Publications by authors named "Ajai Chari"

130 Publications

Filanesib plus bortezomib and dexamethasone in relapsed/refractory t(11;14) and 1q21 gain multiple myeloma.

Cancer Med 2022 01 17;11(2):358-370. Epub 2021 Dec 17.

Tisch Cancer Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA.

Filanesib is a first-in-class kinesin spindle protein inhibitor which demonstrated safety and encouraging activity in combination with bortezomib and dexamethasone in relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma in a preliminary analysis of dose-escalation phase results. This multicenter study included first a dose-escalation phase to determine maximum tolerated dose of two schedules of filanesib, bortezomib, and dexamethasone and a subsequent dose-expansion phase using the maximum tolerated doses. In the dose-expansion phase, 28 patients were evaluable for safety and efficacy. The most common grade ≥3 adverse events were neutropenia (21%) and anemia (18%), which were noncumulative and reversible, and hypertension (18%). The overall response rate was 43% with median duration of response not yet reached (range, 2.8-23.7+ months) with median follow-up of 6.3 months. A post hoc analysis incorporated 29 dose-escalation phase patients who received therapeutic filanesib doses, with an overall response rate of 39% and median duration of response of 18.0 months among the 57 total patients with median progression-free survival of 8.5 months. Notably, the PFS of high risk patients was comparable at 8.5 months, driven by the patients with 1q21 gain, characterized by increased MCL-1 expression, with a PFS of 9.1 months versus 3.5 months for the remainder of high risk patients. Patients with t(11;14) also had an encouraging PFS of 15.0 months. The combination of filanesib, bortezomib, and dexamethasone continues to show safety and encouraging activity in relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma, particularly in those patients with 1q21 gain and t(11;14).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.4451DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8729045PMC
January 2022

The Safety and Efficacy of Radiation Therapy with Concurrent Dexamethasone, Cyclophosphamide, Etoposide, and Cisplatin-Based Systemic Therapy for Multiple Myeloma.

Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Radiation Oncology, NY, NY, USA.

Introduction: The concurrent delivery of radiation therapy (RT) with salvage chemotherapies in the management of relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma (MM) is an area of ongoing investigation. This study examined the safety and efficacy of palliative RT given in the setting of concurrent dexamethasone, cyclophosphamide, etoposide, and cisplatin (DCEP).

Patients And Methods: Fifty-five patients with MM received RT to 64 different sites within three weeks of receiving DCEP from 2010 to 2020. A median dose of 20 Gray (range 8-32.5 Gy) was delivered in a median of 5 fractions (range 1-15). Patients received a median of 1 cycle (range 1-5) of DCEP. Rates of hematologic and RT toxicity were recorded along with pain, radiographic, and laboratory responses to treatment.

Results: RT was completed in 98% of patients. 21% of patients experienced RTOG grade 3+ hematologic toxicity before RT, which increased to 35% one-month post-RT (P = .13) before decreasing to 12% at 3 to 6 months (P = .02). The most common toxicity experienced was thrombocytopenia. Grade 1 to 2 non-hematologic RT-related toxicity was reported in 15% of patients while on treatment and fell to 6% one-month after completing RT. Pain resolved in 94% of patients with symptomatic lesions at baseline. Stable disease or better was observed in 34/39 (87%) of the targeted lesions on surveillance imaging.

Conclusion: RT administered concurrently with DCEP was well-tolerated by most of the patients in this series, with low rates of hematologic and RT-related toxicity. RT was also very effective, with the vast majority of patients demonstrating resolution of their pain and a significant response on follow-up imaging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clml.2021.09.015DOI Listing
September 2021

Treatment Bridging With a 28-Day Metronomic Therapy (Metro-28) for Relapsed Refractory Multiple Myeloma.

Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk 2021 Sep 11. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

Division of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Tisch Cancer Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clml.2021.09.004DOI Listing
September 2021

Bispecific Antibodies in Multiple Myeloma: Present and Future.

Blood Cancer Discov 2021 Sep 17;2(5):423-433. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Tisch Cancer Insitute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York.

Despite many recent advances in therapy, there is still no plateau in overall survival curves in multiple myeloma. Bispecific antibodies are a novel immunotherapeutic approach designed to bind antigens on malignant plasma cells and cytotoxic immune effector cells. Early-phase clinical trials targeting B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA), GPRC5D, and FcRH5 have demonstrated a favorable safety profile, with mainly low-grade cytokine release syndrome, cytopenias, and infections. Although dose escalation is ongoing in several studies, early efficacy data show response rates in the most active dose cohorts between 61% and 83% with many deep responses; however, durability remains to be established. Further clinical trial data are eagerly anticipated.

Significance: Overall survival of triple-class refractory multiple myeloma remains poor. Bispecific antibodies are a novel immunotherapeutic modality with a favorable safety profile and impressive preliminary efficacy in heavily treated patients. Although more data are needed, bispecifics will likely become an integral part of the multiple myeloma treatment paradigm in the near future. Studies in earlier lines of therapy and in combination with other active anti-multiple myeloma agents will help further define the role of bispecifics in multiple myeloma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/2643-3230.BCD-21-0028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8510808PMC
September 2021

A combination of carfilzomib, dexamethasone, and daratumumab for treatment of adult patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma in two dosing regimens: once-weekly and twice-weekly.

Expert Rev Hematol 2021 12 21;14(12):1049-1058. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Levine Cancer Institute/Atrium Health, Charlotte, NC, USA.

Introduction: Despite the development of new therapeutic agents, relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) is associated with poor survival outcomes. Furthermore, many patients develop resistance to immunomodulatory drugs (IMiD), creating a need for IMiD-free regimens. Areas covered: This review focuses on the combination of carfilzomib, dexamethasone, and daratumumab (KdD or DKd) which has shown promising results in patients with RRMM who have tried multiple lines of therapy, and has been approved in the U.S., EU, and Japan. The KdD triplet has two recommended dosage regimens, carfilzomib once-weekly (KdD70 QW) and carfilzomib twice-weekly (KdD56 BIW), with comparable efficacy and safety profiles. Expert opinion: These options provide flexibility to patients and healthcare providers, especially in the era of COVID-19. Carfilzomib-based regimens remain a standard of care based on multiple randomized phase 3 studies. Additional studies are currently underway investigating carfilzomib-based regimens such as KdD combined with novel agents. Nevertheless, KdD is one of the most efficacious options for patients with RRMM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17474086.2021.1955343DOI Listing
December 2021

Optimal Supportive Care With Selinexor Improves Outcomes in Patients With Relapsed/Refractory Multiple Myeloma.

Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk 2021 Dec 18;21(12):e975-e984. Epub 2021 Jul 18.

Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY.

Background: Supportive care improves outcomes in many cancers. In the pivotal STORM study selinexor, a first-in-class, oral, selective exportin 1 inhibitor, and low-dose dexamethasone proved to be an effective treatment for patients with triple-class refractory myeloma. We conducted a post-hoc analysis to test the hypothesis that increased utilization of supportive care measures in a sub-cohort of the STORM study prolonged treatment duration with- and improved efficacy of- selinexor.

Materials And Methods: The STORM protocol included specific recommendations for dose modifications and supportive care to mitigate selinexor most common adverse events (AEs) including nausea, fatigue, and thrombocytopenia. The Tisch Cancer Center at Mount Sinai School of Medicine (MSSM) incorporated additional supportive care strategies within the framework of the STORM protocol.

Results: Of 123 patients enrolled in STORM, 28 were enrolled at MSSM. The overall response rate was 26.2% in the overall STORM population and 53.6% in the MSSM cohort. Moreover, duration of response, progression free survival, and overall survival were longer in the MSSM cohort. AEs and dose modification events were similar in the 2 groups. The MSSM cohort had more dose reductions (67.9% vs. 50.5%), and higher use of multiple antiemetic agents (71.4% vs. 50.1%) and romiplostim (32.1% vs. 6.3%), but less discontinuations due to treatment-related AEs (3.6% vs. 25.3%).

Conclusion: These results suggests that in addition to more frequent dose reductions, prompter and more aggressive supportive care may have contributed to the low discontinuation rate, longer duration therapy, and greater efficacy rates observed in the MSSM cohort. (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02336815).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clml.2021.07.014DOI Listing
December 2021

Teclistamab, a B-cell maturation antigen × CD3 bispecific antibody, in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (MajesTEC-1): a multicentre, open-label, single-arm, phase 1 study.

Lancet 2021 08 10;398(10301):665-674. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center, Duarte, CA, USA.

Background: There is a need for novel therapies for relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma, and B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA) is a validated target. Teclistamab is a bispecific antibody that binds BCMA and CD3 to redirect T cells to multiple myeloma cells. The aim of the MajesTEC-1 study was to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and preliminary efficacy of teclistamab in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma.

Methods: This open-label, single-arm, phase 1 study enrolled patients with multiple myeloma who were relapsed, refractory, or intolerant to established therapies. Teclistamab was administered intravenously (range 0·3-19·2 μg/kg [once every 2 weeks] or 19·2-720 μg/kg [once per week]) or subcutaneously (range 80-3000 μg/kg [once per week]) in different cohorts, with step-up dosing for 38·4 μg/kg or higher doses. The primary objectives were to identify the recommended phase 2 dose (part one) and characterise teclistamab safety and tolerability at the recommended phase 2 dose (part two). Safety was assessed in all patients treated with at least one dose of teclistamab. Efficacy was analysed in response-evaluable patients (ie, patients who received at least one dose of teclistamab and had at least one post-baseline response evaluation). This ongoing trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03145181.

Findings: Between June 8, 2017, and March 29, 2021, 219 patients were screened for study inclusion, and 157 patients (median six previous therapy lines) were enrolled and received at least one dose of teclistamab (intravenous n=84; subcutaneous n=73). 40 patients were administered the recommended phase 2 dose, identified as once per week subcutaneous administration of teclistamab at 1500 μg/kg, after 60 μg/kg and 300 μg/kg step-up doses (median follow-up 6·1 months, IQR 3·6-8·2). There were no dose-limiting toxicities at the recommended phase 2 dose in part one. In the 40 patients treated at the recommended phase 2 dose, the most common treatment-emergent adverse events were cytokine release syndrome in 28 (70%; all grade 1 or 2 events) and neutropenia in 26 (65%) patients (grade 3 or 4 in 16 [40%]). The overall response rate in response-evaluable patients treated at the recommended phase 2 dose (n=40) was 65% (95% CI 48-79); 58% achieved a very good partial response or better. At the recommended phase 2 dose, the median duration of response was not reached. 22 (85%) of 26 responders were alive and continuing treatment after 7·1 months' median follow-up (IQR 5·1-9·1). At the recommended phase 2 dose, teclistamab exposure was maintained above target exposure levels, and consistent T-cell activation was reported.

Interpretation: Teclistamab is a novel treatment approach for relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. At the recommended phase 2 dose, teclistamab showed promising efficacy, with durable responses that deepened over time, and was well tolerated, supporting further clinical development.

Funding: Janssen Research & Development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(21)01338-6DOI Listing
August 2021

Panobinostat From Bench to Bedside: Rethinking the Treatment Paradigm for Multiple Myeloma.

Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk 2021 11 26;21(11):752-765. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Tisch Cancer Institute, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY. Electronic address:

Relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) presents a therapeutic challenge due to the development of drug resistance. Panobinostat is an oral histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) that affects multiple cellular pathways and has demonstrated the ability to resensitize refractory-multiple myeloma cells in preclinical studies, as well as in patients with RRMM in clinical trials. Synergy of panobinostat with a number of different classes of antimyeloma drugs (proteasome inhibitors, immunomodulatory drugs and monoclonal antibodies) has also been shown. Panobinostat is a promising HDACi for the treatment of multiple myeloma. Here, we present a comprehensive review of preclinical and clinical studies of panobinostat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clml.2021.06.020DOI Listing
November 2021

Longer term outcomes with single-agent belantamab mafodotin in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma: 13-month follow-up from the pivotal DREAMM-2 study.

Cancer 2021 Nov 27;127(22):4198-4212. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Abramson Cancer Center, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Background: On the basis of the DREAMM-2 study (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT03525678), single-agent belantamab mafodotin (belamaf) was approved for patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) who received ≥4 prior therapies, including anti-CD38 therapy. The authors investigated longer term efficacy and safety outcomes in DREAMM-2 after 13 months of follow-up among patients who received belamaf 2.5 mg/kg.

Methods: DREAMM-2 is an ongoing, phase 2, open-label, 2-arm study investigating belamaf (2.5 or 3.4 mg/kg) in patients with RRMM who had disease progression after ≥3 lines of therapy and were refractory to immunomodulatory drugs and proteasome inhibitors and refractory and/or intolerant to an anti-CD38 therapy. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients that achieved an overall response, assessed by an independent review committee.

Results: As of January 31, 2020, 10% of patients still received belamaf 2.5 mg/kg. Thirty-one of 97 patients (32%; 97.5% confidence interval [CI], 21.7%-43.6%) achieved an overall response, and 18 responders achieved a very good partial response or better. Median estimated duration of response, overall survival, and progression-free survival were 11.0 months (95% CI, 4.2 months to not reached), 13.7 months (95% CI, 9.9 months to not reached), and 2.8 months (95% CI, 1.6-3.6 months), respectively. Response and survival outcomes in patients who had high-risk cytogenetics or renal impairment were consistent with outcomes in the overall population. Outcomes were poorer in patients with extramedullary disease. In patients who had a clinical response and prolonged dose delays (>63 days; mainly because of corneal events), 88% maintained or deepened responses during their first prolonged dose delay. Overall, there were no new safety signals during this follow-up.

Conclusions: Extended follow-up confirms sustained clinical activity without new safety signals with belamaf in this heavily pretreated patient population with RRMM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.33809DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8597112PMC
November 2021

Daratumumab Plus Carfilzomib, Lenalidomide, and Dexamethasone in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Multiple Myeloma.

Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk 2021 10 9;21(10):701-710. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Tisch Cancer Institute, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

Background: Combination therapy regimens containing a proteasome inhibitor, an immunomodulatory drug, and a steroid are an established standard of care for patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM) regardless of transplant eligibility. Triplet regimens that include lenalidomide/dexamethasone combined with daratumumab or carfilzomib are highly active in multiple myeloma, including NDMM. The aim of this open-label, phase 1b study was to evaluate daratumumab in combination with carfilzomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone (D-KRd) in patients with NDMM.

Patients And Methods: Patients (n = 22), regardless of transplant eligibility, received treatment with D-KRd for up to thirteen 28-day cycles or until autologous stem cell transplant. The first daratumumab dose was administered as a split infusion (8 mg/kg on days 1 and 2 of cycle 1). The primary end point was safety and tolerability.

Results: A total of 10 patients discontinued treatment, most frequently because of elective autologous stem cell transplant (n = 8). The most common treatment-emergent adverse events (any grade; grade 3/4) were diarrhea (68%; 18%), lymphopenia (64%; 59%), cough (59%; 5%), and upper respiratory tract infection (55%; 0%). Stem cell collection was successful in most patients (91%). Daratumumab infusion-related reactions occurred in 9 (41%) patients, primarily during the first infusion, and were mild in severity (no grade 3/4 events). The best overall response rate was 95%, including 86% with a very good partial response or better and 67% with a complete response or better.

Conclusion: D-KRd was well tolerated, and encouraging efficacy results support further investigation of daratumumab-based quadruplet therapies for NDMM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clml.2021.05.017DOI Listing
October 2021

Highly variable SARS-CoV-2 spike antibody responses to two doses of COVID-19 RNA vaccination in patients with multiple myeloma.

Cancer Cell 2021 08 29;39(8):1028-1030. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Department of Medicine, Hematology, and Medical Oncology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY; Tisch Cancer Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA; Department of Oncological Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA; Precision Immunology Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ccell.2021.06.014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8238657PMC
August 2021

Selinexor, bortezomib, and dexamethasone versus bortezomib and dexamethasone in previously treated multiple myeloma: Outcomes by cytogenetic risk.

Am J Hematol 2021 09 5;96(9):1120-1130. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Karyopharm Therapeutics Inc., Newton, Massachusetts, USA.

In the phase 3 BOSTON study, patients with multiple myeloma (MM) after 1-3 prior regimens were randomized to once-weekly selinexor (an oral inhibitor of exportin 1 [XPO1]) plus bortezomib-dexamethasone (XVd) or twice-weekly bortezomib-dexamethasone (Vd). Compared with Vd, XVd was associated with significant improvements in median progression-free survival (PFS), overall response rate (ORR), and lower rates of peripheral neuropathy, with trends in overall survival (OS) favoring XVd. In BOSTON, 141 (35.1%) patients had MM with high-risk (presence of del[17p], t[4;14], t[14;16], or ≥4 copies of amp1q21) cytogenetics (XVd, n = 70; Vd, n = 71), and 261 (64.9%) exhibited standard-risk cytogenetics (XVd, n = 125; Vd, n = 136). Among patients with high-risk MM, median PFS was 12.91 months for XVd and 8.61 months for Vd (HR, 0.73 [95% CI, (0.4673, 1.1406)], p = 0.082), and ORRs were 78.6% and 57.7%, respectively (OR 2.68; p = 0.004). In the standard-risk subgroup, median PFS was 16.62 months for XVd and 9.46 months for Vd (HR 0.61; p = 0.004), and ORRs were 75.2% and 64.7%, respectively (OR 1.65; p = 0.033). The safety profiles of XVd and Vd in both subgroups were consistent with the overall population. These data suggest that selinexor can confer benefits to patients with MM regardless of cytogenetic risk. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03110562.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.26261DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8457116PMC
September 2021

Selinexor for the treatment of patients with previously treated multiple myeloma.

Expert Rev Hematol 2021 Aug 21;14(8):697-706. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Jerome Lipper Multiple Myeloma Center, Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Introduction: Multiple myeloma (MM) is an increasingly treatable but still incurable hematologic malignancy. Prognosis has improved significantly over recent years, although further advances remain urgently needed, especially for patients with heavily pre-treated and resistant disease for whom there are limited options. Selinexor is a first-in-class, oral, selective inhibitor of nuclear export (SINE) compound that triggers apoptosis in malignant cells by inducing nuclear retention of oncogene messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and reactivation of tumor suppressor proteins (TSPs). In clinical studies of patients with relapsed and/or refractory MM, selinexor has demonstrated both manageable toxicity and encouraging efficacy.

Areas Covered: This review will provide an overview of the mechanism of action of selinexor as well as the efficacy and safety data from clinical studies using selinexor for the treatment of multiple myeloma.

Expert Opinion: Long-term outcomes for patients with MM will continue to improve due to numerous recent and imminent therapeutic advances, although critical areas of unmet need remain. Oral selinexor is likely to contribute to the meeting of these needs and the further advancement of MM therapy in a meaningful way.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17474086.2021.1923473DOI Listing
August 2021

Real-world comparative effectiveness of triplets containing bortezomib (B), carfilzomib (C), daratumumab (D), or ixazomib (I) in relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) in the US.

Ann Hematol 2021 Sep 10;100(9):2325-2337. Epub 2021 May 10.

Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA.

Multiple available combinations of proteasome inhibitors, immunomodulators (IMIDs), and monoclonal antibodies are shifting the relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) treatment landscape. Lack of head-to-head trials of triplet regimens highlights the need for real-world (RW) evidence. We conducted an RW comparative effectiveness analysis of bortezomib (V), carfilzomib (K), ixazomib (I), and daratumumab (D) combined with either lenalidomide or pomalidomide plus dexamethasone (Rd or Pd) in RRMM. A retrospective cohort of patients initiating triplet regimens in line of therapy (LOT) ≥ 2 on/after 1/1/2014 was followed between 1/2007 and 3/2018 in Optum's deidentified US electronic health records database. Time to next treatment (TTNT) was estimated using Kaplan-Meier methods; regimens were compared using covariate-adjusted Cox proportional hazard models. Seven hundred forty-one patients (820 patient LOTs) with an Rd backbone (VRd, n = 349; KRd, n = 218; DRd, n = 99; IRd, n = 154) and 348 patients (392 patient LOTs) with a Pd backbone (VPd, n = 52; KPd, n = 146; DPd, n = 149; IPd, n = 45) in LOTs ≥2 were identified. More patients ≥75 years received IRd (39.6%), IPd (37.8%), and VRd (36.7%) than other triplets. More patients receiving VRd/VPd were in LOT2 vs other triplets. Unadjusted median TTNT in LOT ≥ 2: VRd, 13.9; KRd, 8.7; IRd, 11.4; DRd, not estimable (NE); and VPd, 12.0; KPd, 6.7; IPd, 9.5 months; DPd, NE. In covariate-adjusted analysis, only KRd vs DRd was associated with a significantly higher risk of next LOT initiation/death (HR 1.72; P = 0.0142); no Pd triplet was significantly different vs DPd in LOT ≥ 2. Our data highlight important efficacy/effectiveness gaps between results observed in phase 3 clinical trials and those realized in the RW.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-021-04534-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8357697PMC
September 2021

Ixazomib-lenalidomide-dexamethasone in routine clinical practice: effectiveness in relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma.

Future Oncol 2021 Jul 26;17(19):2499-2512. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Institute of Biostatistics & Analyses, Ltd, Brno, 602 00, Czech Republic.

To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of ixazomib-lenalidomide-dexamethasone (IRd) in relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma in routine clinical practice. Patient-level data from the global, observational INSIGHT MM and the Czech Registry of Monoclonal Gammopathies were integrated and analyzed. At data cut-off, 263 patients from 13 countries were included. Median time from diagnosis to start of IRd was 35.8 months; median duration of follow-up was 14.8 months. Overall response rate was 73%, median progression-free survival, 21.2 months and time-to-next therapy, 33.0 months. Ixazomib/lenalidomide dose reductions were required in 17%/36% of patients; 32%/30% of patients discontinued ixazomib/lenalidomide due to adverse events. The effectiveness and safety of IRd in routine clinical practice are comparable to those reported in TOURMALINE-MM1. NCT02761187 (ClinicalTrials.gov).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/fon-2020-1225DOI Listing
July 2021

Phase 1b trial of isatuximab, an anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody, in combination with carfilzomib as treatment of relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma.

Cancer 2021 06 18;127(11):1816-1826. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Hematology and Oncology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York.

Background: Isatuximab (Isa), an anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody, and carfilzomib (K), a next-generation proteasome inhibitor (PI), both have potent single-agent activity in relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM).

Methods: This phase 1b study evaluated the combination of Isa and K in 33 patients with RRMM. Isa was administered by intravenous infusion in 3 dosing cohorts: dose level 1 (Isa at 10 mg/kg biweekly), dose level 2 (DL2; Isa at 10 mg/kg weekly for 4 doses and then biweekly), and dose level 3 (Isa at 20 mg/kg weekly for 4 doses and then biweekly) and all patients received K (20 mg/m intravenously for cycle 1, days 1 and 2, and then 27 mg/m for all subsequent doses). A standard 3+3 dose-escalation design was used, no dose-limiting toxicity was observed, and the maximum tolerated dose was not reached. An expansion cohort of 18 patients was enrolled at DL2 to further evaluate safety and efficacy. Responses were assessed with the International Myeloma Working Group response criteria, and patients continued treatment until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.

Results: With a median follow-up of 26.7 months, in this heavily pretreated population with a median of 3 prior lines (refractory to PIs and immunomodulatory drugs, 76%; refractory to K, 27%), the overall response rate was 70% (stringent complete response/complete response, 4; very good partial response, 8; partial response, 11). The median progression-free survival was 10.1 months, and the 2-year survival probability was 76%. The most common treatment-related adverse events (grade 2 or higher) were anemia, leukopenia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, hypertension, and infection. Infusion reactions were common (55%) but did not limit dosing.

Conclusions: Treatment with Isa plus K was well tolerated with no unexpected toxicity. The combination was effective despite the enrollment of heavily pretreated patients with RRMM.

Lay Summary: This phase 1b study was designed to assess the safety, pharmacokinetics, and preliminary efficacy of isatuximab and carfilzomib in patients with relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma. Thirty-three patients were treated: 15 in dose escalation and 18 in dose expansion. Patients received an average of 10 cycles. The treatment was safe and effective. No unexpected toxicity or drug-drug interactions were noted. Seventy percent of the subjects responded to therapy, and the progression-free survival was 10.1 months.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.33448DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8252002PMC
June 2021

Efficacy of Intravenous Immunoglobulin for Preventing Infections in Patients with Multiple Myeloma.

Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk 2021 05 7;21(5):e470-e476. Epub 2021 Feb 7.

Tisch Cancer Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY. Electronic address:

Introduction: Despite many recent advances in the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM), infection remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Prior studies have shown mixed results using intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) to prevent infections in MM and were conducted prior to most modern MM therapies.

Patients And Methods: We retrospectively reviewed all patients with MM treated with IVIG at our institution from 2010 to 2017. The primary endpoint was the incidence rate ratio (IRR) of infectious events (IEs) per patient-year during IVIG versus observation.

Results: A total of 68 patients were included; 151 IEs occurred during 918 months of IVIG treatment, whereas 446 IEs occurred during 2484 months of observation. Although the annual rate of IEs was substantially higher during periods of progressive disease (PD) compared with non-PD (4.9 vs. 1.8; P < .001), most IEs occurred during periods of non-PD (75% vs. 25% during PD). There was no overall difference in the annual rate of IEs per patient between IVIG and observation (1.97 vs. 2.16; IRR, 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.76-1.10; P = .376). The subgroup of patients with hypogammaglobulinemia and whose myeloma was in a non-PD phase had a significant reduction in all-grade IEs (1.20 vs. 1.92; IRR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.45-0.88; P = .009) and ≥ grade 3 IEs (0.25 vs. 0.56; IRR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.22-0.94; P = .041) with IVIG compared with observation.

Conclusion: Although treatment with IVIG did not show benefit in the overall population, there may be subgroups of patients that derive significant benefit. Additional observational studies are needed to confirm these findings and further refine patient selection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clml.2020.12.026DOI Listing
May 2021

Subcutaneous daratumumab and hyaluronidase-fihj in newly diagnosed or relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma.

Ther Adv Hematol 2021 22;12:2040620720987075. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Multiple Myeloma Program, Tisch Cancer Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 1 Gustave L. Levy Place, Box 1185, New York, NY 10029, USA.

Daratumumab, a human immunoglobulin G1 kappa monoclonal antibody that targets CD38, is currently approved as monotherapy and in varying combinations with approved anti-myeloma regimens in both newly diagnosed multiple myeloma and relapsed refractory multiple myeloma. Originally developed for intravenous administration, the subcutaneous formulation of daratumumab (daratumumab and hyaluronidase-fihj) was recently approved by the US Federal Drug Administration and European Commission in 2020. In clinical trials, compared with the intravenous formulation, subcutaneous daratumumab (Dara-SC) has significantly shorter administration time (median first dose 7 h 3-5 min, respectively), lower rates of infusion-related reactions (median first dose 50% less than 10%, respectively), and lower volume of infusion (median 500-1000 ml 15 ml, respectively). Otherwise, the pharmacokinetics, safety profile, and efficacy are comparable. This review summarizes the pivotal trials that led to the approval of Dara-SC, highlights important clinical considerations for the use of Dara-SC, and provides practical guidelines for the administration of Dara-SC in the clinic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2040620720987075DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7841854PMC
January 2021

Management of patients with multiple myeloma beyond the clinical-trial setting: understanding the balance between efficacy, safety and tolerability, and quality of life.

Blood Cancer J 2021 02 18;11(2):40. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Hematologic Oncology and Blood Disorders, Levine Cancer Institute, Charlotte, NC, USA.

Treatment options in multiple myeloma (MM) are increasing with the introduction of complex multi-novel-agent-based regimens investigated in randomized clinical trials. However, application in the real-world setting, including feasibility of and adherence to these regimens, may be limited due to varying patient-, treatment-, and disease-related factors. Furthermore, approximately 40% of real-world MM patients do not meet the criteria for phase 3 studies on which approvals are based, resulting in a lack of representative phase 3 data for these patients. Therefore, treatment decisions must be tailored based on additional considerations beyond clinical trial efficacy and safety, such as treatment feasibility (including frequency of clinic/hospital attendance), tolerability, effects on quality of life (QoL), and impact of comorbidities. There are multiple factors of importance to real-world MM patients, including disease symptoms, treatment burden and toxicities, ability to participate in daily activities, financial burden, access to treatment and treatment centers, and convenience of treatment. All of these factors are drivers of QoL and treatment satisfaction/compliance. Importantly, given the heterogeneity of MM, individual patients may have different perspectives regarding the most relevant considerations and goals of their treatment. Patient perspectives/goals may also change as they move through their treatment course. Thus, the 'efficacy' of treatment means different things to different patients, and treatment decision-making in the context of personalized medicine must be guided by an individual's composite definition of what constitutes the best treatment choice. This review summarizes the various factors of importance and practical issues that must be considered when determining real-world treatment choices. It assesses the current instruments, methodologies, and recent initiatives for analyzing the MM patient experience. Finally, it suggests options for enhancing data collection on patients and treatments to provide a more holistic definition of the effectiveness of a regimen in the real-world setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41408-021-00432-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7891472PMC
February 2021

Real-world treatment patterns, healthcare use and costs in triple-class exposed relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma patients in the USA.

Future Oncol 2021 Feb 2;17(5):503-515. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA.

To estimate treatment patterns and healthcare costs among triple-class exposed relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) patients. Eligible patients had ≥1 line of therapy (LOT) each of proteasome inhibitors, immunomodulatory drugs and daratumumab in December 2015-September 2018 and received a new LOT.  A total of 154 patients were included with a median follow-up of 6.2 months. Median time from diagnosis to new LOT was 41.0 months. Kaplan-Meier estimate of median time to therapy discontinuation was 4.2 months. Mean per-patient, per-month MM-related costs were USD 35,657. Most frequently observed regimens were lenalidomide or pomalidomide + daratumumab (18.2%), lenalidomide or pomalidomide + proteasome inhibitors (15.6%) and lenalidomide or pomalidomide monotherapy (11.0%). Triple-class exposed RRMM patients receive heterogeneous treatments for a short duration with high healthcare resource utilization and costs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/fon-2020-1003DOI Listing
February 2021

Evaluation of Cardiac Repolarization in the Randomized Phase 2 Study of Intermediate- or High-Risk Smoldering Multiple Myeloma Patients Treated with Daratumumab Monotherapy.

Adv Ther 2021 02 20;38(2):1328-1341. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

University Clinic Heidelberg, Internal Medicine V and National Center for Tumor Diseases (NCT), Heidelberg, Germany.

Introduction: Daratumumab is a CD38-targeting monoclonal antibody that has demonstrated clinical benefit for multiple myeloma. Daratumumab inhibition of CD38, which is expressed on immune cell populations and cardiomyocytes, could potentially affect cardiac function. This QTc substudy of the phase 2 CENTAURUS study investigated the potential effect of intravenous daratumumab monotherapy on QTc prolongation and other electrocardiogram (ECG) parameters, including concentration-QTc effect modeling.

Methods: Patients had intermediate- or high-risk smoldering multiple myeloma. Patients with QT interval corrected by Fridericia's formula (QTcF) > 470 ms, QRS interval ≥ 110 ms, or PR interval ≥ 200 ms were excluded. Triplicate ECGs were collected at screening, Dose 1, and Dose 8. Analyses of on-treatment ECGs were conducted with a time-matched baseline (primary analysis). By time-point, pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK/PD), and outlier analyses were conducted.

Results: Of 123 patients in CENTAURUS, 31 were enrolled in the QTc substudy. Daratumumab produced a small increase in heart rate (5-12 beats per minute) of unclear significance. There was a small but clinically insignificant effect on QTc, as measured by both time-matched time-point and PK/PD analyses. The primary analysis demonstrated a maximum mean increase in QTcF of 9.1 ms (90% 2-sided upper confidence interval [CI], 14.1 ms). The primary PK/PD analysis predicted a maximum QTcF increase of 8.5 ms (90% 2-sided upper CI, 13.5 ms). No patient had an abnormal U wave, a new QTcF > 500 ms, or > 60 ms change from baseline for QTcF.

Conclusion: Analysis of ECG intervals and concentration-QTc relationships showed a small but clinically insignificant effect of daratumumab.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02316106.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12325-020-01601-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7889563PMC
February 2021

Clinical features associated with COVID-19 outcome in multiple myeloma: first results from the International Myeloma Society data set.

Blood 2020 12;136(26):3033-3040

Intergroupe Francophone du Myélome (IFM), Paris, France.

The primary cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) is an infection. Therefore, there is great concern about susceptibility to the outcome of COVID-19-infected patients with MM. This retrospective study describes the baseline characteristics and outcome data of COVID-19 infection in 650 patients with plasma cell disorders, collected by the International Myeloma Society to understand the initial challenges faced by myeloma patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. Analyses were performed for hospitalized MM patients. Among hospitalized patients, the median age was 69 years, and nearly all patients (96%) had MM. Approximately 36% were recently diagnosed (2019-2020), and 54% of patients were receiving first-line therapy. Thirty-three percent of patients have died, with significant geographic variability, ranging from 27% to 57% of hospitalized patients. Univariate analysis identified age, International Staging System stage 3 (ISS3), high-risk disease, renal disease, suboptimal myeloma control (active or progressive disease), and 1 or more comorbidities as risk factors for higher rates of death. Neither history of transplant, including within a year of COVID-19 diagnosis, nor other anti-MM treatments were associated with outcomes. Multivariate analysis found that only age, high-risk MM, renal disease, and suboptimal MM control remained independent predictors of adverse outcome with COVID-19 infection. The management of MM in the era of COVID-19 requires careful consideration of patient- and disease-related factors to decrease the risk of acquiring COVID-19 infection, while not compromising disease control through appropriate MM treatment. This study provides initial data to develop recommendations for the management of MM patients with COVID-19 infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020008150DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7759145PMC
December 2020

A comprehensive overview of daratumumab and carfilzomib and the recently approved daratumumab, carfilzomib and dexamethasone regimen in relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma.

Expert Rev Hematol 2021 01 17;14(1):31-45. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Division of Hematology/Medical Oncology, Tisch Cancer Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA.

: Novel, effective regimens are needed in patients with relapsed and refractory myeloma (RRMM) who inevitably relapse after PI and IMID containing treatment. : Pre-clinical data, early clinical and pivotal trials relevant to the development of the two backbone drugs of carfilzomib and daratumumab, and the two important recent trials, EQUULEUS and CANDOR leading to the FDA approval of the combination regimen of daratumumab, carfilzomib, and dexamethasone (DKd) for RRMM are detailed in this review. : EQUULEUS and CANDOR have established the efficacy of the DKd regimen in the landscape of bortezomib and lenalidomide refractory patients. The split dosing schedule of the first dose of daratumumab was approved by the FDA based on EQUULEUS, significantly improving patient convenience. Subcutaneous daratumumab is being evaluated in this combination to further improve tolerance and convenience. Further studies are needed to evaluate and optimally sequence the many effective and potent drugs available in RRMM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17474086.2021.1858790DOI Listing
January 2021

Health-Related Quality of Life in Transplant-Ineligible Patients With Newly Diagnosed Multiple Myeloma: Findings From the Phase III MAIA Trial.

J Clin Oncol 2021 01 16;39(3):227-237. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Department of Oncology, Hematology, BMT with Department of Pneumology, University Medical Center Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.

Purpose: To evaluate the effects of daratumumab, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone (D-Rd) versus lenalidomide and dexamethasone (Rd) on patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in the phase III MAIA study.

Patients And Methods: PROs were assessed on the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30-item and the EuroQol 5-dimensional descriptive system at baseline and every 3 months during treatment. By mixed-effects model, changes from baseline are presented as least squares means with 95% CIs.

Results: A total of 737 transplant-ineligible (TIE) patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma were randomly assigned to D-Rd (n = 368) or Rd (n = 369). Compliance with PRO assessments was high at baseline (> 90%) through month 12 (> 78%) for both groups. European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30-item global health status scores improved from baseline in both groups and were consistently greater with D-Rd at all time points. A global health status benefit was achieved with D-Rd, regardless of age (< 75 and ≥ 75 years), baseline Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status score, or depth of response. D-Rd treatment resulted in significantly greater reduction in pain scores as early as cycle 3 ( = .0007 Rd); the magnitude of change was sustained through cycle 12. Reductions in pain with D-Rd were clinically meaningful in patients regardless of age, ECOG status, or depth of response. Similarly, PRO improvements were observed with D-Rd and Rd on the EuroQol 5-dimensional descriptive system visual analog scale score.

Conclusion: D-Rd compared with Rd was associated with faster and sustained clinically meaningful improvements in PROs, including pain, in transplant-ineligible patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma regardless of age, baseline ECOG status, or depth of treatment response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.01370DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8078427PMC
January 2021

Efficacy and safety of oral panobinostat plus subcutaneous bortezomib and oral dexamethasone in patients with relapsed or relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma (PANORAMA 3): an open-label, randomised, phase 2 study.

Lancet Oncol 2021 01 7;22(1):142-154. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Improved therapeutic options are needed for patients with relapsed or relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma. Subcutaneous bortezomib has replaced intravenous bortezomib as it is associated with a more favourable toxicity profile. We investigated the activity and safety of three different dosing regimens of oral panobinostat in combination with subcutaneous bortezomib and oral dexamethasone for this indication.

Methods: PANORAMA 3 is an open-label, randomised, phase 2 study being done at 71 sites (hospitals and medical centres) across 21 countries. Patients aged 18 years or older with relapsed or relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma (as per International Myeloma Working Group 2014 criteria), who had received one to four previous lines of therapy (including an immunomodulatory agent), and had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2 or lower, were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive oral panobinostat 20 mg three times weekly, 20 mg twice weekly, or 10 mg three times weekly, plus subcutaneous bortezomib and oral dexamethasone. All study drugs were administered in 21-day cycles. Randomisation was done by an interactive response technology provider, and stratified by number of previous treatment lines and age. The primary endpoint was overall response rate after up to eight treatment cycles (analysed in all randomly assigned patients by intention to treat). Safety analyses included all patients who received at least one dose of any study drug. No statistical comparisons between groups were planned. This trial is ongoing and registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02654990.

Findings: Between April 27, 2016, and Jan 17, 2019, 248 patients were randomly assigned (82 to panobinostat 20 mg three times weekly, 83 to panobinostat 20 mg twice weekly, and 83 to 10 mg panobinostat three times weekly). Median duration of follow-up across all treatment groups was 14·7 months (IQR 7·8-24·1). The overall response rate after up to eight treatment cycles was 62·2% (95% CI 50·8-72·7; 51 of 82 patients) for the 20 mg three times weekly group, 65·1% (53·8-75·2; 54 of 83 patients) for the 20 mg twice weekly group, and 50·6% (39·4-61·8; 42 of 83 patients) for the 10 mg three times weekly group. Grade 3-4 adverse events occurred in 71 (91%) of 78 patients in the 20 mg three times weekly group, 69 (83%) of 83 patients in the 20 mg twice weekly group, and 60 (75%) of 80 patients in the 10 mg three times weekly group; the most common (≥20% patients in any group) grade 3-4 adverse events were thrombocytopenia (33 [42%] of 78, 26 [31%] of 83, and 19 [24%] of 83 patients) and neutropenia (18 [23%], 13 [16%], and six [8%]). Serious adverse events occurred in 42 (54%) of 78 patients in the 20 mg three times weekly group, 40 (48%) of 83 patients in the 20 mg twice weekly group, and 35 (44%) of 83 patients in the 10 mg three times weekly group; the most common serious adverse event (≥10% patients in any group) was pneumonia (nine [12%] of 78, ten [12%] of 83, and nine [11%] of 80 patients). There were 14 deaths during the study (five [6%] of 78 patients in the 20 mg three times weekly group, three [4%] of 83 in the 20 mg twice weekly group, and six [8%] of 80 in the 10 mg three times weekly group); none of these deaths was deemed treatment related.

Interpretation: The safety profile of panobinostat 20 mg three times weekly was more favourable than in previous trials of this regimen with intravenous bortezomib, suggesting that subcutaneous bortezomib improves the tolerability of the panobinostat plus bortezomib plus dexamethasone regimen. The overall response rate was highest in the 20 mg three times weekly and 20 mg twice weekly groups, with 10 mg three times weekly best tolerated.

Funding: Novartis Pharmaceuticals and Secura Bio.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(20)30680-XDOI Listing
January 2021

Bispecifics, trispecifics, and other novel immune treatments in myeloma.

Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program 2020 12;2020(1):264-271

Tisch Cancer Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY.

Despite recent advances in treatment, relapses in multiple myeloma (MM) are inevitable. Off-the-shelf immunotherapeutics represent a promising avenue for research, with various classes of agents under development and several demonstrating deep and durable responses in patients who have exhausted all available therapies. Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) seek to improve on naked monoclonal antibodies by delivering a cytotoxic payload directly to tumor cells while largely limiting systemic effects. Belantamab mafodotin, a B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA)-targeted ADC, has shown response rates >30% in a phase 2 trial of highly refractory patients and is being investigated in a variety of settings and combinations. Several other ADCs are in earlier stages of development that target cell surface antigens that are internalized, including BCMA, CD38, CD46, CD56, CD74, and CD138. Bispecifics are designed to bring cytotoxic immune effector cells into proximity with tumor cells, and several agents have shown high response rates in early trials. Current targets include BCMA, CD38, GPRC5d, and FCRH5, and all of these seek to engage T cells through CD3. Bispecifics targeting natural killer (NK) cells through CD16 are still in preclinical development. Trispecific antibodies may represent an advance over bispecifics by providing a T-cell costimulatory signal such as CD28, or alternatively, dual MM antigens to increase specificity of NK or T-cell targeting. This is an area of active preclinical research at this time. Lastly, designed ankyrin repeat proteins, which are small antibody-mimetic proteins with high target-binding affinity, have the potential to block multiple pathways at once and provide stimulatory signals to the immune system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/hematology.2020000110DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7727546PMC
December 2020

Subcutaneous daratumumab plus standard treatment regimens in patients with multiple myeloma across lines of therapy (PLEIADES): an open-label Phase II study.

Br J Haematol 2021 03 30;192(5):869-878. Epub 2020 Jul 30.

Hematology Department, University Hospital Hôtel-Dieu, Nantes, France.

Daratumumab is a CD38-targeting monoclonal antibody approved for intravenous (IV) infusion for multiple myeloma (MM). We describe the Phase II PLEIADES study of a subcutaneous formulation of daratumumab (DARA SC) in combination with standard-of-care regimens: DARA SC plus bortezomib/lenalidomide/dexamethasone (D-VRd) for transplant-eligible newly diagnosed MM (NDMM); DARA SC plus bortezomib/melphalan/prednisone (D-VMP) for transplant-ineligible NDMM; and DARA SC plus lenalidomide/dexamethasone (D-Rd) for relapsed/refractory MM. In total, 199 patients were treated (D-VRd, n = 67; D-VMP, n = 67; D-Rd, n = 65). The primary endpoints were met for all cohorts: the ≥very good partial response (VGPR) rate after four 21-day induction cycles for D-VRd was 71·6% [90% confidence interval (CI) 61·2-80·6%], and the overall response rates (ORRs) for D-VMP and D-Rd were 88·1% (90% CI 79·5-93·9%) and 90·8% (90% CI 82·6-95·9%). With longer median follow-up for D-VMP and D-Rd (14·3 and 14·7 months respectively), responses deepened (ORR: 89·6%, 93·8%; ≥VGPR: 77·6%, 78·5%), and minimal residual disease-negativity (10 ) rates were 16·4% and 15·4%. Infusion-related reactions across all cohorts were infrequent (≤9·0%) and mild. The median DARA SC administration time was 5 min. DARA SC with standard-of-care regimens demonstrated comparable clinical activity to DARA IV-containing regimens, with low infusion-related reaction rates and reduced administration time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.16980DOI Listing
March 2021

Daratumumab, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone in relapsed/refractory myeloma: a cytogenetic subgroup analysis of POLLUX.

Blood Cancer J 2020 11 3;10(11):111. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Clínica Universidad de Navarra-Centro de Investigación Médica Aplicada, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Navarra, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Cáncer, Pamplona, Spain.

High cytogenetic risk abnormalities confer poor outcomes in multiple myeloma patients. In POLLUX, daratumumab/lenalidomide/dexamethasone (D-Rd) demonstrated significant clinical benefit versus lenalidomide/dexamethasone (Rd) in relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) patients. We report an updated subgroup analysis of POLLUX based on cytogenetic risk. The cytogenetic risk was determined using fluorescence in situ hybridization/karyotyping; patients with high cytogenetic risk had t(4;14), t(14;16), or del17p abnormalities. Minimal residual disease (MRD; 10) was assessed via the clonoSEQ assay V2.0. 569 patients were randomized (D-Rd, n = 286; Rd, n = 283); 35 (12%) patients per group had high cytogenetic risk. After a median follow-up of 44.3 months, D-Rd prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) versus Rd in standard cytogenetic risk (median: not estimable vs 18.6 months; hazard ratio [HR], 0.43; P < 0.0001) and high cytogenetic risk (median: 26.8 vs 8.3 months; HR, 0.34; P = 0.0035) patients. Responses with D-Rd were deep, including higher MRD negativity and sustained MRD-negativity rates versus Rd, regardless of cytogenetic risk. PFS on subsequent line of therapy was improved with D-Rd versus Rd in both cytogenetic risk subgroups. The safety profile of D-Rd by cytogenetic risk was consistent with the overall population. These findings demonstrate the improved efficacy of daratumumab plus standard of care versus standard of care in RRMM, regardless of cytogenetic risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41408-020-00375-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7643179PMC
November 2020
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