Publications by authors named "Aisling Croke"

5 Publications

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A protocol for the evaluation of the process and impact of embedding formal and experiential Public and Patient Involvement training in a structured PhD programme.

J Comorb 2021 Jan-Dec;11:26335565211024793. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

PPI Ignite Network, National University of Ireland Galway, Galway, Ireland.

Background: Incorporating Public and Patient Involvement (PPI) into doctoral research is valued by PhD scholars. The importance of providing early career researchers with appropriate education and training to develop skills to conduct meaningful involvement has been articulated. The Collaborative Doctoral Award in MultiMorbidity (CDA-MM) PhD programme embedded formal PPI training as a postgraduate education component. Four PhD scholars taking part in the CDA-MM established a PPI panel comprising people, and carers of people, living with multimorbidity (≥2 chronic conditions), presenting an opportuning for experiential PPI training. The proposed study aims to evaluate the process and impact of formal and experiential PPI training during a PhD programme.

Design: Embedding PPI training in a PhD programme is a novel approach. This evaluation will include a process evaluation to provide an understanding of the workings of the PPI panel and explore the experiences of key stakeholders involved, and an impact evaluation to assess the impact of embedding PPI training in a PhD programme. This study is a longitudinal mixed-methods evaluation, conducted over 24 months. Participants include PhD scholars, PPI contributors and PhD supervisors. An independent researcher not aligned with the CDA-MM will lead the evaluation. Data collection methods include focus groups, individual interviews, an impact log and group reflections. Qualitative data will be analysed using thematic and content analysis and quantitative data will be analysed using descriptive statistics.

Discussion: This evaluation will report the learnings from embedding formal and experiential PPI training and education across a PhD programme.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/26335565211024793DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8243087PMC
June 2021

Integrating clinical pharmacists within general practice: protocol for a pilot cluster randomised controlled trial.

BMJ Open 2021 03 22;11(3):e041541. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of General Practice, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin, Ireland.

Introduction: Managing patients with multiple conditions (multimorbidity) is a major challenge for healthcare systems internationally, particularly in older patients. Multimorbidity and subsequent polypharmacy increase treatment burden and the risk of potentially inappropriate prescribing, and both are complex to manage in primary care. Limited evidence suggests integration of pharmacists into general practice teams could improve medication management for patients with multimorbidity and polypharmacy. Building on findings from a non-randomised, uncontrolled General Practice Pharmacist (GPP) feasibility study conducted in Irish primary care, the aim of this study is to conduct a pilot cluster randomised controlled trial (cRCT) of the GPP study, to assess feasibility, intervention impact, costs and appropriateness of continuing to a definitive cRCT.

Methods And Analysis: This pilot cRCT will involve 8 general practitioner (GP) practices and 120 patients. Practices will identify and recruit patients aged ≥65 years, who are taking ≥10 regular medications. Practices will be allocated to intervention or control after baseline data collection. Intervention practices will have a pharmacist integrated within their service, working with GPs, patients and practice staff to optimise prescribing and other medication-related activities. Control practices will provide standard GP care. The primary feasibility outcomes will include recruitment rate, uptake of medication reviews and study retention. For the primary clinical outcome, the number of potentially inappropriate prescribing incidences per patient will be collected. Secondary outcomes will include medication-related outcomes, patient-reported outcome measures, and data pertaining to the role and impact of the pharmacist on prescribing. In addition, economic and process evaluations will be conducted.

Ethics And Dissemination: This trial has been approved by the Irish College of General Practitioners Research Ethics Committee and will be performed in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. The results will be reported in peer-reviewed journals and be presented at national and international conferences.

Trial Registration Number: ISRCTN Registry (https://doi.org/10.1186/ISRCTN18752158).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-041541DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7986865PMC
March 2021

Effectiveness of link workers providing social prescribing on health outcomes and costs for adult patients in primary care and community settings. A protocol for a systematic review of the literature.

HRB Open Res 2019 17;2:21. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Department of General Practice, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin, Ireland.

The use of link workers for social prescribing and health and social care coordination is increasing, but there is insufficient data to demonstrate their effectiveness or for whom they work best. Multimorbidity is increasing in prevalence and affects those living in deprived areas ten years earlier than affluent areas. This systematic review aims to examine the evidence for the effectiveness and costs of link workers in improving health outcomes. We will also look for evidence for the use of link workers specifically for people living with multimorbidity and in deprived areas. Databases of published and grey literature will be searched for randomised and non-randomised controlled trials examining use of link workers based in primary care for community dwelling adults compared to usual care. Primary outcomes will be health related quality of life and mental health. Data on costs will be extracted. Studies will be selected for inclusion by title and abstract review by two reviewers. A Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews (PRISMA) flow diagram will document the selection process. A standardised form will be used to extract data. Data quality will be assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool for randomised controlled trials, a narrative synthesis will be completed and the GRADE assessment tool used to comment on evidence quality. A meta-analysis of effect size of primary outcomes and subgroup analysis for multimorbidity and social deprivation will be performed if there are sufficient comparable data. This systematic review will give an important overview of the evidence for the use of link workers providing social prescribing and health and social care coordination in primary care. This will help inform intervention development and guide policy makers on whether these interventions are cost effective and which groups stand to benefit most. CRD42019134737 (04/07/2019).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12688/hrbopenres.12936.2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7745185PMC
November 2020

The effectiveness of integrating clinical pharmacists within general practice to optimise prescribing and health outcomes in primary care patients with polypharmacy: A protocol for a systematic review.

HRB Open Res 2019 12;2:32. Epub 2020 Mar 12.

Department of General Practice, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin, Ireland.

Coordinating prescribing for patients with polypharmacy is a challenge for general practitioners. Pharmacists may improve management and outcomes for patients with polypharmacy. This systematic review aims to examine the clinical and cost-effectiveness of pharmacist interventions to optimise prescribing and improve health outcomes in patients with polypharmacy in primary care settings.  The review will be reported using the PRISMA guidelines. A comprehensive search of 10 databases from inception to present, with no language restrictions will be conducted. Studies will be included where they evaluate the clinical or cost-effectiveness of a clinical pharmacist in primary care on potentially inappropriate prescriptions using validated indicators and number of medicines. Secondary outcomes will include health related quality of life measures, health service utilisation, clinical outcomes and data relating to cost effectiveness. Randomised controlled trials, non-randomised controlled trials, controlled before-after, interrupted-time-series and health economic studies will be eligible for inclusion.  Titles, abstracts and full texts will be screened for inclusion by two reviewers. Data will be extracted using a standard form. Risk of bias in all included studies will be assessed using the Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) criteria. Economic studies will be assessed using the Consensus Health Economic Criteria (CHEC) list as per the Cochrane Handbook for critical appraisal of methodological quality. A narrative synthesis will be performed, and the certainty of evidence will be assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria. Where data support quantitative synthesis, a meta-analysis will be performed. This systematic review will give an overview of the effectiveness of pharmacist interventions to improve prescribing and health outcomes in a vulnerable patient group. This will provide evidence to policy makers on strategies involving clinical pharmacists integrated within general practice, to address issues which arise in polypharmacy and multimorbidity.  CRD42019139679 (28/08/19).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12688/hrbopenres.12966.2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7140766PMC
March 2020

The vascular targeting agent combretastatin-A4 and a novel cis-Restricted {beta}-Lactam Analogue, CA-432, induce apoptosis in human chronic myeloid leukemia cells and ex vivo patient samples including those displaying multidrug resistance.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2010 Nov 10;335(2):302-13. Epub 2010 Aug 10.

School of Biochemistry and Immunology, Trinity College, Dublin 2, Ireland.

Combretastatin-A4 (CA-4) is a natural derivative of the African willow tree Combretum caffrum. CA-4 is one of the most potent antimitotic components of natural origin, but it is, however, intrinsically unstable. A novel series of CA-4 analogs incorporating a 3,4-diaryl-2-azetidinone (β-lactam) ring were designed and synthesized with the objective to prevent cis -trans isomerization and improve the intrinsic stability without altering the biological activity of CA-4. Evaluation of selected β-lactam CA-4 analogs demonstrated potent antitubulin, antiproliferative, and antimitotic effects in human leukemia cells. A lead β-lactam analog, CA-432, displayed comparable antiproliferative activities with CA-4. CA-432 induced rapid apoptosis in HL-60 acute myeloid leukemia cells, which was accompanied by depolymerization of the microtubular network, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage, caspase-3 activation, and Bcl-2 cleavage. A prolonged G(2)M cell cycle arrest accompanied by a sustained phosphorylation of mitotic spindle checkpoint protein, BubR1, and the antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-x(L) preceded apoptotic events in K562 chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cells. Molecular docking studies in conjunction with comprehensive cell line data rule out CA-4 and β-lactam derivatives as P-glycoprotein substrates. Furthermore, both CA-4 and CA-432 induced significantly more apoptosis compared with imatinib mesylate in ex vivo samples from patients with CML, including those positive for the T315I mutation displaying resistance to imatinib mesylate and dasatinib. In summary, synthetic intrinsically stable analogs of CA-4 that display significant clinical potential as antileukemic agents have been designed and synthesized.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/jpet.110.170415DOI Listing
November 2010
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