Publications by authors named "Aishwarya Acharya"

3 Publications

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Recent evolution of a TET-controlled and DPPA3/STELLA-driven pathway of passive DNA demethylation in mammals.

Nat Commun 2020 11 24;11(1):5972. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Department of Biology II and Center for Integrated Protein Science Munich (CIPSM), Human Biology and BioImaging, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Planegg-Martinsried, Germany.

Genome-wide DNA demethylation is a unique feature of mammalian development and naïve pluripotent stem cells. Here, we describe a recently evolved pathway in which global hypomethylation is achieved by the coupling of active and passive demethylation. TET activity is required, albeit indirectly, for global demethylation, which mostly occurs at sites devoid of TET binding. Instead, TET-mediated active demethylation is locus-specific and necessary for activating a subset of genes, including the naïve pluripotency and germline marker Dppa3 (Stella, Pgc7). DPPA3 in turn drives large-scale passive demethylation by directly binding and displacing UHRF1 from chromatin, thereby inhibiting maintenance DNA methylation. Although unique to mammals, we show that DPPA3 alone is capable of inducing global DNA demethylation in non-mammalian species (Xenopus and medaka) despite their evolutionary divergence from mammals more than 300 million years ago. Our findings suggest that the evolution of Dppa3 facilitated the emergence of global DNA demethylation in mammals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-19603-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7686362PMC
November 2020

Anabolic SIRT4 Exerts Retrograde Control over TORC1 Signaling by Glutamine Sparing in the Mitochondria.

Mol Cell Biol 2020 01 3;40(2). Epub 2020 Jan 3.

Department of Biological Sciences, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Colaba, Mumbai, India

Anabolic and catabolic signaling mediated via mTOR and AMPK (AMP-activated kinase) have to be intrinsically coupled to mitochondrial functions for maintaining homeostasis and mitigate cellular/organismal stress. Although glutamine is known to activate mTOR, whether and how differential mitochondrial utilization of glutamine impinges on mTOR signaling has been less explored. Mitochondrial SIRT4, which unlike other sirtuins is induced in a fed state, is known to inhibit catabolic signaling/pathways through the AMPK-PGC1α/SIRT1-peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) axis and negatively regulate glutamine metabolism via the tricarboxylic acid cycle. However, physiological significance of SIRT4 functions during a fed state is still unknown. Here, we establish SIRT4 as key anabolic factor that activates TORC1 signaling and regulates lipogenesis, autophagy, and cell proliferation. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that the ability of SIRT4 to inhibit anaplerotic conversion of glutamine to α-ketoglutarate potentiates TORC1. Interestingly, we also show that mitochondrial glutamine sparing or utilization is critical for differentially regulating TORC1 under fed and fasted conditions. Moreover, we conclusively show that differential expression of SIRT4 during fed and fasted states is vital for coupling mitochondrial energetics and glutamine utilization with anabolic pathways. These significant findings also illustrate that SIRT4 integrates nutrient inputs with mitochondrial retrograde signals to maintain a balance between anabolic and catabolic pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/MCB.00212-19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6944470PMC
January 2020