Publications by authors named "Ajmal Ahmad"

41 Publications

Flavonoids and PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling cascade: A potential crosstalk in anticancer treatment.

Curr Med Chem 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, 21589. Saudi Arabia.

Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Even a slight decline in mortality has been noted, but the currently available treatment options did not give an expected outcome and are associated with several side effects and a substantial economic burden. The advent of plant-based treatment is because of its ease of use, readily availability, cost-effectiveness, and low/no toxicity. In recent years, flavonoids with their diverse physico-biological properties have gained the scientific community's attention for the treatment of various forms of cancer. Different flavonoids, especially; flavonols (quercetin, kaempferol, fisetin, and isorhamnetin), flavanones (hesperidin and naringin), and anthocyanins have shown potent anticancer activities. The role of various signaling cascades in the progression of cancer is also well-documented. Among those, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/ mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway is widely known to play a significant role in different physio-cellular activities, which triggers malignant transformation and is considered a key target for anticancer compounds. This pathway plays a vital role in regulating the cell cycle, metabolism, survival, and proliferation. The flavonoids exhibit their anticancer activity via different molecular pathways, including PI3K/Akt/mTOR. In the current piece of paper, our focus is to underpin the action of the above-mentioned flavonoids against different cancers, mainly covering in-vitro data, especially through PI3K/Akt/mTOR targeting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/0929867328666210804091548DOI Listing
August 2021

CD146/Soluble CD146 Pathway Is a Novel Biomarker of Angiogenesis and Inflammation in Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2021 07;62(9):32

University Hospitals, UZ Gasthuisberg, Leuven, Belgium.

Purpose: Inflammation, angiogenesis and fibrosis are pathological hallmarks of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). The CD146/sCD146 pathway displays proinflammatory and proangiogenic properties. We investigated the role of this pathway in the pathophysiology of PDR.

Methods: Vitreous samples from 41 PDR and 27 nondiabetic patients, epiretinal fibrovascular membranes from 18 PDR patients, rat retinas, human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMECs) and human retinal Müller glial cells were studied by ELISA, Western blot analysis, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence microscopy analysis. Blood-retinal barrier breakdown was assessed with fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated dextran.

Results: sCD146 and VEGF levels were significantly higher in vitreous samples from PDR patients than in nondiabetic patients. In epiretinal membranes, immunohistochemical analysis revealed CD146 expression in leukocytes, vascular endothelial cells and myofibroblasts. Significant positive correlations were detected between numbers of blood vessels expressing CD31, reflecting angiogenic activity of PDR, and numbers of blood vessels and stromal cells expressing CD146. Western blot analysis showed significant increase of CD146 in diabetic rat retinas. sCD146 induced upregulation of phospho-ERK1/2, NF-κB , VEGF and MMP-9 in Müller cells. The hypoxia mimetic agent cobalt chloride, VEGF and TNF-α induced upregulation of sCD146 in HRMECs. The MMP inhibitor ONO-4817 attenuated TNF-α-induced upregulation of sCD146 in HRMECs. Intravitreal administration of sCD146 in normal rats significantly increased retinal vascular permeability and induced significant upregulation of phospho-ERK1/2, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and VEGF in the retina. sCD146 induced migration of HRMECs.

Conclusions: These results suggest that the CD146/sCD146 pathway is involved in the initiation and progression of PDR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/iovs.62.9.32DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8300056PMC
July 2021

Evaluation of Proteoforms of the Transmembrane Chemokines CXCL16 and CX3CL1, Their Receptors, and Their Processing Metalloproteinases ADAM10 and ADAM17 in Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy.

Front Immunol 2020 20;11:601639. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Laboratory of Molecular Immunology, Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Transplantation, Rega Institute for Medical Research, University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

The transmembrane chemokine pathways CXCL16/CXCR6 and CX3CL1/CX3CR1 are strongly implicated in inflammation and angiogenesis. We investigated the involvement of these chemokine pathways and their processing metalloproteinases ADAM10 and ADAM17 in the pathophysiology of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). Vitreous samples from 32 PDR and 24 non-diabetic patients, epiretinal membranes from 18 patients with PDR, rat retinas, human retinal Müller glial cells and human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMECs) were studied by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. angiogenesis assays were performed and the adherence of leukocytes to CXCL16-stimulated HRMECs was assessed. CXCL16, CX3CL1, ADAM10, ADAM17 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels were significantly increased in vitreous samples from PDR patients. The levels of CXCL16 were 417-fold higher than those of CX3CL1 in PDR vitreous samples. Significant positive correlations were found between the levels of VEGF and the levels of CXCL16, CX3CL1, ADAM10 and ADAM17. Significant positive correlations were detected between the numbers of blood vessels expressing CD31, reflecting the angiogenic activity of PDR epiretinal membranes, and the numbers of blood vessels and stromal cells expressing CXCL16, CXCR6, ADAM10 and ADAM17. CXCL16 induced upregulation of phospho-ERK1/2, p65 subunit of NF-κB and VEGF in cultured Müller cells and tumor necrosis factor-α induced upregulation of soluble CXCL16 and ADAM17 in Müller cells. Treatment of HRMECs with CXCL16 resulted in increased expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and increased leukocyte adhesion to HRMECs. CXCL16 induced HRMEC proliferation, formation of sprouts from HRMEC spheroids and phosphorylation of ERK1/2. Intravitreal administration of CXCL16 in normal rats induced significant upregulation of the p65 subunit of NF-κB, VEGF and ICAM-1 in the retina. Our findings suggest that the chemokine axis CXCL16/CXCR6 and the processing metalloproteinases ADAM10 and ADAM17 might serve a role in the initiation and progression of PDR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.601639DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7854927PMC
June 2021

Apocynin ameliorates NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) induced oxidative damage in the hypoxic human retinal Müller cells and diabetic rat retina.

Mol Cell Biochem 2021 May 30;476(5):2099-2109. Epub 2021 Jan 30.

Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

NADPH oxidase (NOX) is a main producers of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that may contribute to the early pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR). ROS has harmful effects on endogenous neuro-survival factors brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) are necessary for the growth and survival of the retina. The role of NOX isoforms NOX4 in triggering ROS in DR is not clear. Here we determine the protective effects of a plant-derived NOX inhibitor apocynin (APO) on NOX4-induced ROS production which may contribute to the depletion of survival factors BDNF/SIRT1 or cell death in the diabetic retinas. Human retinal Müller glial cells (MGCs) were treated with hypoxia mimetic agent cobalt chloride (CoCl) in the absence or presence of APO. Molecular analysis demonstrates that NOX4 is upregulated in CoCl-treated MGCs and in the diabetic retinas. Increased NOX4 was accompanied by the downregulation of BDNF/SIRT1 expression or in the activation of apoptotic marker caspase-3. Whereas, APO treatment downregulates NOX4 and subsequently upregulates BDNF/SIRT1 or alleviate caspase-3 expression. Accordingly, in the diabetic retina we found a positive correlation in NOX4 vs ROS (p = 0.025; R = 0.488) and caspase-3 vs ROS (p = 0.04; R = 0.428); whereas a negative correlation in BDNF vs ROS (p = 0.009; R = 0.596) and SIRT1 vs ROS (p = 0.0003; R = 0.817) respectively. Taken together, NOX4-derived ROS could be a main contributor in downregulating BDNF/SIRT1 expression or in the activation of caspase-3. Whereas, APO treatment may minimize the deleterious effects occurring due to hyperglycemia and/or diabetic mimic hypoxic condition in early pathogenesis of DR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11010-021-04071-yDOI Listing
May 2021

The Role of Neurovascular System in Neurodegenerative Diseases.

Mol Neurobiol 2020 Nov 28;57(11):4373-4393. Epub 2020 Jul 28.

Department of Neurology, College of Medicine, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, 855 Monroe Avenue, Suite 432 Link Building, Memphis, TN, 38163, USA.

The neurovascular system (NVS), which consisted of neurons, glia, and vascular cells, is a functional and structural unit of the brain. The NVS regulates blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and cerebral blood flow (CBF), thereby maintaining the brain's microenvironment for normal functioning, neuronal survival, and information processing. Recent studies have highlighted the role of vascular dysfunction in several neurodegenerative diseases. This is not unexpected since both nervous and vascular systems are functionally interdependent and show close anatomical apposition, as well as similar molecular pathways. However, despite extensive research, the precise mechanism by which neurovascular dysfunction contributes to neurodegeneration remains incomplete. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms of neurovascular dysfunction in disease conditions may allow us to develop potent and effective therapies for prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. This review article summarizes the current research in the context of neurovascular signaling associated with neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and Huntington's disease (HD). We also discuss the potential implication of neurovascular factor as a novel therapeutic target and prognostic marker in patients with neurodegenerative conditions. Graphical Abstract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-020-02023-zDOI Listing
November 2020

The Proinflammatory and Proangiogenic Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Is a Potential Regulator in Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy.

Front Immunol 2019 4;10:2752. Epub 2019 Dec 4.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Rega Institute for Medical Research, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

The macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF)/CD74 signaling pathway is strongly implicated in inflammation and angiogenesis. We investigated the expression of MIF and its receptor CD74 in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) to reveal a possible role of this pathway in the pathogenesis of PDR. Levels of MIF, soluble (s)CD74, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were significantly increased in the vitreous from patients with PDR compared to nondiabetic control samples. We detected significant positive correlations between the levels of MIF and the levels of sICAM-1 ( = 0.43; = 0.001) and VEGF ( = 0.7; < 0.001). Through immunohistochemical analysis of PDR epiretinal membranes, significant positive correlations were also found between microvessel density (CD31 expression) and the numbers of blood vessels expressing MIF ( = 0.56; = 0.045) and stromal cells expressing MIF ( = 0.79; = 0.001) and CD74 ( = 0.59; = 0.045). Similar to VEGF, MIF was induced in Müller cells cultured under hypoxic conditions and MIF induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and VEGF production in Müller cells. Intravitreal administration of MIF in normal rats induced increased retinal vascular permeability and significant upregulation of phospho-ERK1/2, NF-κB, ICAM-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression in the retina. MIF induced migration and proliferation of human retinal microvascular endothelial cells. These results suggest that MIF/CD74 signaling is involved in PDR angiogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.02752DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6904364PMC
October 2020

Interleukin-11 Overexpression and M2 Macrophage Density are Associated with Angiogenic Activity in Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy.

Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2020 May 12;28(4):575-588. Epub 2019 Aug 12.

Rega Institute for Medical Research, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Leuven , Leuven, Belgium.

Purpose: To investigate the expression of IL-11 and its receptor IL-11Rα and to quantify density of CD163 M2 macrophages in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR).

Methods: Vitreous samples from 29 PDR and 19 nondiabetic patients, epiretinal fibrovascular membranes from 15 patients with PDR and Müller cells were studied by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis.

Results: We showed a significant increase in expression of IL-11, soluble(s) IL-11Rα, sCD163 and VEGF in vitreous samples from PDR patients compared to nondiabetic controls. Significant positive correlations were found between levels of VEGF and levels of IL-11 and sCD163. Significant positive correlations were found between microvessel density and number of blood vessels and stromal cells expressing IL-11, IL-11Rα and CD163 in PDR epiretinal membranes. The hypoxia mimetic agent cobalt chloride induced upregulation of IL-11 and IL-11Ra in cultured Müller cells.

Conclusions: IL-11/IL-11Rα signaling and CD163 M2 macrophages might be involved in PDR angiogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09273948.2019.1616772DOI Listing
May 2020

Galectin-1 studies in proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

Acta Ophthalmol 2020 Feb 18;98(1):e1-e12. Epub 2019 Jul 18.

Rega Institute for Medical Research, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Leuven, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Purpose: Galectin-1 regulates endothelial cell function and promotes angiogenesis. We investigated the hypothesis that galectin-1 may be involved in the pathogenesis of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR).

Methods: Vitreous samples from 36 PDR and 20 nondiabetic patients, epiretinal fibrovascular membranes from 13 patients with PDR, rat retinas and human retinal Müller glial cells were studied by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. In vitro angiogenesis assays were performed and the adherence of leukocytes to galectin-1-stimulated human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMECs) was assessed.

Results: The ELISA analysis revealed that galectin-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels were significantly higher in vitreous samples from PDR patients than in those from nondiabetics (p < 0.001 for both comparisons). A significant positive correlation was found between the levels of galectin-1 and VEGF (r = 0.354; p = 0.022). In epiretinal membranes, immunohistochemical analysis showed that galectin-1 was expressed in vascular endothelial cells expressing CD31, myofibroblasts expressing α-smooth muscle actin and leukocytes expressing CD45. The galectin-1 receptor neuropilin-1 was expressed on vascular endothelial cells. CD31 staining was used as a marker to assess microvessel density (MVD). Significant positive correlation was detected between MVD in epiretinal membranes and the number of blood vessels expressing galectin-1 (r = 0.848; p < 0.001). Western blot analysis demonstrated significant increase of galectin-1 protein in rat retinas after induction of diabetes. ELISA analysis revealed that hydrogen peroxide and cobalt chloride (CoCl ) induced upregulation of galectin-1 in Müller cells. Treatment with galectin-1 induced upregulation of VEGF in Müller cells and increased leukocyte adhesion to HRMECs. The galectin-1 inhibitor OTX008 attenuated VEGF-induced HRMECs migration and CoCl -induced upregulation of NF-κB, galectin-1 and VEGF in Müller cells.

Conclusions: These results suggest that galectin-1is involved in the pathogenesis of PDR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aos.14191DOI Listing
February 2020

Cross-Talk between Sirtuin 1 and the Proinflammatory Mediator High-Mobility Group Box-1 in the Regulation of Blood-Retinal Barrier Breakdown in Diabetic Retinopathy.

Curr Eye Res 2019 10 14;44(10):1133-1143. Epub 2019 Jun 14.

Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, King Saud University , Riyadh , Saudi Arabia.

: High-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) mediates inflammation and breakdown of blood-retinal barrier (BRB) in diabetic retina. Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) has protective effects against inflammation and oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the interaction between HMGB1 and SIRT1 in regulating BRB breakdown in diabetic retina. : BRB breakdown was assessed in vivo with fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated dextran. Vitreous samples from 47 proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and 19 nondiabetic patients, and epiretinal membranes from 13 patients with PDR were studied by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunohistochemistry. Retinas from 4-week diabetic rats and from normal rats intravitreally injected with HMGB1 were studied by spectrophotometric assay, Western blot analysis, and RT-PCR. We also studied the effect of the HMGB1 inhibitor glycyrrhizin and the SIRT1 activator resveratrol on diabetes-induced biochemical changes in the retina. : HMGB1 levels in vitreous samples from PDR patients were significantly higher than in nondiabetic controls, whereas SIRT1 levels were significantly lower in vitreous samples from patients with inactive PDR than those in patients with active PDR and nondiabetic controls. In epiretinal membranes, SIRT1 was expressed in vascular endothelial cells and stromal cells. Diabetes and intravitreal injection of HMGB1 in normal rats downregulated SIRT1expression, whereas glycyrrhizin and resveratrol normalized diabetes-induced downregulation of SIRT1. Resveratrol significantly attenuated diabetes-induced downregulation of occludin and upregulation of HMGB1 and receptor for advanced glycation end products in the retina and breakdown of BRB. : Our findings suggest that a functional link between SIRT1 and HMGB1 is involved in regulating of BRB breakdown in diabetic retina.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02713683.2019.1625406DOI Listing
October 2019

AKAP1 Protects from Cerebral Ischemic Stroke by Inhibiting Drp1-Dependent Mitochondrial Fission.

J Neurosci 2018 09 9;38(38):8233-8242. Epub 2018 Aug 9.

Department of Pharmacology and Iowa Neuroscience Institute,

Mitochondrial fission and fusion impact numerous cellular functions and neurons are particularly sensitive to perturbations in mitochondrial dynamics. Here we describe that male mice lacking the mitochondrial A-kinase anchoring protein 1 (AKAP1) exhibit increased sensitivity in the transient middle cerebral artery occlusion model of focal ischemia. At the ultrastructural level, AKAP1 mice have smaller mitochondria and increased contacts between mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum in the brain. Mechanistically, deletion of AKAP1 dysregulates complex II of the electron transport chain, increases superoxide production, and impairs Ca homeostasis in neurons subjected to excitotoxic glutamate. Ca deregulation in neurons lacking AKAP1 can be attributed to loss of inhibitory phosphorylation of the mitochondrial fission enzyme dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) at the protein kinase A (PKA) site Ser637. Our results indicate that inhibition of Drp1-dependent mitochondrial fission by the outer mitochondrial AKAP1/PKA complex protects neurons from ischemic stroke by maintaining respiratory chain activity, inhibiting superoxide production, and delaying Ca deregulation. They also provide the first genetic evidence that Drp1 inhibition may be of therapeutic relevance for the treatment of stroke and neurodegeneration. Previous work suggests that activation of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) and mitochondrial fission contribute to ischemic injury in the brain. However, the specificity and efficacy of the pharmacological Drp1 inhibitor mdivi-1 that was used has now been discredited by several high-profile studies. Our report is timely and highly impactful because it provides the first evidence that genetic disinhibition of Drp1 via knock-out of the mitochondrial protein kinase A (PKA) scaffold AKAP1 exacerbates stroke injury in mice. Mechanistically, we show that electron transport deficiency, increased superoxide production, and Ca overload result from genetic disinhibition of Drp1. In summary, our work settles current controversies regarding the role of mitochondrial fission in neuronal injury, provides mechanisms, and suggests that fission inhibitors hold promise as future therapeutic agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0649-18.2018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6146498PMC
September 2018

Matrix metalloproteinase-14 is a biomarker of angiogenic activity in proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

Mol Vis 2018 18;24:394-406. Epub 2018 May 18.

Rega Institute for Medical Research, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Leuven, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Purpose: Matrix metalloproteinase-14 (MMP-14) is a transmembrane MMP that plays a critical role in promoting angiogenesis. We investigated the expression levels of MMP-14 and correlated the levels with clinical disease activity and with the levels of the angiogenic factors vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and MMP-9 in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). To reinforce the findings at the functional level, we examined the expression of MMP-14 in the retinas of diabetic rats.

Methods: Vitreous samples from 34 patients with PDR and 18 nondiabetic patients and epiretinal membranes from 13 patients with PDR and the retinas of rats were studied with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunohistochemistry, western blotting, and real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR).

Results: The MMP-14, VEGF, and MMP-9 levels were statistically significantly higher in the vitreous samples from patients with PDR than in the samples from the nondiabetic controls (p<0.001 for all comparisons). The MMP-14 levels in patients with PDR with active neovascularization were statistically significantly higher than those in patients with inactive PDR (p<0.001). There were statistically significant positive correlations between levels of MMP-14 and levels of VEGF (r = 0.3; p = 0.032) and MMP-9 (r = 0.54; p<0.001). In the epiretinal membranes, MMP-14 was expressed in vascular endothelial cells, leukocytes, and myofibroblasts. Statistically significant positive correlations were detected between the numbers of blood vessels expressing CD31 and the numbers of blood vessels (r = 0.74; p = 0.004) and stromal cells (r = 0.72; p = 0.005) expressing MMP-14. Statistically significant increases of MMP-14 mRNA and protein were detected in rat retinas after induction of diabetes.

Conclusions: These results suggest that MMP-14 is involved in PDR angiogenesis.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5957543PMC
November 2018

Rho-Associated Protein Kinase-1 Mediates the Regulation of Inflammatory Markers in Diabetic Retina and in Retinal Müller Cells.

Ann Clin Lab Sci 2018 Mar;48(2):137-145

Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Goal: To investigate the effects of blocking Rho kinase pathway on the expression of inflammatory signaling pathways in the retina of diabetic mice and in human retinal Müller glial cells stimulated with high-glucose to replicate hyperglycemia.

Procedures: Retinas from diabetic mice and human retinal Müller glial cells (MIO-M1) were studied. Western blot analysis, immunofluorescence, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were utilized to study the effect of the Rho kinase inhibitor fasudil on the expression of Rho-associated protein kinase-1 (ROCK-1), extracellular signal-regulated kinases1&2(ERK ½), phosphorylated nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (p-NF-κB), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2).

Results: Treatment of human retinal Müller cells with high-glucose induced significant upregulation of ROCK-1, VEGF, and MCP-1/CCL2. Fasudil co-treatment normalized the high-glucose-induced upregulation of these mediators. Similarly, fasudil attenuated high-glucose-induced enhanced immunoreactivity for ROCK-1 and VEGF. Diabetes induced upregulation of ROCK-1, p-ERK ½, p-NF-κB and iNOS expression in retinas of mice. Constant fasudil intake from the onset of diabetes did not affect the metabolic status of diabetic mice but it attenuated diabetes-induced upregulation of these inflammatory signaling pathways.

Conclusions: Our finding suggests that Rho-associated protein kinase-1 activation mediates regulation of inflammatory signaling pathways in diabetic retina.
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March 2018

Association of HMGB1 with oxidative stress markers and regulators in PDR.

Mol Vis 2017 5;23:853-871. Epub 2017 Dec 5.

Diabetes and Metabolism Research Unit and CIBERDEM (ISCIII).Vall d'Hebron Research Institute. Barcelona, Spain.

Purpose: We investigated the link among the proinflammatory cytokine high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) as a marker of oxidative DNA damage, the endothelial adhesion molecule and oxidase enzyme vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1), and the inducible cytoprotective molecule heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). We correlated the levels of these molecules with clinical disease activity and studied the proinflammatory activities of HMGB1 on rat retinas and human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMECs).

Methods: Vitreous samples from 47 PDR and 19 non-diabetic patients, epiretinal membranes from 11 patients with PDR, human retinas (16 from diabetic patients and 16 from non-diabetic subjects), rat retinas, and HRMECs were studied by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunohistochemistry, western blot immunofluorescence, and RT-PCR analyses. In addition, we assessed the adherence of leukocytes to HMGB1-stimulated HRMECs.

Results: HMGB1, 8-OHdG, and soluble VAP-1 (sVAP-1) levels were significantly higher in vitreous samples from PDR patients than in those from non-diabetics (p = 0.001, <0.0001, <0.0001, respectively). The HMGB1, 8-OHdG, sVAP-1, and HO-1 levels in PDR with active neovascularization were significantly higher than those in inactive PDR (p = 0.025, <0.0001, <0.0001, 0.012, respectively). Significant positive correlations were observed between the levels of HMGB1 and the levels of 8-OHdG (r = 0.422; p = 0.001) and sVAP-1 (r = 0.354; p = 0.004) and between the levels of 8-OHdG and the levels of sVAP-1 (r = 0.598; p<0.0001). In epiretinal membranes, VAP-1 and 8-OHdG were expressed in vascular endothelial cells and stromal cells. Significant increases in the VAP-1 mRNA and protein levels were detected in the RPE, but not in the neuroretina of diabetic patients. Treatment of HRMEC with HMGB1, diabetes induction, and an intravitreal injection of HMGB1 in normal rats induced a significant upregulation of the adhesion molecule intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in HRMECs and retinas. On the other hand, the expressions of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and VAP-1 were not affected. Oral administration of the HMGB1 inhibitor glycyrrhizin in rats attenuated the diabetes-induced upregulation of the retinal ICAM-1 expression. Treatment of HRMECs with HMGB1 increased leukocyte adhesion and induced the upregulation of 8-OHdG and HO-1 and the membranous translocation of VAP-1.

Conclusions: Our results suggest a potential link among the proinflammatory cytokine HMGB1, VAP-1, oxidative stress, and HO-1 in the pathogenesis of PDR.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5723152PMC
May 2018

Association of 150-kDa oxygen-regulated protein with vascular endothelial growth factor in proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

Acta Ophthalmol 2018 Jun 2;96(4):e460-e467. Epub 2017 Nov 2.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Rega Institute for Medical Research, University of Leuven, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Purpose: 150-kDa oxygen-regulated protein (ORP150), a member of heat-shock protein family located in endoplasmic reticulum (ER), has a critical role in secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We investigated expression levels of ORP150 and correlated these levels with VEGF and total vitreous antioxidant capacity (TAC) in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). We also examined expression of ORP150 in retinas of diabetic rats and in human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMEC).

Methods: Vitreous samples from 40 PDR and 20 non-diabetic patients, epiretinal membranes from 14 patients with PDR, retinas of rats and HRMEC were studied by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis.

Results: We showed a significant increase in expression of VEGF and ORP150 in vitreous samples from PDR patients compared with controls (p < 0.0001 for both comparisons). Total vitreous antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels were significantly lower in patients with PDR than those in controls (p < 0.0001). Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and ORP150 levels in PDR with active neovascularization were significantly higher than that in inactive PDR (p = 0.016; p = 0.011, respectively). A significant positive correlation was observed between levels of ORP150 and levels of VEGF (r = 0.42; p = 0.001). In epiretinal membranes, ORP150 was expressed in vascular endothelial cells and stromal cells. We also demonstrated colocalization of the nuclear cell proliferation marker Ki67 and ORP150 in endothelial cells of pathologic new blood vessels. 150-kDa oxygen-regulated protein (ORP150) levels were significantly increased in rat retinas after induction of diabetes. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) induced upregulation of ORP150 in HRMEC.

Conclusion: These results suggest a role for ORP150 in PDR angiogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aos.13600DOI Listing
June 2018

Unbalanced Vitreous Levels of Osteoprotegerin, RANKL, RANK, and TRAIL in Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy.

Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2018 15;26(8):1248-1260. Epub 2017 Sep 15.

d Rega Institute for Medical Research, Department of Microbiology and Immunology , University of Leuven, KU Leuven , Leuven , Belgium.

Purpose: We investigated the expression of the proinflammatory and proangiogenic factor osteoprotegerin (OPG) and its ligands, receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL), tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), and the receptor RANK in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR).

Materials And Methods: Vitreous samples from PDR and nondiabetic control patients and epiretinal membranes from PDR patients were studied by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunohistochemistry, and Western blot analysis.

Results: Vascular endothelial growth factor, OPG, and soluble RANK levels in vitreous samples from PDR patients were significantly higher than that in nondiabetic controls. Soluble TRAIL levels were significantly lower in PDR patients than that in nondiabetic control, whereas soluble RANKL levels did not differ significantly. RANKL, RANK, and TRAIL were expressed in vascular endothelial cells, myofibroblasts, and CD45-expressing leukocytes in PDR epiretinal membranes.

Conclusions: Dysregulated expression of OPG/RANKL/RANK pathway and TRAIL might be related to inflammation and angiogenesis in PDR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09273948.2017.1343855DOI Listing
December 2018

Differential expression and localization of human tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases in proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

Acta Ophthalmol 2018 Feb 9;96(1):e27-e37. Epub 2017 Apr 9.

Rega Institute for Medical Research, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Leuven, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Purpose: Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) block the catalysis by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and have additional biologic activities, including regulation of cell growth and differentiation, apoptosis, angiogenesis and oncogenesis. We investigated the expression levels of all the four human TIMPs and correlated these levels with those of MMP-9 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR).

Methods: Vitreous samples from 38 PDR and 21 nondiabetic control patients and epiretinal membranes from 14 patients with PDR and 10 patients with proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) were studied by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry.

Results: Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1, TIMP-4, MMP-9 and VEGF levels were significantly higher in vitreous samples from PDR patients than in nondiabetic controls (p < 0.0001 for all comparisons), whereas TIMP-2 and TIMP-3 levels did not differ significantly. TIMP-1, TIMP-4, MMP-9 and VEGF levels in PDR with active neovascularization were significantly higher than those in inactive PDR (p < 0.0001, 0.001, 0.013, 0.004, respectively). Significant positive correlations existed between levels of TIMP-1 and levels of TIMP-4 (r = 0.37; p = 0.004), MMP-9 (r = 0.65; p < 0.0001) and VEGF (r = 0.59; p < 0.0001), between levels of TIMP-4 and levels of MMP-9 (r = 0.61; p < 0.0001) and VEGF (r = 0.62; p < 0.0001) and between levels of MMP-9 and VEGF (r = 0.62; p < 0.0001). TIMP-1 and TIMP-3 were expressed in vascular endothelial cells in PDR epiretinal membranes and in myofibroblasts and leucocytes in PDR and PVR epiretinal membranes.

Conclusion: The differential expression of TIMPs in PDR suggests that among the 4 TIMPs, TIMP-1 and TIMP-4 may be possible biomarkers of disease activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aos.13451DOI Listing
February 2018

Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) is a potential biomarker of angiogenesis in proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

Acta Ophthalmol 2017 Nov 18;95(7):697-704. Epub 2016 Nov 18.

Laboratory of Immunobiology, Rega Institute for Medical Research, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Leuven, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Purpose: Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) promotes angiogenesis through matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production. We investigated the expression levels of EMMPRIN and correlated these levels with VEGF, MMP-1 and MMP-9 in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). In addition, we examined the expression of EMMPRIN in the retinas of diabetic rats and the effect of EMMPRIN on the induction of angiogenesis regulatory factors in human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMECs).

Methods: Vitreous samples from 40 PDR and 19 non-diabetic patients, epiretinal membranes from 12 patients with PDR, retinas of rats and HRMECs were studied by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunohistochemistry, Western blot analysis, zymography analysis and RT-PCR.

Results: We showed a significant increase in the expression of EMMPRIN, VEGF, MMP-1 and MMP-9 in vitreous samples from PDR patients compared with non-diabetic controls (p < 0.0001; p = 0.001; p = 0.009; p < 0.0001, respectively). Significant positive correlations were found between the levels of EMMPRIN and the levels of VEGF (r = 0.38; p = 0.003), MMP-1 (r = 0.36; p = 0.005) and MMP-9 (r = 0.46; p = 0.003). In epiretinal membranes, EMMPRIN was expressed in vascular endothelial cells and stromal cells. Significant increase of EMMPRIN mRNA was detected in rat retinas after induction of diabetes. EMMPRIN induced hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, VEGF and MMP-1 expression in HRMEC.

Conclusions: These results suggest that EMMPRIN/MMPs/VEGF pathway is involved in PDR angiogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aos.13284DOI Listing
November 2017

Genetic Ablation of Extra Domain A of Fibronectin in Hypercholesterolemic Mice Improves Stroke Outcome by Reducing Thrombo-Inflammation.

Circulation 2015 Dec 27;132(23):2237-47. Epub 2015 Oct 27.

From the Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City.

Background: The fibronectin-splicing variant containing extra domain A (Fn-EDA) is present in negligible amounts in the plasma of healthy humans but markedly elevated in patients with comorbid conditions, including diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolemia, which are risk factors for stroke. It remains unknown, however, whether Fn-EDA worsens stroke outcomes in such conditions. We determined the role of Fn-EDA in stroke outcome in a model of hypercholesterolemia, the apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apoe(-/-)) mouse.

Methods And Results: In a transient cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury model, Apoe(-/-) mice expressing fibronectin deficient in EDA (Fn-EDA(-/-)Apoe(-/-) mice) exhibited smaller infarcts and improved neurological outcomes at days 1 and 8 (P<0.05 versus Apoe(-/-) mice). Concomitantly, intracerebral thrombosis [assessed by fibrin(ogen) deposition] and postischemic inflammation (phospho-nuclear factor-κB p65, phospho-IκB kinase α/β, interleukin 1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α) within lesions of Fn-EDA(-/-)Apoe(-/-) mice were markedly decreased (P<0.05 versus Apoe(-/-) mice). In an FeCl3 injury-induced carotid artery thrombosis model, thrombus growth rate and the time to occlusion were prolonged in Fn-EDA(-/-)Apoe(-/-) mice (P<0.05 versus Apoe(-/-) mice). Genetic ablation of TLR4 improved stroke outcome in Apoe(-/-) mice (P<0.05) but had no effect on stroke outcome in Fn-EDA(-/-)Apoe(-/-) mice. Bone marrow transplantation experiments revealed that nonhematopoietic cell-derived Fn-EDA exacerbates stroke through Toll-like receptor-4 expressed on hematopoietic cells. Infusion of a specific inhibitor of Fn-EDA into Apoe(-/-) mouse 15 minutes after reperfusion significantly improved stroke outcome.

Conclusions: Hypercholesterolemic mice deficient in Fn-EDA exhibit reduced cerebral thrombosis and less inflammatory response after ischemia/reperfusion injury. These findings suggest that targeting Fn-EDA could be an effective therapeutic strategy in stroke associated with hypercholesterolemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.115.016540DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4674336PMC
December 2015

Taurine ameliorates neurobehavioral, neurochemical and immunohistochemical changes in sporadic dementia of Alzheimer's type (SDAT) caused by intracerebroventricular streptozotocin in rats.

Neurol Sci 2013 Dec 17;34(12):2181-92. Epub 2013 May 17.

Neurotoxicology Laboratory, Department of Medical Elementology and Toxicology, Jamia Hamdard (Hamdard University), Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi, 110062, India.

Oxidative loads in the brain are involved in age related impairments like learning and memory as well as neurodegeneration. Taurine, the most abundant free amino acid in humans has many potential health benefits through its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Therefore, we investigated the neuroprotective potential of taurine on oxidative stress, neuronal loss and memory impairments in streptozotocin model of cognitive impairments in rats. The cognitive impairment was developed by giving single intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of streptozotocin (STZ) 3 mg/kg body weight bilaterally. An increased latency and path length was observed in ICV-STZ group animals as compared to sham group animals and these were inhibited significantly in STZ group pre-treated with taurine (50 mg/kg body weight orally once daily for 15 days). Moreover, the significantly depleted content of GSH and elevated level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in ICV-STZ group animals were protected significantly with pre-treatment of taurine. The activity of antioxidant enzymes, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase was decreased in STZ group as compared to sham group and pre-treatment of STZ group with taurine has protected their activities significantly. Furthermore, the increased activity of acetylcholine esterase and decreased expression of choline acetyl transferase were attenuated by the pre-treatment of taurine. Taurine also protected the morphology of the hippocampal pyramidal neurons. This study concludes that the prophylactic intervention of taurine may be used to prevent the deterioration of cognitive functions and neurobehavioral activities, often associated with the generation of free radicals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10072-013-1444-3DOI Listing
December 2013

Attenuation of oxidative damage-associated cognitive decline by Withania somnifera in rat model of streptozotocin-induced cognitive impairment.

Protoplasma 2013 Oct 23;250(5):1067-78. Epub 2013 Jan 23.

Neurotoxicology Laboratory, Department of Medical Elementology and Toxicology, Jamia Hamdard (Hamdard University), Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi, 110062, India.

Oxidative stress is a critical contributing factor to age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Therefore, the inhibition of oxidative damage, responsible for chronic detrimental neurodegeneration, is an important strategy for neuroprotective therapy. Withania somnifera (WS) extract has been reported to have potent antioxidant and free radical quenching properties in various disease conditions. The present study evaluated the hypothesis that WS extract would reduce oxidative stress-associated neurodegeneration after intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin (ICV-STZ) in rats. To test this hypothesis, male Wistar rats were pretreated with WS extract at doses of 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg body weight once daily for 3 weeks. On day 22nd, the rats were infused bilaterally with ICV-STZ injection (3 mg/kg body weight) in normal saline while sham group received only saline. Two weeks after the lesioning, STZ-infused rats showed cognitive impairment in the Morris water maze test. The rats were sacrificed after 3 weeks of the lesioning for the estimation of the contents of lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, and activities of glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase. Pretreatment with WS extract attenuated behavioral, biochemical, and histological alterations significantly in dose-dependent manner in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex of ICV-STZ-infused rats. These results suggest that WS affords a beneficial effect on cognitive deficit by ameliorating oxidative damage induced by streptozotocin in a model of cognitive impairment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00709-013-0482-2DOI Listing
October 2013

Naringenin ameliorates Alzheimer's disease (AD)-type neurodegeneration with cognitive impairment (AD-TNDCI) caused by the intracerebroventricular-streptozotocin in rat model.

Neurochem Int 2012 Dec 8;61(7):1081-93. Epub 2012 Aug 8.

Department of Medical Elementology & Toxicology, Hamdard University, Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi, India.

Oxidative stress is involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD)-type neurodegeneration with cognitive impairment (AD-TNDCI) as well as age related cognitive deficit. The present study was designed to investigate the pre-treatment effects of naringenin (NAR), a polyphenolic compound on cognitive dysfunction, oxidative stress in the hippocampus, and hippocampal neuron injury in a rat model of AD-TNDCI. The rats were pre-treated with NAR at a selective dose (50mg/kg, orally) for 2 weeks followed by intracerebroventricular-streptozotocin (ICV-STZ) (3mg/kg; 5μl per site) injection bilaterally. Behavioral alterations were monitored after 2 weeks from the lesion using passive avoidance test and Morris water maze paradigm. Three weeks after the lesion, the rats were sacrificed for measuring non-enzymatic [4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), malonaldehyde (MDA), thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), protein carbonyl (PC), reduced glutathione (GSH)] content and enzymatic [glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase] activity in the hippocampus, and expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) positive neuron, and histopathology of hippocampal neurons. The non-enzymatic level and enzymatic activity was significantly increased and decreased, respectively, with striking impairments in spatial learning and memory, loss of ChAT positive neuron and severe damage to hippocampal neurons in the rat induced by ICV-STZ. These abnormalities were significantly improved by NAR pre-treatment. The study suggests that NAR can protect against cognitive deficits, neuronal injury and oxidative stress induced by ICV-STZ, and may be used as a potential agent in treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as AD-TNDCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuint.2012.07.025DOI Listing
December 2012

Anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effect of Piperine on 6-OHDA induced Parkinson's rat model.

J Nutr Biochem 2013 Apr 20;24(4):680-7. Epub 2012 Jul 20.

Department of Medical Elementology and Toxicology (DBT-FIST and UGC-SAP funded Department), Jamia Hamdard, Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi, India.

In the present study, we examined the molecular mechanism by which Piperine (bioactive compound of Piper nigrum) inhibits neuronal cell apoptosis. We further investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of Piperine on 6-OHDA induced Parkinson's disease. Consistent with its antioxidant properties, Piperine (10 mg/kg bwt) reduced 6-OHDA-induced lipid peroxidation and stimulated glutathione levels in striatum of rats. Furthermore, Piperine treatment diminished cytochrome-c release from mitochondria and reduced caspase-3 and caspase-9 activation induced by 6-OHDA. Treatment with Piperine markedly inhibited poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activation, pro-apoptotic Bax levels and elevation of Bcl-2 levels. Piperine reduces contralateral rotations induced by apomorphine. Further narrow beam test and rotarod also showed improvement in motor coordination and balance behavior in rats treated with Piperine. In addition Piperine depletes inflammatory markers, TNF-α and IL-1β in 6-OHDA-induced Parkinson's rats. We propose that, in addition to its antioxidant properties Piperine exerts a protective effect via anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory mechanism on 6-OHDA induced Parkinson's disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnutbio.2012.03.018DOI Listing
April 2013

Edaravone ameliorates oxidative stress associated cholinergic dysfunction and limits apoptotic response following focal cerebral ischemia in rat.

Mol Cell Biochem 2012 Aug 22;367(1-2):215-25. Epub 2012 May 22.

Department of Medical Elementology and Toxicology (Fund for the Improvement of Science and Technology-DST and Special Assistance Programme-UGC Sponsored), Jamia Hamdard (Hamdard University), Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi, India.

Stroke is a life-threatening disease with major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The neuronal damage following cerebral ischemia is a serious risk to stroke patients. Oxidative stress and apoptotic damage play an important role in cerebral ischemic pathogenesis and may represent a target for treatment. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that administration of edaravone (Edv) maintains antioxidant status in brain, improves the cholinergic dysfunction and suppresses the progression of apoptosis response in rat. To test this hypothesis, male Wistar rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) of 2 h followed by reperfusion for 22 h. Edv was administered (10 mg/kg bwt) intraperitoneally 30 min before the onset of ischemia and 1 h after reperfusion. After reperfusion, rats were tested for neurobehavioral activities and were sacrificed for the infarct volume, estimation of oxidative damage markers. Edv treatment significantly reduced ischemic lesion volume, improved neurological deficits, contended oxidative loads, and suppressed apoptotic damage. In conclusion, treatment with Edv ameliorated the neurological and histological outcomes with elevated endogenous anti-oxidants status as well as reduced induction of apoptotic responses in MCA occluded rat. We theorized that Edv is among the pharmacological agents that reduce free radicals and its associated cholinergic dysfunction and apoptotic damage and have been found to limit the extent of brain damage following stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11010-012-1335-6DOI Listing
August 2012

Catechin hydrate ameliorates redox imbalance and limits inflammatory response in focal cerebral ischemia.

Neurochem Res 2012 Aug 9;37(8):1747-60. Epub 2012 May 9.

Neurotoxicology Laboratory, Department of Medical Elementology and Toxicology, Jamia Hamdard (Hamdard University), Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi 110062, India.

Epidemiologic studies have shown that foods rich in polyphenols, such as flavonoids, can lower the risk of ischemic disease; however, the mechanism of protection has not been clearly investigated. In this study, we hypothesized that pretreatment effect of catechin hydrate (CH) on functional outcome, neuronal damage and on secondary injuries in the ischemic brain of rats. To test this hypothesis, male Wistar rats were pretreated with CH (20 mg/kg b.wt) for 21 days and then subjected to 2 h middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) followed by 22 h of reperfusion. After 2 h MCAO/22 h reperfusion, neurological deficit, infarct sizes, activities of antioxidant enzymes and cytokines level were measured. Immunohistochemistry and western blot were used to analyse the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), inducible nitric oxide (iNOS) and NF-kB in ischemic brain. The administration of CH showed marked reduction in infarct size, reduced the neurological deficits, suppressed neuronal loss and downregulate the iNOS, GFAP and NF-kB expression in MCAO rats. A significantly depleted activity of antioxidant enzymes and content of glutathione in MCAO group were protected significantly in MCAO group pretreated with CH. Conversely, the elevated level of thiobarbituric acid reactive species and cytokines in MCAO group was attenuated significantly in CH pretreated group when compared with MCAO group. The results indicated that CH protected the brain from damage caused by MCAO, and this effect may be through downregulation of NF-kB expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-012-0786-1DOI Listing
August 2012

S-allyl cysteine mitigates oxidative damage and improves neurologic deficit in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia.

Nutr Res 2012 Feb;32(2):133-43

Department of Medical Elementology and Toxicology (Fund for the Improvement of Science and Technology sponsored by DST and Special Assistance Programme sponsored by UGC), JamiaHamdard (Hamdard University), Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi-110062, India.

Oxidative stress and inflammatory damage play an important role in cerebral ischemic pathogenesis and may represent a target for treatment. The present study examined the hypothesis that S-allyl cysteine (SAC), organosulfur compounds found in garlic extract, would reduce oxidative stress-associated brain injury after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). To test this hypothesis, male Wistar rats were subjected to MCAO for 2 hours and 22-hour reperfusion. S-allyl cysteine was administered (100 mg/kg, b.wt.) intraperitoneally 30 minutes before the onset of ischemia and after the ischemia at the interval of 0, 6, and 12 hours. After 24 hours of reperfusion, rats were tested for neurobehavioral activities and were killed for the infarct volume, estimation of lipid peroxidation, glutathione content, and activity of antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase). S-allyl cysteine treatment significantly reduced ischemic lesion volume, improved neurologic deficits, combated oxidative loads, and suppressed neuronal loss. Behavioral and biochemical alterations observed after MCAO were further associated with an increase in glial fibrillary acidic protein and inducible nitric oxide expression and were markedly inhibited by the treatment with SAC. The results suggest that SAC exhibits exuberant neuroprotective potential in rat ischemia/reperfusion model. Thus, this finding of SAC-induced adaptation to ischemic stress and inflammation could suggest a novel avenue for clinical intervention during ischemia and reperfusion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nutres.2011.12.014DOI Listing
February 2012

Ocimum sanctum attenuates oxidative damage and neurological deficits following focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.

Neurol Sci 2012 Dec 26;33(6):1239-47. Epub 2012 Jan 26.

Neurotoxicology Laboratory, Department of Medical Elementology and Toxicology (Fund for the Improvement of Science and Technology Sponsored by DST and Special Assistance Programme Sponsored by UGC), Jamia Hamdard (Hamdard University), Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi, 110062, India.

Stroke is an enormous public health problem with an imperative need for more effective therapy. Free radicals have been reported to play a role in the expansion of ischemic brain lesions, and the effect of free radical scavengers is still under debate. The present study investigated the neuroprotective effect of Ocimum sanctum (OS) to reduce brain injury after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Male Wistar rats were subjected to MCAO for 2 h and reperfused for 22 h. The administration of OS (200 mg/kg bwt., orally) once daily for 15 days before MCAO showed marked reduction in infarct size, reduced the neurological deficits, and suppressed neuronal loss in MCAO rats. A significantly depleted activity of antioxidant enzymes and content of glutathione in MCAO group were protected significantly in MCAO group pretreated with OS. Conversely, the elevated level of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) in MCAO group was attenuated significantly in OS-pretreated group when compared with MCAO group. Consequently, OS pretreatment may reduce the deterioration caused by free radicals, and thus may used to prevent subsequent behavioral, biochemical and histopathological changes that transpire during cerebral ischemia. This finding reflects that supplementation of OS intuitively by reasonable and understandable treatment effectively ameliorates the cerebral ischemia-induced oxidative damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10072-012-0940-1DOI Listing
December 2012

Rutin protects dopaminergic neurons from oxidative stress in an animal model of Parkinson's disease.

Neurotox Res 2012 Jul 23;22(1):1-15. Epub 2011 Dec 23.

Neurotoxicology Laboratory, Department of Medical Elementology & Toxicology, Jamia Hamdard (Hamdard University), Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi, 110062, India.

This study was undertaken to investigate the neuroprotective effects of rutin (vitamin P) on 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced Parkinson's disease (PD) in rats. Oxidative stress and inflammation is an important event, play a crucial role in neurodegenerative diseases. Rutin has been shown to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions, and thus was tested for its beneficial effects using 6-OHDA-induced PD rat model. Male Wistar rats were pre-treated with rutin (25 mg/kg bwt, orally) for 3 weeks and subjected to unilateral intrastriatal injection of 6-OHDA (10 μg in 0.1% ascorbic acid in normal saline). Three weeks after 6-OHDA infusion, rats were tested for neurobehavioral activity, and were killed after 4 weeks of 6-OHDA infusion for the estimation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, glutathione, and its dependent enzymes (glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase), dopamine (DA) and its metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid. The increase in 6-OHDA-induced rotations and deficits in locomotor activity and motor coordination and decrease in antioxidant level, DA content and its metabolite and increase in the number of dopaminergic D2 receptors in striatum were protected significantly with lesioned group pre-treated with rutin. These findings were further supported by the histopathological and immunohistochemical findings in the substantia nigra that showed that rutin protected neurons from deleterious effects of 6-OHDA. These results suggest that the consumption of rutin, which is novel vitamin, may have the possibility of protective effect against the neurological disorder such as PD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12640-011-9295-2DOI Listing
July 2012

Sex-independent neuroprotection with minocycline after experimental thromboembolic stroke.

Exp Transl Stroke Med 2011 Dec 16;3(1):16. Epub 2011 Dec 16.

Department of Neurology, Georgia Health Sciences University, Augusta, GA, USA.

Background: Minocycline provides neurovascular protection reducing acute cerebral injury. However, it is unclear whether minocycline is effective in females. We tested minocycline in both sexes and aged animals using a novel embolic stroke model in mice that closely mimics acute thromboembolic stroke in humans.

Methods: Five groups of mice were subjected to thromboembolic stroke: adult males, aged males, adult females, aged females, and adult ovariectomized females. They were treated with phosphate saline (vehicle) or minocycline (6 mg/kg) immediately after stroke onset. Behavioral outcomes, infarct volumes and cerebral blood flow were assessed. The effect of minocycline on expression and activity of MMP-9 was analyzed.

Results: The model resulted in reproducible infarct in the experimental groups. As expected, adult females were significantly more resistant to cerebral ischemic injury than males. This advantage was abolished by aging and ovariectomy. Minocycline significantly reduced the infarct volume (P < 0.0001) and also improved neurologic score (P < 0.0001) in all groups. Moreover, minocycline treatment significantly reduced mortality at 24 hours post stroke (P = 0.037) for aged mice (25% versus 54%). Stroke up-regulated MMP-9 level in the brain, and acute minocycline treatment reduced its expression in both genders (P < 0.0001).

Conclusion: In a thromboembolic stroke model minocycline is neuroprotective irrespective of mouse sex and age.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/2040-7378-3-16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3287111PMC
December 2011

Neuroprotective efficacy of Nardostachys jatamansi and crocetin in conjunction with selenium in cognitive impairment.

Neurol Sci 2012 Oct 15;33(5):1011-20. Epub 2011 Dec 15.

Department of Medical Elementology and Toxicology, Neurotoxicology Laboratory, Jamia Hamdard (Hamdard University), Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi 110062, India.

Oxidative stress leads to complex biochemical alterations, and has been implicated in the progressive loss of learning and memory. Supplementing and boosting the endogenous antioxidant defense system could impede the progression of various types of neurodegeneration. In the present study, we have investigated the neuroprotective efficacy of a low-dose combination of certain promising and powerful natural antioxidants in an experimental model of cognitive impairment. Combined pretreatment with the extract of Nardosatchys jatamansi (N), crocetin (C) and selenium (Se) as sodium selenite (N, 200 mg/kg + C, 25 μg/kg + Se, 0.05 mg/kg body weight) for 15 days led to improved behavioral outcomes in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced cognitive impairment in rats. While intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of STZ resulted in the significant elevation of markers of oxidative stress and depletion of endogenous antioxidant defense system in the vehicle-pretreated group, these markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymatic as well as non-enzymatic defense lines were attenuated in the group pretreated with the combination of antioxidants (NCSe). NCSe pretreatment markedly improved the performance of animals in passive avoidance test and Morris water maze (MWM) tasks, significantly reduced the level of TBARS, and elevated the content of glutathione and activities of antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase and catalase). Our study reflects the synergistic potential of the above combination and concludes that a multimodal approach could be beneficial rather than a singular intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10072-011-0880-1DOI Listing
October 2012

Hesperidin ameliorates functional and histological outcome and reduces neuroinflammation in experimental stroke.

Brain Res 2011 Oct 27;1420:93-105. Epub 2011 Aug 27.

Neurotoxicology Laboratory, Department of Medical Elementology & Toxicology, Jamia Hamdard (Hamdard University), Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi-110062, India.

Incidence of stroke is considered to be a major cause of death throughout the world. The middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2h followed by 22h of reperfusion model was used in male Wistar rats to study the protection of stroke by hesperidin. Hesperidin administration (50mg/kg b.wt.) once daily for 15days has improved the infarct size, reduced the neurological deficits in terms of behaviors, and protected the elevated level of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS). A significantly depleted activity of antioxidant enzymes, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and content of glutathione (GSH) in MCAO group were protected significantly in MCAO group pretreated with hesperidin. Moreover, inflammatory mediators like TNF-α, IL-1β levels, expression of iNOS and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) were significantly attenuated in H+MCAO group as compared to MCAO group. In conclusion, prophylactic treatment with hesperidin ameliorated the functional and histological outcomes with elevated endogenous antioxidants status as well as reduced induction of proinflammatory cytokines in MCA occluded rat. We theorized that hesperidin is among the pharmacological agents that reduce free radicals and its associated inflammation and have been found to limit the extent of brain damage following stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2011.08.047DOI Listing
October 2011
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