Publications by authors named "Ajay R Desai"

2 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Early postoperative outcomes following surgical repair of complete atrioventricular septal defects: is down syndrome a risk factor?

Pediatr Crit Care Med 2014 Jan;15(1):35-41

All authors: Department of Pediatrics, Royal Brompton Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom.

Objective: To evaluate the impact of Down syndrome on the early postoperative outcomes of children undergoing complete atrioventricular septal defect repair.

Design: Retrospective cohort study.

Setting: Single tertiary pediatric cardiac center.

Patients: All children admitted to PICU following biventricular surgical repair of complete atrioventricular septal defect from January 2004 to December 2009.

Interventions: None.

Measurements And Main Results: A total of 107 children, 67 with Down syndrome, were included. Children with Down syndrome were operated earlier: 4 months (interquartile range, 3.5-6.6) versus 5.7 months (3-8.4) for Down syndrome and non-Down syndrome groups, respectively (p < 0.01). There was no early postoperative mortality. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of dysplastic atrioventricular valve between the two groups. Two children (2.9%) from Down syndrome and three children (7.5%) from non-Down syndrome group required early reoperation (p = 0.3). Junctional ectopic tachycardia was the most common arrhythmia, and the prevalence of junctional ectopic tachycardia was similar between the two groups (9% and 10% in Down syndrome and non-Down syndrome, respectively, p = 1). One patient from each group required insertion of permanent pacemaker for complete heart block. Children with Down syndrome had significantly higher prevalence of noncardiac complications, that is, pneumothorax, pleural effusions, and infections (p < 0.01), than children without Down syndrome. There was a trend for longer duration of mechanical ventilation in children with Down syndrome (41 hr [20-61 hr] vs 27.5 hr [15-62 hr], p = 0.2). However, there was no difference in duration of PICU stay between the two groups (2 d [1.3-3 d] vs 2 d [1-3 d], p = 0.9, respectively).

Conclusions: In our study, we found no difference in the prevalence of atrioventricular valve dysplasia between children with and without Down syndrome undergoing complete atrioventricular septal defect repair. This finding contrasts with previously published data, and further confirmatory studies are required. Although clinical outcomes were similar, children with Down syndrome had a significantly higher prevalence of noncardiac complications in the early postoperative period than children without Down syndrome.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PCC.0000000000000004DOI Listing
January 2014

Ventilatory strategies and adjunctive therapy in ARDS.

Indian J Pediatr 2006 Aug;73(8):661-8

PICU, St. Mary's Hospital, London, United Kingdom.

Acute respiratory distress syndrome, a diagnosis based on physiologic and radiological criteria, occurs commonly in critical care setting. A major challenge in evaluating therapies that may improve survival in ARDS is that it is not a single disease entity but, rather, numerous different diseases that result in endothelial injury, where the most obvious manifestation is within the lung resulting in pulmonary oedema. It has been shown that poor ventilatory technique that is injurious to the lungs can propagate systemic inflammatory response and adversely affect the mortality. The current data suggest that high tidal volumes with high plateau pressures are deleterious and a strategy of ventilation with lower tidal volumes and lower plateau pressure is associated with lower mortality. There may be a role for recruitment manoeuvres as well. Other forms of respiratory support still require further research. The present understanding of optimal ventilatory management and other adjunctive therapies are reviewed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02898440DOI Listing
August 2006