Publications by authors named "Ajay Goyal"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Modeling cortical bone adaptation using strain gradients.

Proc Inst Mech Eng H 2021 Jun 23;235(6):636-654. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Ropar, Rupnagar, Punjab, India.

Cyclic and low-magnitude loading promotes osteogenesis (i.e. new bone formation). Normal strain, strain energy density and fatigue damage accumulation are typically considered as osteogenic stimuli in computer models to predict site-specific new bone formation. These models however had limited success in explaining osteogenesis near the sites of minimal normal strain, for example, neutral axis of bending. Other stimuli such as fluid motion or strain gradient also stimulate bone formation. In silico studies modeled the new bone formation as a function of fluid motion, however, computation of fluid motion involves complex mathematical calculations. Strain gradients drive fluid flow and thus can also be established as the stimulus. Osteogenic potential of strain gradients is however not well established. The present study establishes strain gradients as osteogenic stimuli. Bending-induced strain gradients are computed at cortical bone cross-sections reported in animal loading in vivo studies. Correlation analysis between strain gradients and site of osteogenesis is analyzed. In silico model is also developed to test the osteogenic potential of strain gradients. The model closely predicts in vivo new bone distribution as a function of strain gradients. The outcome establishes strain gradient as computationally easy and robust stimuli to predict site-specific osteogenesis. The present study may be useful in the development of biomechanical approaches to mitigate bone loss.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/09544119211000228DOI Listing
June 2021

Influence of Biofortified Colored Wheats (Purple, Blue, Black) on Physicochemical, Antioxidant and Sensory Characteristics of Chapatti (Indian Flatbread).

Molecules 2020 Nov 1;25(21). Epub 2020 Nov 1.

Agri-Biotechnology Division, National Agri-Food Biotechnology Institute (NABI), S.A.S. Nagar (Mohali), Punjab 140306, India.

Biofortified colored wheat (black, blue, and purple) is rich in anthocyanins and phenolic acid compounds that impart positive physiological effects in humans. A large proportion of wheat is consumed in the form of Chapatti in Asian countries. The effect of chapatti cooking on the proximate composition, bioactive compounds (anthocyanins and phenolics), and antioxidant activities of these wheat varieties were checked in this study. Apart from acceptable sensory parameters, good taste, and soft texture of chapatti, biofortified colored wheat chapatti and flour had higher dietary fibers, protein content, and lower carbohydrate content. Higher soluble and insoluble phenolic compounds, anthocyanin content, and antioxidant activity were in the order of black > blue > purple > white. Chapatti making has reduced their antioxidant activity and anthocyanin content in comparison to flour. Moreover, the reduction in antioxidant activity is less as compared to the decrease in anthocyanin content. Our results suggest that colored wheat can be a better alternative to normal wheat for preparing chapatti as it would have additional health-promoting activities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25215071DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7663450PMC
November 2020

An Invertible Mathematical Model of Cortical Bone's Adaptation to Mechanical Loading.

Sci Rep 2019 04 10;9(1):5890. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Ropar, Nangal Road Rupnagar, Punjab, 140001, India.

Determination of mechanical loading regimen that would induce a prescribed new bone formation rate and its site-specific distribution, may be desirable to treat some orthopaedic conditions such as bone loss due to muscle disuse, e.g. because of space flight, bed-rest, osteopenia etc. Site-specific new bone formation has been determined earlier experimentally and numerically for a given loading regimen; however these models are mostly non-invertible, which means that they cannot be easily inverted to predict loading parameters for a desired new bone formation. The present work proposes an invertible model of bone remodeling, which can predict loading parameters such as peak strain, or magnitude and direction of periodic forces for a desired or prescribed site-specific mineral apposition rate (MAR), and vice versa. This fast, mathematical model has a potential to be developed into an important aid for orthopaedic surgeons for prescribing exercise or exogenous loading of bone to treat bone-loss due to muscle disuse.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-42378-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6458131PMC
April 2019

A prospective study of collapsing focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.

Ren Fail 2016 Jul 7;38(6):894-8. Epub 2016 Jun 7.

a Department of Nephrology , Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research , Chandigarh , India ;

Collapsing focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (cFSGS) is characterized by rapid progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We evaluated the clinicopathological spectrum of cFSGS and compared its clinical behavior to steroid and tacrolimus (TAC)-resistant noncollapsing focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). All patients (>14 years) diagnosed with cFSGS were enrolled in the study. Staining for differentiated podocyte markers such as WT 1, PAX and KI67 were performed in all patients. The outcome and histological features of cFSGS was compared with a prospectively followed cohort of steroid and TAC-resistant noncollapsing FSGS. The study included 22 cFSGS patients and 19 cases of steroid and TAC-resistant FSGS. Complete remission, partial remission, steroid resistance, progression to ESRD and death were observed in 13.6%, 4.5%, 27.3%, 36.4% and 18.2% patients, respectively. Patients with cFSGS had higher serum creatinine and more advanced tubulointerstitial changes compared to resistant FSGS. Twenty-six percent of therapy resistant noncollapsing FSGS progressed to ESRD after two years of stopping TAC. However, there was no difference in progression to ESRD between cFSGS and therapy-resistant noncollapsing FSGS at the end of two years. Glomerular collapse in the setting of FSGS is poorly responsive to treatment and has a high rate of progression to ESRD. The long-term prognosis of cFSGS and steroid and TAC-resistant FSGS are similar.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/0886022X.2016.1164063DOI Listing
July 2016

Squamous Cell Carcinoma in-situ and Basal Cell Carcinoma Arising From Seborrheic Keratosis in the Same Patient.

Indian J Dermatol 2016 Jan-Feb;61(1):126

Department of Dermatology, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0019-5154.174178DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4763677PMC
March 2016

Congenital triangular alopecia: Is it always confined to fronto-temporal region?

Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2016 Jan-Feb;82(1):112

Department of Dermatology, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry - 605 006, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0378-6323.157456DOI Listing
October 2016

Comparison of low-dose intravenous cyclophosphamide with oral mycophenolate mofetil in the treatment of lupus nephritis.

Kidney Int 2016 Jan 4;89(1):235-42. Epub 2016 Jan 4.

Department of Nephrology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.

No previous study has compared mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) with low-dose cyclophosphamide (CYC) in the treatment of lupus nephritis (LN). To do so, we recruited patients with LN (class III, IV, or V) and randomized them to receive either low-dose CYC or oral MMF. Those with crescentic LN, a serum creatinine over 265 μmol/l, and neurological or pulmonary lupus were excluded. MMF was prescribed at daily doses of 1.5-3 g for 24 weeks, while CYC was administered as six fortnightly infusions of 500 mg each. All patients received three methylprednisolone injections, followed by oral corticosteroids. Maintenance therapy with azathioprine and low-dose corticosteroid was started at end of induction therapy. The primary end point was treatment response at 24 weeks, while secondary end points were complete remission, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index and adverse events. Of the 173 patients recruited, 100 were equally randomized to receive either CYC or MMF. Baseline characteristics were similar, except for higher 24 h proteinuria in the CYC group. At 24 weeks, 37 patients in each group achieved the primary end point. The complete remission rate was 50% in CYC and 54% in MMF group. Gastrointestinal symptoms were significantly more frequent in patients receiving MMF (52 vs. 4%). However, other adverse events were similar. Thus, low-dose intravenous CYC is comparable in safety and efficacy to oral MMF in the induction treatment of less severe LN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ki.2015.318DOI Listing
January 2016

Tacrolimus combined with corticosteroids versus Modified Ponticelli regimen in treatment of idiopathic membranous nephropathy: Randomized control trial.

Nephrology (Carlton) 2016 Feb;21(2):139-46

Department of Nephrology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.

Aim: There have been very few studies comparing cyclophosphamide (CTX) and calcineurin inhibitor based regimens in the management of non-immunosuppressive symptomatic therapy (NIST) resistant idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN). The present study was aimed at comparing the efficacy and safety of tacrolimus (TAC)/steroids with cyclical CTX/steroids (Modified Ponticelli regimen (MPR)) in patients with IMN.

Methods: Idiopathic membranous nephropathy patients (n = 70) with persistent nephrotic syndrome after at least 6 months of antiproteinuric therapy or with complications of nephrotic syndrome were equally randomized to receive TAC with oral prednisolone (TAC*) or MPR. Antibodies against m-type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R Ab) were tested for at baseline and, at 6 and 12 months after the start of therapy. The primary end point was achievement of remission and secondary objectives were adverse effects and estimated glomerular filtration rate in both the study groups.

Results: Intention-to-treat analysis showed that remissions at the end of 6 (74% with TAC* vs. 60% with MPR; P = 0.30) and 12 months (71% with TAC* vs. 77% with MPR; P = 0.78) were comparable. PLA2R Ab titres at 6/12 months correlated with urine protein (r 0.54/0.58) and serum albumin (r -0.49/-0.53) at the end of therapy. Patients on CTX had a significantly higher risk of amenorrhea and while those on TAC had a greater risk of reversible nephrotoxicity.

Conclusion: In NIST refractory IMN, both TAC* and MPR are comparable, but with different adverse effect profile. PLA2 R Ab has a very good association with proteinuria, and should be regularly monitored on clinical follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nep.12569DOI Listing
February 2016

Diagnosed only if considered: isolated renal mucormycosis.

Lancet 2015 Jun;385(9984):2322

Department of Gastroenterology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(15)60730-9DOI Listing
June 2015

Seed Pro-Nutra Care: A tool for characterization of seed storage proteins and database of bioactive peptides having potential health benefits.

Bioinformation 2014 30;10(9):592-4. Epub 2014 Sep 30.

Department of Molecular Biology & Genetic Engineering College of Basic Sciences & Humanities, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar-263 145 (India).

Unlabelled: Seed storage proteins, the major food proteins, possess unique physicochemical characteristics which determine their nutritional importance and influence their utilization by humans. Here, we describe a database driven tool named Seed Pro-Nutra Care which comprises a systematic compendium of seed storage proteins and their bioactive peptides influencing several vital organ systems for maintenance of health. Seed Pro-Nutra Careis an integrated resource on seed storage protein. This resource help in the (I) Characterization of proteins whether they belong to seed storage protein group or not. (II) Identification the bioactive peptides with their sequences using peptide name (III) Determination of physico chemical properties of seed storage proteins. (IV) Epitope identification and mapping (V) Allergenicity prediction and characterization. Seed Pro-Nutra Care is a compilation of data on bioactive peptides present in seed storage proteins from our own collections and other published and unpublished sources. The database provides an information resource of a variety of seed related biological information and its use for nutritional and biomedical application.

Availability: http://www.gbpuat-cbsh.ac.in/departments/bi/database/seed_pro_nutra_care/
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6026/97320630010592DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4209369PMC
October 2014

Assessing overall functioning with adolescent inpatients.

J Nerv Ment Dis 2014 Nov;202(11):822-8

*Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Von Tauber Institute for Global Psychiatry, Nassau University Medical Center, East Meadow, NY; †Department of Psychology, Alliant International University, Sacramento, CA; ‡Department of Psychology, University of Michigan-Dearborn; §Department of Psychology, Long Island University-CW Post Campus, Brookville, NY; ∥Department of Psychology, Liberty University, Lynchburg, VA; and ¶Department of Psychiatry, Psychological Evaluation and Research Laboratory, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston.

The current study sought to evaluate the validity and reliability of a brief measure of overall functioning for adolescents. Clinicians were asked to complete the Overall Functioning Scale (OFS) for 72 adolescents consecutively admitted to the adolescent psychiatric inpatient service of a community safety net medical center. The results revealed that this new measure is related to the patients' length of stay, clinician-rated measures of social cognition and object relations, Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) score at admission, as well as global rating of engagement in individual psychotherapy. The results also showed that the OFS was related to the patients' history of nonsuicidal self-harm as well as treatment outcome as assessed by measures of psychological health and well-being as well as symptoms. Hierarchical regressions reveal that the OFS shows incremental validity greater than the admission GAF score in predicting length of stay. The results also showed that the OFS demonstrates interrater reliability in the excellent range (intraclass correlation coefficient(1,2)) of 0.88. Clinical implications of the use of this tool and areas of future research are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/NMD.0000000000000200DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4216237PMC
November 2014

The case: fever, skin lesion, and acute renal failure.

Kidney Int 2013 Oct;84(4):853-4

Department of Nephrology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ki.2013.52DOI Listing
October 2013

A "clean" technique for managing bleeding duodenal ulcer with a new aortic prosthesis: endoscopic-assisted repair of bleeding duodenal ulcer.

Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech 2003 Oct;13(5):357-9

Department of Surgery, New York Methodist Hospital, Brooklyn, NY 10032, USA.

Aortic graft infection is one of the most dreaded surgical complications. In the perioperative patient with fresh aortic prosthesis, this is a particularly complex problem. Opening the bowel changes an operation to a "clean-contaminated" or "contaminated" case. This increases the risk of all infectious complications in the patient. Theoretically, our method of repair reduces the risk of infection by eliminating the duodenotomy. The direct visualization with the endoscope replaces the need to open the potentially contaminated bowel and reduces the risk of bacterial translocation and bacteremia. By not opening the bowel, this keeps the case "clean," and likely reduces the risk of contamination and subsequent infection of the prosthetic graft. As the potential morbidity of aortic graft infection is so devastating, and now that we have the available technology and operative skill, we propose our technique as a potential alternative to possibly reduce the incidence of aortic graft infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00129689-200310000-00016DOI Listing
October 2003
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