Publications by authors named "Aisling M Smyth"

2 Publications

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Orphan nuclear receptor NR4A2 induces synoviocyte proliferation, invasion, and matrix metalloproteinase 13 transcription.

Arthritis Rheum 2012 Jul;64(7):2126-36

Loyola University New Orleans, Department of Biological Sciences, New Orleans, Louisiana 70118, USA.

Objective: To address the role of the nuclear receptor 4A (NR4A) family of orphan nuclear receptors in synoviocyte transformation, hyperplasia, and regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) in models of inflammatory arthritis.

Methods: NR4A messenger RNA levels in synovial tissue and primary synoviocytes were measured by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). NR4A2 was stably overexpressed in normal synoviocytes, and cell proliferation, survival, anchorage-independent growth, migration, and invasion were monitored in vitro. MMP and TIMP expression levels were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR, and MMP-13 promoter activity was measured using reporter assays. Stable depletion of endogenous NR4A levels was achieved by lentiviral transduction of NR4A short hairpin RNA (shRNA), and the effects on proliferation, migration, and MMP-13 expression were analyzed.

Results: NR4A2 was expressed at elevated levels in normal, OA, and RA synovial tissue and in primary RA synoviocytes. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) rapidly and selectively induced expression of NR4A2 in synoviocytes. Ectopic expression of NR4A2 in normal synoviocytes significantly increased proliferation and survival, promoted anchorage-independent growth, and induced migration and invasion. MMP-13 gene expression was synergistically induced by NR4A2 and TNFα, while expression of TIMP-2 was antagonized. NR4A2 directly transactivated the proximal MMP-13 promoter, and a point mutation in the DNA binding domain of NR4A2 abolished transcriptional activation. Depletion of endogenous NR4A receptors with shRNA reduced synoviocyte proliferation, migration, and MMP-13 expression.

Conclusion: The orphan nuclear receptor NR4A2 is a downstream mediator of TNFα signaling in synovial tissue. NR4A2 transcriptional activity contributes to the hyperplastic and invasive phenotype of synoviocytes that leads to cartilage destruction, suggesting that this receptor may show promise as a therapeutic target in inflammatory arthritis.
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July 2012

DOCK8 is essential for T-cell survival and the maintenance of CD8+ T-cell memory.

Eur J Immunol 2011 Dec 10;41(12):3423-35. Epub 2011 Nov 10.

Nuffield Department of Medicine, Henry Wellcome Building of Molecular Physiology, Oxford University, Oxford, UK.

Deficiency in the guanine nucleotide exchange factor dedicator of cytokinesis 8 (DOCK8) causes a human immunodeficiency syndrome associated with recurrent sinopulmonary and viral infections. We have recently identified a DOCK8-deficient mouse strain, carrying an ethylnitrosourea-induced splice-site mutation that shows a failure to mature a humoral immune response due to the loss of germinal centre B cells. In this study, we turned to T-cell immunity to investigate further the human immunodeficiency syndrome and its association with decreased peripheral CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. Characterisation of the DOCK8-deficient mouse revealed T-cell lymphopenia, with increased T-cell turnover and decreased survival. Egress of mature CD4(+) thymocytes was reduced with increased migration of these cells to the chemokine CXCL12. However, despite the two-fold reduction in peripheral naïve T cells, the DOCK8-deficient mice generated a normal primary CD8(+) immune response and were able to survive acute influenza virus infection. The limiting effect of DOCK8 was in the normal survival of CD8(+) memory T cells after infection. These findings help to explain why DOCK8-deficient patients are susceptible to recurrent infections and provide new insights into how T-cell memory is sustained.
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December 2011