. Overall, long-term exposure to ambient PM and O contributed substantially to mortality in Tehran megacity. Air pollution is a modifiable risk factor. Appropriate sustainable control policies are recommended to protect public health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2018.02.026DOI Listing
May 2018

Estimating national dioxins and furans emissions, major sources, intake doses, and temporal trends in Iran from 1990-2010.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2017 10;15:20. Epub 2017 Oct 10.

Center for Air Pollution Research (CAPR), Institute for Environmental Research (IER), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are highly toxic persistent organic pollutants (POPs), which can cause various health outcomes, such as cancer. As a part of the National and Sub-national Burden of Disease Study (NASBOD), we aimed to estimate dioxins and furans national emissions, identify their main sources, estimate daily intake doses, and assess their trend from 1990-2010 in Iran.

Methods: The Toolkit for Identification and Quantification of Releases of Dioxins, Furans and Other Unintentional POPs, which is developed by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP 2013), was used to estimate the emissions of PCDD/PCDFs from several sources into the air, water, land, residue, and other products. The daily intake doses were estimated using a linear regression of estimated emissions by UNEP Toolkit and average intake doses in other countries. Finally, the trend of PCDD/PCDFs emissions and daily intake doses were explored from 1990-2010.

Results: The total emissions were estimated as 960 g Toxic Equivalents (g TEQ) for 1990 and 1957 g TEQ for 2010 (18.2 and 26.8 g TEQ per million capita, respectively). The estimations suggest that albeit contribution of open burning to PCDD/PCDFs emissions has been declining from 1990 to 2010, it remained the major source of emissions in Iran contributing to about 45.8% out of total emissions in 1990 to 35.7% in 2010. We further found that PCDD/PCDFs are mostly emitted into the ambient air, followed by residue, land, products, and water. The daily intake doses were estimated to be 3.1 and 5.4 pg TEQ/kg bw/day for 1990 and 2010, respectively. We estimated an increasing trend for PCDD/PCDFs emissions and intake doses in Iran from 1990-2010.

Conclusions: The high levels of emissions, intake doses, and their increasing trend in Iran may pose a substantial health risk to the Iranian population. Further studies with more rigorous methods are recommended but this should not circumvent taking appropriate policy actions against these pollutants. Currently, Iran has no standard for dioxins and furans. Adaptation of the World Health Organization recommended guidelines might be an appropriate starting point to control dioxins and furans emissions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40201-017-0283-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5633873PMC
October 2017

Bioaerosol exposure and circulating biomarkers in a panel of elderly subjects and healthy young adults.

Sci Total Environ 2017 Sep 27;593-594:380-389. Epub 2017 Mar 27.

Center for Air Pollution Research, Institute for Environmental Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Numerous studies have found that risk of cardiovascular diseases is associated with increased blood levels of circulating markers of systemic inflammation. We investigated associations of acute exposure to bioaerosols (bacteria and fungi) with blood markers of inflammation and coagulation using panels of elderly subjects and healthy young adults. We conducted a panel study of 44 nonsmoker elderly subjects in a retirement communities and a panel study of 40 healthy young adults living in a school dormitory within Tehran city, Iran. Blood sample biomarkers were measured weekly over 6weeks and including high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), tumor necrosis factor-soluble receptor-II (sTNF-RII), von Willebrand factor (vWF), white blood cells (WBC) count and interleukin-6 (IL-6). We found significant positive associations for IL-6 and WBC with exposure to Aspergillus spp. (As), Cladosporium spp. (Cl), Penicillium spp. (Pe), total fungi (TF) and Micrococcus spp. (MI); vWF with Cl and MI; sTNF-RII with Staphylococcus spp. (ST) in healthy young adults from the current-day and multiday averages. For elderly subjects, we observed significant positive associations for hsCRP, sTNF-RII and WBC with exposure to MI, but not with ST and total bacteria (TB). Our results showed the strongest significant positive associations for IL-6 with MI, ST and TB in elderly people. In addition, IL-6 was also positively associated with As, Cl and Pe in elderly. Also, the results showed that increase of vWF was significantly associated with bacterial and fungal aerosols, except Bacillus spp. (BA) at some lags in elderly subjects. Pooled results support the pivotal role of bioaerosols in increasing the level of some of inflammatory biomarkers, especially IL-6 and WBC in healthy young adults but possibly also in elderly people.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.03.186DOI Listing
September 2017

Short-term effects of particle size fractions on circulating biomarkers of inflammation in a panel of elderly subjects and healthy young adults.

Environ Pollut 2017 Apr 10;223:695-704. Epub 2017 Feb 10.

Center for Air Pollution Research (CAPR), Institute for Environmental Research (IER), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Systemic inflammation biomarkers have been associated with risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We aimed to clarify associations of acute exposure to particulate matter (PM (PM < 10 μm), PM (PM 2.5-10 μm), PM (PM < 2.5 μm), PM (PM 1-2.5 μm), and PM1 (PM < 1 μm)) with systemic inflammation using panels of elderly subjects and healthy young adults. We followed a panel of 44 nonsmoking elderly subjects living in a retirement home and a panel of 40 healthy young adults living in a school dormitory in Tehran city, Iran from May 2012 to May 2013. Blood biomarkers were measured one every 7-8 weeks and included white blood cells (WBC), high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), tumor necrosis factor-soluble receptor-II (sTNF-RII), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and von Willebrand factor (vWF). We measured hourly indoor and outdoor exposure to PM, PM, PM, PM, and PM mass concentration to derive weighted averages of personal exposure based on simultaneously collected time-activity data. The random intercept linear mixed effects model was used for data analysis. We observed significant positive associations for WBC and IL-6 with exposure to PM, PM, PM, PM, and PM; sTNF-RII with PM, PM, and PM; hsCRP with PM and PM; and vWF with PM and PM, PM, and PM mass concentration in elderly subjects from the current-day and multiday averages. For healthy young adults, we found significant positive associations for WBC and IL-6 with exposure to PM, PM, PM, and PM, but no with PM. The results showed that increase of hsCRP, sTNF-RII, and vWF were not significantly associated with any of the PM sizes investigated in the healthy young subjects. Our results provided some evidence that short-term exposure to PM, PM, PM, PM, and PM was associated with inflammation and coagulation blood markers, but associations were depended on PM size and also differed across the various time lag.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2017.02.005DOI Listing
April 2017

Characterization of saline dust emission resulted from Urmia Lake drying.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2015 28;13:82. Epub 2015 Nov 28.

School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran ; Center for Solid Waste Research, Institute for Environmental Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran ; National Institute of Health Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Compared with common dust storms, saline dust storms transport high concentrations of fine-grain saline and alkaline material. The saline dust storm differs from common dust storm, especially considering the sources of the suspended particulate matter (PM), chemical composition, grain size, and circulation processes. Atmospheric particulate matters (TSP, PM10, PM2.5, and PM1) and their water-soluble ions were concurrently measured at two sites located at north and southeast part of Urmia lake from January 2013 to September 2013. Particulate matters (PMs) were measured using high volume sampler and HAZ-DUST EPAM-5000 particulate air monitors. In both of the sampling sites, the highest concentration of PM was observed during the summer season (521.6, 329.1, 42.6, and 36.5 for TSP, PM10, PM2.5, and PM1, respectively). A total of 11 inorganic water-soluble ions in the TSP and PM10 were identified by ion chromatography (IC). No statistically significant difference was found between PM's ions concentrations of two sampling sites. The average of the total measured water-soluble ions in the sampling sites was 28.75 ± 12.9 μg/m(3) (11.9 ± 4.8% of total TSP mass) for TSP and 14.65 ± 7.1μg/m(3) (8.7 ± 4.4 of total PM10 mass) for PM10. Among all detected ions, sulfate was the dominant constituent followed by nitrate and sodium. This study showed that the water soluble salts compose 3-20% of the total mass of TSP and PM10. The PCA analysis showed that saline particulates formed from Urmia lake bed were the dominant source (57.6 %) of TSP. In addition, saline particulates together with crustal materials resulted from resuspension were the main source (59.9%) of PM10.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40201-015-0238-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4663037PMC
November 2015

Characterization and source identification of trace elements in airborne particulates at urban and suburban atmospheres of Tabriz, Iran.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2016 Jan 22;23(2):1703-13. Epub 2015 Sep 22.

Center for Air Pollution Research (CAPR), Institute for Environmental Research (IER), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Concentration of particulate matter (PM10 and total suspended particulate (TSP)) and their elemental constituents were measured to identify the major sources of elements in urban and industrial suburban sites in Tabriz, Iran, from September 2012 to June 2013. TSP and PM10 samples were collected using high-volume samplers. Concentrations of 31 elements in aerosols and crustal soil were determined by ICPMS. The most abundant detected metals in the urban sampling sites were Al (217.5-4019.9 ng m(-3)), Fe (272.5-7658.0 ng m(-3)), Pt (4.7-1994.4 ng m(-3)), and P (13.6-2054.8 ng m(-3) (for TSP and Al (217.6-3687.3 ng m(-3)), Fe (197.1-3724.9 ng m(-3)), Pt (65.9-2054.5 ng m(-3)), and P (11.0-756.6 ng m(-3)( for PM10. In the suburban sampling site, the most abundant detected metals were Al (2083.0-9664.0 ng m(-3)), Fe (360.0-7221.5 ng m(-3)), P (229.4-870.5 ng m(-3)), and Ti (137.3-849.7 ng m(-3)) for TSP and Al (218.5-4179.6 ng m(-3)), Fe (106.3-2005.1 ng m(-3)), P (251.9-908.4 ng m(-3)), and Ba (10.6-584.9 ng m(-3)) for PM10. For the crustal soil, the most abundant detected elements included Al (60,088-60,694 ppm), Fe (19,886-20,474 ppm), Ti (894-3481 ppm), and Si (365-4246 ppm). Key emission sources were identified, and the concentrations contributed from individual sources were estimated. Enrichment factor (EF) explaining a preponderance of the variance in the data was applied to the datasets. EF calculations revealed that non-crustal trace elements were more enriched in the urban than suburban sampling sites. Results of the factor analysis on the elements showed that emissions from road traffic (involving oil and fuel combustions by vehicles, platinum group elements from vehicle exhaust, and resuspension of particulate matter from polluted soil) and construction dust from nearby construction sites and electricity generation plant were the major contributors of anthropogenic metals at ambient atmosphere in Tabriz. Results of this study elucidated the need for developing pollution control strategy, especially vehicle exhaust control, and creating green spaces around the city.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-015-5413-7DOI Listing
January 2016

Characterization of PAHs and metals in indoor/outdoor PM10/PM2.5/PM1 in a retirement home and a school dormitory.

Sci Total Environ 2015 Sep 14;527-528:100-10. Epub 2015 May 14.

Center for Air Pollution Research (CAPR), Institute for Environmental Research (IER), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

In the present work, we investigated the characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metal(loid)s in indoor/outdoor PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 in a retirement home and a school dormitory in Tehran from May 2012 to May 2013. The results indicated that the annual levels of indoor and outdoor PM10 and PM2.5 were much higher than the guidelines issued by the World Health Organization (WHO). The most abundant detected metal(loid)s in PM were Si, Fe, Zn, Al, and Pb. We found higher percentages of metal(loid)s in smaller size fractions of PM. Additionally, the results showed that the total PAHs (ƩPAHs) bound to PM were predominantly (83-88%) found in PM2.5, which can penetrate deep into the alveolar regions of the lungs. In general, carcinogenic PAHs accounted for 40-47% of the total PAHs concentrations; furthermore, the smaller the particle size, the higher the percentage of carcinogenic PAHs. The percentages of trace metal(loid)s and carcinogenic PAHs in PM2.5 mass were almost twice as high as those in PM10. This can most likely be responsible for the fact that PM2.5 can cause more adverse health effects than PM10 can. The average BaP-equivalent carcinogenic (BaP-TEQ) levels both indoors and outdoors considerably exceeded the maximum permissible risk level of 1 ng/m(3) of BaP. The enrichment factors and diagnostic ratios indicated that combustion-related anthropogenic sources, such as gasoline- and diesel-fueled vehicles as well as natural gas combustion, were the major sources of PAHs and trace metal(loid)s bound to PM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.05.001DOI Listing
September 2015

Indoor/outdoor relationships of bioaerosol concentrations in a retirement home and a school dormitory.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2015 Jun 18;22(11):8190-200. Epub 2014 Dec 18.

Center for Air Pollution Research (CAPR), Institute for Environmental Research (IER), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The concentrations of bacterial and fungal bioaerosols were measured in a retirement home and a school dormitory from May 2012 to May 2013. In the present work, two active and passive methods were used for bioaerosol sampling. The results from the present work indicated that Bacillus spp., Micrococcus spp., and Staphylococcus spp. were the dominant bacterial genera, while the major fungal genera were Penicillium spp., Cladosporium spp., and Aspergillus spp. The results also indicated that the indoor-to-outdoor (I/O) ratios for total bacteria were 1.77 and 1.44 in the retirement home and the school dormitory, respectively; the corresponding values for total fungal spores were 1.23 and 1.08. The results suggested that in addition to outdoor sources, indoor sources also played a significant role in emitting bacterial and fungal bioaerosols in the retirement home and the school dormitory indoor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-014-3944-yDOI Listing
June 2015

Physicochemical characterization of ambient air particulate matter in Tabriz, Iran.

Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2014 Jun 23;92(6):738-44. Epub 2014 Apr 23.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran,

Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) was measured concurrently from September, 2012, to June, 2013, at two sites, urban and industrial suburban, in Tabriz, Iran. The annual average concentration of total suspended particulates (TSP), PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 at the urban site were 142.2 ± 76.3, 85.3 ± 43.9, 39 ± 19.1, and 28.4 ± 14.9 µg/m(3) (mean ± SD), respectively. A total of 11 inorganic water-soluble ions in the TSP and PM10 were identified by ion chromatography. In the urban site, concentrations of total water-soluble ions in TSP and PM10 were 20.3 ± 20.8 and 16.0 ± 14.1 µg/m(3), respectively. In this sampling site, secondary inorganic aerosols (i.e., Σ [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text] concentrations) were the main measured water-soluble ions, which collectively accounted for 13.9 % of TSP mass and 17.7 % of PM10 mass. Correlations between [Formula: see text] with [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] indicated that the main source of these ions in PM was the combustion processes. Results of elemental analysis in the industrial suburban site showed that natural sources were the dominant source of PM in this area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-014-1276-8DOI Listing
June 2014

Determining heavy metals in spent compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) and their waste management challenges: some strategies for improving current conditions.

Waste Manag 2014 Jul 13;34(7):1251-6. Epub 2014 Apr 13.

Environmental Health Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

From environmental viewpoint, the most important advantage of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) is reduction of green house gas emissions. But their significant disadvantage is disposal of spent lamps because of containing a few milligrams of toxic metals, especially mercury and lead. For a successful implementation of any waste management plan, availability of sufficient and accurate information on quantities and compositions of the generated waste and current management conditions is a fundamental prerequisite. In this study, CFLs were selected among 20 different brands in Iran. Content of heavy metals including mercury, lead, nickel, arsenic and chromium was determined by inductive coupled plasma (ICP). Two cities, Tehran and Tabriz, were selected for assessing the current waste management condition of CFLs. The study found that waste generation amount of CFLs in the country was about 159.80, 183.82 and 153.75 million per year in 2010, 2011 and 2012, respectively. Waste generation rate of CFLs in Iran was determined to be 2.05 per person in 2012. The average amount of mercury, lead, nickel, arsenic and chromium was 0.417, 2.33, 0.064, 0.056 and 0.012 mg per lamp, respectively. Currently, waste of CFLs is disposed by municipal waste stream in waste landfills. For improving the current conditions, we propose by considering the successful experience of extended producer responsibility (EPR) in other electronic waste management. The EPR program with advanced recycling fee (ARF) is implemented for collecting and then recycling CFLs. For encouraging consumers to take the spent CFLs back at the end of the products' useful life, a proportion of ARF (for example, 50%) can be refunded. On the other hand, the government and Environmental Protection Agency should support and encourage recycling companies of CFLs both technically and financially in the first place.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2014.03.010DOI Listing
July 2014

Exposure and health impacts of outdoor particulate matter in two urban and industrialized area of Tabriz, Iran.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2014 Jan 10;12(1):27. Epub 2014 Jan 10.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Numerous studies have shown associations between air pollution and health effects on human. The aims of the present study were to provide quantitative data on variation of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) concentration and the impact of PM on the health of people living in Tabriz city. The approach proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO) was applied using the AirQ 2.2.3 software developed by the WHO European Centre for Environment and Health, Bilthoven Division. The concentration of particulate matter were measured at urban and industrial suburban sites in Tabriz, Iran, from September 2012 to June 2013. TSP and PM10 samples were collected using high volume samplers. PM2.5 and PM1 were measured by Haz-Dust EPAM-5000 particulate air monitors. The annual average concentrations of TSP, PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 in the urban site were 142.2 ± 76.3, 85.3 ± 43.9, 39 ± 19.1, and 28.4 ± 14.9 μg/m3 (mean ± SD), respectively. Also in industrial suburban, the total average concentrations of TSP, PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 were measured as 178.7 ± 52.7, 109.9 ± 30.2, 40.0 ± 10.9, and 31.4 ± 9.1 μg/m3, respectively. The PM10/TSP ratio for the whole study period ranged between 0.35-0.91 and 0.32-0.79 in the urban and suburban sites, respectively. Total mortalities associated with TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were 327, 363, and 360, respectively. Furthermore, the cardiovascular mortalities for TSP and PM10 were 202 and 227 individual, respectively. According to the attributable respiratory mortalities of 99 and 67 associated respectively with TSP and PM10, it is clear that cardiovascular mortality resulted from PM might attributed to total mortality. The maximum 24-hour concentration of PM was observed during winter followed by autumn and the lowest one was during spring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/2052-336X-12-27DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3895682PMC
January 2014

Health impact assessment of air pollution in megacity of Tehran, Iran.

Iranian J Environ Health Sci Eng 2012 Dec 17;9(1):28. Epub 2012 Dec 17.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The aims of the present study were to provide quantitative data on the impact of air pollution on the health of people living in Tehran city, the most populated city of Iran. The approach proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO) was applied using the AirQ 2.2.3 software developed by the WHO European Centre for Environment and Health, Bilthoven Division. Concentrations of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm (PM10) were used to assess human exposure and health impacts in terms of attributable proportion of the health outcome, annual number of excess cases of mortality for all causes, and cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. The annual average of PM10, SO2, NO2 and O3 in Tehran were 90.58, 89.16, 85 and 68.82 μg/m3, respectively. Considering short-term effects, PM10 had the highest health impact on the 8,700,000 inhabitants of Tehran city, causing an excess of total mortality of 2194 out of 47284 in a year. Sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and ozone caused about, respectively, 1458, 1050 and 819 excess cases of total mortality. Results indicate that the magnitude of the health impact estimated for the city of Tehran underscores the need for urgent action to reduce the health burden of air pollution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1735-2746-9-28DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3561072PMC
December 2012
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