Publications by authors named "Ailbhe King"

5 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Ante-Natal and Post-Natal Influences on Neonatal Immunity, Growth and Puberty of Calves-A Review.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Apr 22;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 22.

RUM&N Sas, Via Sant'Ambrogio, 42123 Reggio Emilia (RE), Italy.

Calf immunity, growth and puberty are important factors affecting heifer productivity. The first four weeks of age are critical for reducing calf morbidity and mortality. It is well documented that colostrum is paramount to neonatal nutrition and passive immunity, however, adaptation to extra-uterine life starts early during embryonic development. Therefore, successful calf rearing strategies are underpinned by adequate maternal nutrition during gestation, and good colostrum management. A deeper understanding of these interactions paves the way for developing strategies to improve immune responses to environmental pathogens, optimal growth and timely attainment of puberty in calves. The literature reviewed here shows that there are opportunities to enhance the future performance of cattle paying attention to the interaction of nutrition and immunity at each developmental stage. Therefore, the objective of this review is to give the reader an overview of interactions between immunity, growth and puberty in dairy calves and highlight how these influence future performances.
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April 2021

Clinical management and outcomes for goats, sheep, and pigs hospitalized for treatment of burn injuries sustained in wildfires: 28 cases (2006, 2015, and 2018).

J Am Vet Med Assoc 2020 Dec;257(11):1165-1170

Objective: To characterize injuries and describe medical management and clinical outcomes of goats, sheep, and pigs treated at a veterinary medical teaching hospital for burn injuries sustained during wildfires.

Animals: Goats (n = 9), sheep (12), and pigs (7) that sustained burn injuries from wildfires.

Procedures: Medical records were searched to identify goats, sheep, and pigs that had burn injuries associated with California wildfires in 2006, 2015, and 2018. Data regarding signalment, physical examination findings, treatments, clinical outcomes, time to discharge from the hospital, and reasons for death or euthanasia were recorded.

Results: The eyes, ears, nose, mouth, hooves, perineum, and ventral aspect of the abdomen were most commonly affected in both goats and sheep. In pigs, the ventral aspect of the abdomen, distal limb extremities, ears, and tail were most commonly affected. The median (range) time to discharge from the hospital for goats and pigs was 11 (3 to 90) and 85.5 (54 to 117) days, respectively. One of 9 goats, 12 of 12 sheep, and 5 of 7 pigs died or were euthanized. Laminitis and devitalization of distal limb extremities were common complications (13/28 animals) and a common reason for considering euthanasia in sheep and pigs.

Conclusions And Clinical Relevance: Burn injuries in small ruminants and pigs required prolonged treatment in some cases. Results suggested prognosis for survival may be more guarded for sheep and pigs with burn injuries than for goats; however, further research is needed to confirm these findings.
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December 2020

Mechanisms of intermittent hypoxia-mediated macrophage activation - potential therapeutic targets for obstructive sleep apnoea.

J Sleep Res 2021 06 30;30(3):e13202. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

School of Medicine, Conway Institute, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

Intermittent hypoxia (IH) plays a key role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance (IR) in obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). IH induces a pro-inflammatory phenotype of the adipose tissue with M1 macrophage polarisation, subsequently impeding adipocyte insulin signalling, and these changes are in striking similarity to those seen in obesity. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms of IH-induced macrophage polarisation are unknown and identification of same should lead to the identification of novel therapeutic targets. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that IH acts through similar mechanisms as obesity, activating Toll-like-receptor (TLR)4/nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and nucleotide-binding domain (NOD)-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) signalling pathways leading to the upregulation and secretion of the key cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6. Bone-marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs) from lean and obese C57BL/6 male mice were exposed to a state-of-the-art in vitro model of IH. Independent of obesity, IH led to a pro-inflammatory M1 phenotype characterised by increased inducible nitric oxide synthase and IL-6 mRNA expression, robust increase in NF-κB DNA-binding activity and IL-6 secretion. Furthermore, IH significantly increased pro-IL-1β mRNA and protein expression and mature IL-1β secretion compared to control treatment. Providing mechanistic insight, pre-treatment with the TLR4 specific inhibitor, TAK-242, prevented IH-induced M1 polarisation and upregulation of IL-1β mRNA and pro-IL-1β protein expression. Moreover, IH-induced increase in IL-1β secretion was prevented in BMDMs isolated from NLRP3 knockout mice. Thus, targeting TLR4/NF-κB and NLRP3 signalling pathways may provide novel therapeutic options for metabolic complications in OSA.
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June 2021

Prevalence of and risk factors for intravenous catheter infection in hospitalized cattle, goats, and sheep.

J Vet Intern Med 2020 Jan 20;34(1):330-338. Epub 2019 Dec 20.

Department of Veterinary of Medicine and Epidemiology, University of California Davis, Davis, California.

Background: Intravenous catheter (IVC) use in hospitalized ruminants is a common procedure. Limited information is available describing complications associated with IVCs.

Hypotheses: Prevalence of IVC infections in hospitalized ruminants is >50%. Intravenous catheters maintained for >5 days are more likely to be infected than those maintained for <5 days. Intravenous catheters placed non-aseptically have a higher risk for infection than those placed aseptically.

Animals: Thirty-four cattle, 39 goats, and 33 sheep were hospitalized in a university teaching hospital.

Methods: Prospective observational study. The IVCs from cattle, goats, and sheep admitted for medical and surgical procedures were randomly selected and submitted for bacteriological culture and susceptibility testing.

Results: Prevalence values (95% confidence interval) of infected catheters were 61.8 (45.5, 78.1), 51.3 (35.3, 66.7), and 42.4% (25.2, 58.8) in cattle, goats, and sheep, respectively. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp was the most frequently isolated bacterium. Catheter type/placement technique was a significant (P = .03) predictor of IVC infection in goats but not in cattle (P = .65) and sheep (P = .47). Antibiotic use and reason for catheter placement were not significant predictors of IVC infection in all species. Catheters maintained for >4 days had a higher likelihood of being infected than those maintained for <4 days in all species.

Conclusions And Clinical Importance: Clinicians should consider replacing catheters maintained for >4 days to reduce IVC infection.
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January 2020

Short communication: Effect of feeding pooled and nonpooled high-quality colostrum on passive transfer of immunity, morbidity, and mortality in dairy calves.

J Dairy Sci 2020 Feb 27;103(2):1894-1899. Epub 2019 Nov 27.

Teagasc, Animal & Grassland Research and Innovation Centre, Moorepark, Fermoy, Co. Cork P61 C996, Ireland.

Pooling colostrum is commonly practiced on Irish dairy farms. Pooling can result in dilution when colostrums with high and low IgG concentrations are mixed, thereby predisposing calves to failure of passive immunity. The objectives of this study were to compare IgG concentrations in colostrum from individual cows with colostrum pooled from several cows, and assess serum IgG concentrations, morbidity, and mortality among calves fed colostrum from their own dam, from a different cow, or pooled from several cows. We hypothesized that pooling colostrum reduces IgG concentration due to dilution compared with colostrum from individual cows, and that calves fed pooled colostrum achieve lower serum IgG concentrations than calves fed colostrum from individual cows. Calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: (1) fed colostrum from their own dam (n = 20); (2) fed colostrum from a different dam (n = 20); or (3) fed pooled colostrum (n = 18). A sample of colostrum fed to each calf was collected. Serum samples were collected from calves at birth (0 h) and at 24 h after colostrum feeding. Colostrum and serum IgG concentrations were measured by radial immunodiffusion. Calves were weighed at birth and at weaning, and the health status of each calf was assessed twice daily. Health assessment was based on general demeanor, rectal temperature, fecal consistency, respiratory rate, and the presence of cough, nasal, or ocular discharge. Colostrum and serum IgG concentrations, and weaning weights were compared using ANOVA. Associations between group and morbidity or mortality rates were compared using χ or Fisher's exact tests. Median and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of IgG concentrations of colostrum were 99.4 (81.8-111.5), 95.2 (84.1-107.2), and 100.7 (90.5-104.4) g/L for own dam, different dam, and pooled groups, respectively. We did not find any differences in colostrum IgG concentrations among the colostrum sources. Median (95% CI) serum IgG concentrations at 24 h were 52.0 (45.6-65.9), 55.7 (51.2-65.9), and 53.1 (46.2-63.7) g/L for calves that received colostrum from own dam, different dam, and pooled, respectively. All calves achieved adequate passive immunity. Serum IgG concentrations at 24 h, weaning weights, and proportions of morbidity and mortality were not different among the 3 groups. Our results suggest that on dairy farms where median colostrum IgG concentrations are high and colostrum management is optimal, pooling has a minimal effect on passive immunity and subsequent calf health.
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February 2020