Publications by authors named "Aihua Pan"

17 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

MFGE8 mitigates brain injury in a rat model of SAH by maintaining vascular endothelial integrity via TIGβ5/PI3K/CXCL12 signaling.

Exp Brain Res 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Neurosurgery, The Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, No. 52 Meihuadong Road, Zhuhai, 519000, Guangdong, China.

Leaked blood components, injured endothelial cells, local inflammatory response and vasospasm may converge to promote microthrombosis following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Previously, we showed that the milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor 8 (MFGE8) can mitigate SAH-induced microthrombosis. This present study was aimed to explore the molecular pathway participated in MFGE8-dependent protection on vascular endothelium. Immunofluorescence, immunoblot and behavioral tests were used to determine the molecular partner and signaling pathway mediating the effect of MFGE8 in vascular endothelium in rats with experimental SAH and controls, together with the applications of RNA silencing and pharmacological intervention methods. Relative to control, recombinant human MFGE8 (rhMFGE8) treatment increased 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) labeled new endothelial cells, reduced TUNUL-positive endothelial cells and elevated the expression of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12 (CXCL12), in the brains of SAH rats. These effects were reversed by MFGE8 RNA silencing, as well as following cilengitide and wortmannin intervention. These results suggest that MFGE8 promotes endothelial regeneration and mitigates endothelial DNA damage through the activation of the TIGβ5/PI3K/CXCL12 signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-021-06111-xDOI Listing
May 2021

Early Dendritic Dystrophy in Human Brains With Primary Age-Related Tauopathy.

Front Aging Neurosci 2020 7;12:596894. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Dystrophic neurites (DNs) are found in many neurological conditions such as traumatic brain injury and age-related neurodegenerative diseases. In Alzheimer's disease (AD) specifically, senile plaques containing silver-stained DNs were already described in the original literature defining this disease. These DNs could be both axonal and dendritic in origin, while axonal dystrophy relative to plaque formation has been more extensively studied. Here, we demonstrate an early occurrence of dendritic dystrophy in the hippocampal CA1 and subicular regions in human brains ( = 23) with primary age-related tauopathy (PART), with neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) burden ranging from Braak stages I to III in the absence of cerebral β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition. In Bielschowsky's silver stain, segmented fusiform swellings on the apical dendrites of hippocampal and subicular pyramidal neurons were observed in all the cases, primarily over the stratum radiatum (s.r.). The numbers of silver-stained neuronal somata and dendritic swellings counted over CA1 to subiculum were positively correlated among the cases. Swollen dendritic processes were also detected in sections immunolabeled for phosphorylated tau (pTau) and sortilin. In aged and AD brains with both Aβ and pTau pathologies, silver- and immunolabeled dystrophic-like dendritic profiles occurred around and within individual neuritic plaques. These findings implicate that dendritic dystrophy can occur among hippocampal pyramidal neurons in human brains with PART. Therefore, as with the case of axonal dystrophy reported in literature, dendritic dystrophy can develop prior to Alzheimer-type plaque and tangle formation in the human brain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2020.596894DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7750631PMC
December 2020

Extracellular Sortilin Proteopathy Relative to β-Amyloid and Tau in Aged and Alzheimer's Disease Human Brains.

Front Aging Neurosci 2020 12;12:93. Epub 2020 May 12.

Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) are hallmark lesions of Alzheimer's disease (AD) related to β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition and intraneuronal phosphorylated tau (pTau) accumulation. tilin C-terminal gments (shortened as "sorfra") can deposit as senile plaque-like lesions within AD brains. The course and pattern of sorfra plaque formation relative to Aβ and pTau pathogenesis remain unknown. In the present study, cerebral and subcortical sections in postmortem human brains ( = 46) from aged and AD subjects were stained using multiple markers (6E10, β-secretase 1, pTau, and sortilin antibodies, as well as Bielschowsky silver stain). The course and pattern of sorfra plaque formation relative to Thal Aβ and Braak NFT pathogenic stages were determined. Sorfra plaques occurred in the temporal, inferior frontal and occipital neocortices in cases with Thal 1 and Braak III stages. They were also found additionally in the hippocampal formation, amygdala, and associative neocortex in cases with Thal 2-4 and Braak IV-V. Lastly, they were also found in the primary motor, somatosensory, and visual cortices in cases with Thal 4-5 and Braak VI. Unlike Aβ and pTau pathologies, sorfra plaques did not occur in subcortical structures in cases with Aβ/pTau lesions in Thal 3-5/Braak IV-VI stages. We establish here that sorfra plaques are essentially a cerebral proteopathy. We believe that the development of sorfra plaques in both cortical and hippocampal regions proceeds in a typical spatiotemporal pattern, and the stages of cerebral sorfra plaque formation partially overlap with that of Aβ and pTau pathologies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2020.00093DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7236809PMC
May 2020

Regional and Cellular Mapping of Sortilin Immunoreactivity in Adult Human Brain.

Front Neuroanat 2019 12;13:31. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Sortilin is a member of the vacuolar protein sorting 10 protein (VPS10P) domain receptor family, which carries out signal transduction and protein transport in cells. Sortilin serves as the third, G-protein uncoupled, receptor of neurotensin that can modulate various brain functions. More recent data indicate an involvement of sortilin in mood disorders, dementia and Alzheimer-type neuropathology. However, data regarding the normal pattern of regional and cellular expression of sortilin in the human brain are not available to date. Using postmortem adult human brains free of neuropathology, the current study determined sortilin immunoreactivity (IR) across the entire brain. Sortilin IR was broadly present in the cerebrum and subcortical structures, localizing to neurons in the somatodendritic compartment, but not to glial cells. In the cerebrum, sortilin IR exhibited differential regional and laminar patterns, with pyramidal, multipolar and polymorphic neurons in cortical layers II-VI, hippocampal formation and amygdaloid complex more distinctly labeled relative to GABAergic interneurons. In the striatum and thalamus, numerous small-to-medium sized neurons showed light IR, with a small group of large sized neurons heavily labeled. In the midbrain and brainstem, sortilin IR was distinct in neurons at the relay centers of descending and ascending neuroanatomical pathways. Dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, cholinergic neurons in the basal nuclei of Meynert and noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus co-expressed strong sortilin IR in double immunofluorescence. In comparison, sortilin IR was weak in the olfactory bulb and cerebellar cortex, with the mitral and Purkinje cells barely visualized. A quantitative analysis was carried out in the lateral, basolateral, and basomedial nuclei of the amygdaloid complex, as well as cortical layers II-VI, which established a positive correlation between the somal size and the intensity of sortilin IR among labeled neurons. Together, the present study demonstrates a predominantly neuronal expression of sortilin in the human brain with substantial regional and cell-type variability. The enriched expression of sortilin in pyramidal, dopaminergic, noradrenergic and cholinergic neurons suggests that this protein may be particularly required for signal transduction, protein trafficking and metabolic homeostasis in populations of relatively large-sized projective neurons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnana.2019.00031DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6422922PMC
March 2019

Sortilin: a new player in dementia and Alzheimer-type neuropathology.

Biochem Cell Biol 2018 10 24;96(5):491-497. Epub 2018 Apr 24.

a Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410013, China.

Age-related dementias are now a major mortality factor among most human populations in the world, with Alzheimer's disease (AD) being the leading dementia-causing neurodegenerative disease. The pathogenic mechanism underlying dementia disorders, and AD in particular, remained largely unknown. Efforts to develop drugs targeting the disease's hallmark lesions, such as amyloid plaque and tangle pathologies, have been unsuccessful so far. The vacuolar protein sorting 10p (Vps10p) family plays a critical role in membrane signal transduction and protein sorting and trafficking between intracellular compartments. Data emerging during the past few years point to an involvement of this family in the development of AD. Specifically, the Vps10p member sortilin has been shown to participate in amyloid plaque formation, tau phosphorylation, abnormal protein sorting and apoptosis. In this minireview, we update some latest findings from animal experiments and human brain studies suggesting that abnormal sortilin expression is associated with AD-type neuropathology, warranting further research that might lead to novel targets for the development of AD therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/bcb-2018-0023DOI Listing
October 2018

A novel antigenic cathepsin B protease induces protective immunity in Trichinella-infected mice.

Vaccine 2018 01 2;36(2):248-255. Epub 2017 Dec 2.

Sun Yat-sen University Zhongshan School of Medicine, Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Control (Sun Yat-Sen University), Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510080, China. Electronic address:

Trichinellosis is a foodborne disease that remains a public health hazard and an economic problem in food safety. Vaccines against the parasite can be an effective way to control this disease; however, commercial vaccines against Trichinella infection are not yet available. Trichinella cathepsin B proteins appear to be promising targets for vaccine development. Here, we reported for the first time the characterization of a novel cDNA that encodes Trichinella spiralis (T. spiralis) cathepsin B-like protease 2 gene (TsCPB2). The recombinant mature TsCPB2 protein was successfully expressed in E. coli system and purified with Ni-affinity chromatography. TsCPB2 expression was detected at all the developmental stages of T. spiralis and it was expressed as an excretory-secretory protein of T. spiralis muscle larvae. Immunization with TsCPB2 antigen induced a combination of humoral and cellular immune responses, which manifested as a mixed Th1/Th2 response, as well as remarkably elevated IgE level. Moreover, vaccination of mice with TsCPB2 that were subsequently challenged with T. spiralis larvae resulted in a 52.3% (P < .001) reduction in worm burden and a 51.2% (P < .001) reduction in muscle larval burden. Our results suggest that TsCPB2 induces protective immunity in Trichinella-infected mice and might be a novel vaccine candidate against trichinellosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2017.11.048DOI Listing
January 2018

Sortilin Fragments Deposit at Senile Plaques in Human Cerebrum.

Front Neuroanat 2017 7;11:45. Epub 2017 Jun 7.

Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Central South University School of Basic Medical ScienceChangsha, China.

Genetic variations in the vacuolar protein sorting 10 protein (Vps10p) family have been linked to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we demonstrate deposition of fragments from the Vps10p member sortilin at senile plaques (SPs) in aged and AD human cerebrum. Sortilin changes were characterized in postmortem brains with antibodies against the extracellular and intracellular C-terminal domains. The two antibodies exhibited identical labeling in normal human cerebrum, occurring in the somata and dendrites of cortical and hippocampal neurons. The C-terminal antibody also marked extracellular lesions in some aged and all AD cases, appearing as isolated fibrils, mini-plaques, dense-packing or circular mature-looking plaques. Sortilin and β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition were correlated overtly in a region/lamina- and case-dependent manner as analyzed in the temporal lobe structures, with co-localized immunofluorescence seen at individual SPs. However, sortilin deposition rarely occurred around the pia, at vascular wall or in areas with typical diffuse Aβ deposition, with the labeling not enhanced by section pretreatment with heating or formic acid. Levels of a major sortilin fragment ~15 kDa, predicted to derive from the C-terminal region, were dramatically elevated in AD relative to control cortical lysates. Thus, sortilin fragments are a prominent constituent of the extracellularly deposited protein products at SPs in human cerebrum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnana.2017.00045DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5461299PMC
June 2017

A Human Proteome Array Approach to Identifying Key Host Proteins Targeted by Kinase ROP18.

Mol Cell Proteomics 2017 03 13;16(3):469-484. Epub 2017 Jan 13.

From the ‡Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Sun Yat-Sen University Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510080, China;

kinase ROP18 is a key molecule responsible for the virulence of ; however, the mechanisms by which ROP18 exerts parasite virulence via interaction with host proteins remain limited to a small number of identified substrates. To identify a broader array of ROP18 substrates, we successfully purified bioactive mature ROP18 and used it to probe a human proteome array. Sixty eight new putative host targets were identified. Functional annotation analysis suggested that these proteins have a variety of functions, including metabolic process, kinase activity and phosphorylation, cell growth, apoptosis and cell death, and immunity, indicating a pleiotropic role of ROP18 kinase. Among these proteins, four candidates, p53, p38, UBE2N, and Smad1, were further validated. We demonstrated that ROP18 targets p53, p38, UBE2N, and Smad1 for degradation. Importantly, we demonstrated that ROP18 phosphorylates Smad1 Ser-187 to trigger its proteasome-dependent degradation. Further functional characterization of the substrates of ROP18 may enhance understanding of the pathogenesis of infection and provide new therapeutic targets. Similar strategies could be used to identify novel host targets for other microbial kinases functioning at the pathogen-host interface.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/mcp.M116.063602DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5341007PMC
March 2017

Aberrant expression of the pore-forming K channel subunit Kir6.2 in hippocampal reactive astrocytes in the 3xTg-AD mouse model and human Alzheimer's disease.

Neuroscience 2016 Nov 29;336:81-101. Epub 2016 Aug 29.

Department of Physiology, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Carbondale, IL 62901, USA; Department of Anatomy, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Carbondale, IL 62901, USA; Center for Integrated Research in Cognitive and Neural Sciences, Southern Illinois University Carbondale, IL 62901, USA. Electronic address:

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by beta-amyloid (Aβ) deposition, neurofibrillary tangles and cognitive decline. Recent pharmacologic studies have found that ATP-sensitive potassium (K) channels may play a role in AD and could be a potential therapeutic target. Interestingly, these channels are found in both neurons and astrocytes. One of the hallmarks associated with AD is reactive gliosis and a change in astrocytic function has been identified in several neuropathological conditions including AD. Thus the goal of this study was to examine whether the pore-forming subunits of K channels, Kir6.1 and Kir6.2, are altered in the hippocampus in a cell type-specific manner of the 3xTg-AD mouse model of AD and in human AD tissue obtained from the Chinese brain bank. Specifically, in old 3xTg-AD mice, and age-matched controls, we examined glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), glutamine synthetase (GS), Kir6.1 and Kir6.2 in hippocampal region CA1 with a combination of immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry (IHC). A time point was selected when memory impairment and histopathological changes have been reported to occur in 3xTg-AD mice. In human AD and age-matched control tissue IHC experiments were performed using GFAP and Kir6.2. In the hippocampus of 3xTg-AD mice, compared to wild-type controls, Western blots showed a significant increase in GFAP indicating astrogliosis. Further, there was an increase in Kir6.2, but not Kir6.1 in the plasma membrane fraction. IHC examination of hippocampal region CA1 in 3xTg-AD sections revealed an increase in Kir6.2 immunoreactivity (IR) in astrocytes as identified by GFAP and GS. In human AD tissue similar data were obtained. There was an increase in GFAP-IR in the stratum oriens (SO) and alveus (ALV) of CA1 concomitant with an increase in Kir6.2-IR in cells with an astrocytic-like morphology. Dual immunofluorescence revealed a dramatic increase in co-localization of Kir6.2-IR and GFAP-IR. Taken together, these data demonstrate that increased Kir6.2 is seen in reactive astrocytes in old 3xTg-AD mice and human AD tissue. These changes could dramatically alter astrocytic function and subsequently contribute to AD phenotype in either a compensatory or pathophysiological manner.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2016.08.034DOI Listing
November 2016

Sorting Nexin 11 Regulates Lysosomal Degradation of Plasma Membrane TRPV3.

Traffic 2016 May 23;17(5):500-14. Epub 2016 Feb 23.

Key Laboratory of Regenerative Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine, South China Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Guangzhou Institutes of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China.

The trafficking of ion channels to/from the plasma membrane is considered an important mechanism for cellular activity and an interesting approach for disease therapies. The transient receptor potential vanilloid 3 (TRPV3) ion channel is widely expressed in skin keratinocytes, and its trafficking mechanism to/from the plasma membrane is unknown. Here, we report that the vesicular trafficking protein sorting nexin 11 (SNX11) downregulates the level of the TRPV3 plasma membrane protein. Overexpression of SNX11 causes a decrease in the level of TRPV3 current and TRPV3 plasma membrane protein in TRPV3-transfected HEK293T cells. Subcellular localizations and western blots indicate that SNX11 interacts with TRPV3 and targets it to lysosomes for degradation, which is blocked by the lysosomal inhibitors chloroquine and leupeptin. Both TRPV3 and SNX11 are highly expressed in HaCaT cells. We show that TRPV3 agonists-activated Ca(2+) influxes and the level of native TRPV3 total protein in HaCaT cells are decreased by overexpression of SNX11 and increased by knockdown of SNX11. Our findings reveal that SNX11 promotes the trafficking of TRPV3 from the plasma membrane to lysosomes for degradation via protein-protein interactions, which demonstrates a previously unknown function of SNX11 as a regulator of TRPV3 trafficking from the plasma membrane to lysosomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tra.12379DOI Listing
May 2016

Sp8 expression in putative neural progenitor cells in guinea pig and human cerebrum.

Dev Neurobiol 2016 09 30;76(9):939-55. Epub 2015 Nov 30.

Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Central South University School of Basic Medicine, Changsha, Hunan, China.

Neural stem/progenitor cells have been characterized at neurogenic sites in adult mammalian brain with various molecular markers. Here it has been demonstrated that Sp8, a transcription factor typically expressed among mature GABAergic interneurons, also labels putative neural precursors in adult guinea pig and human cerebrum. In guinea pigs, Sp8 immunoreactive (Sp8+) cells were localized largely in the superficial layers of the cortex including layer I, as well as the subventricular zone (SVZ) and subgranular zone (SGZ). Sp8+ cells at the SGZ showed little colocalization with mature and immature neuronal markers, but co-expressed neural stem cell markers including Sox2. Some layer I Sp8+ cells also co-expressed Sox2. The amount of Sp8+ cells in the dentate gyrus was maintained 2 weeks after X-ray irradiation, while that of doublecortin (DCX+) cells was greatly reduced. Mild ischemic insult caused a transient increase of Sp8+ cells in the SGZ and layer I, with the subgranular Sp8+ cells exhibited an increased colabeling for the mitotic marker Ki67 and pulse-chased bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). Sp8+ cells in the dentate gyrus showed an age-related decline in guinea pigs, in parallel with the loss of DCX+ cells in the same region. In adult humans, Sp8+ cells exhibited comparable morphological features as seen in guinea pigs, with those at the SGZ and some in cortical layer I co-expressed Sox2. Together, these results suggested that Sp8 may label putative neural progenitors in guinea pig and human cerebrum, with the labeled cells in the SGZ appeared largely not mitotically active under normal conditions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 76: 939-955, 2016.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dneu.22367DOI Listing
September 2016

Non-neuronal and neuronal BACE1 elevation in association with angiopathic and leptomeningeal β-amyloid deposition in the human brain.

BMC Neurol 2015 May 2;15:71. Epub 2015 May 2.

Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Central South University School of Basic Medical Science, Changsha, Hunan, 410013, China.

Background: Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) refers to the deposition of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides in the wall of brain vasculature, commonly involving capillaries and arterioles. Also being considered a part of CAA is the Aβ deposition in leptomeninge. The cellular origin of angiopathic Aβ and the pathogenic course of CAA remain incompletely understood.

Methods: The present study was aimed to explore the pathogenic course of CAA in the human cerebrum via examination of changes in β-secretase-1 (BACE1), the obligatory Aβ producing enzyme, relative to Aβ and other cellular markers, by neuroanatomical and biochemical characterizations with postmortem brain samples and primary cell cultures.

Results: Immunoreactivity (IR) for BACE1 was essentially not visible at vasculature in cases without cerebral amyloidosis (control group, n = 15, age = 86.1 ± 10.3 year). In cases with brain amyloid pathology (n = 15, age = 78.7 ± 12.7 year), increased BACE1 IR was identified locally at capillaries, arterioles and along the pia, localizing to endothelia, perivascular dystrophic neurites and meningeal cells, and often coexisting with vascular iron deposition. Double immunofluorescence with densitometric analysis confirmed a site-specific BACE1 elevation at cerebral arterioles in the development of vascular Aβ deposition. Levels of BACE1 protein, activity and its immediate product (C99) were elevated in leptomeningeal lysates from cases with CAA relative to controls. The expression of BACE1 and other amyloidogenic proteins in the endothelial and meningeal cells was confirmed in primary cultures prepared from human leptomeningeal and arteriolar biopsies.

Conclusion: These results suggest that BACE1 elevation in the endothelia and perivascular neurites may be involved in angiopathic Aβ deposition, while BACE1 elevation in meningeal cells might contribute Aβ to leptomeningeal amyloidosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12883-015-0327-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4428107PMC
May 2015

Somal and dendritic development of human CA3 pyramidal neurons from midgestation to middle childhood: a quantitative Golgi study.

Anat Rec (Hoboken) 2013 Jan 14;296(1):123-32. Epub 2012 Nov 14.

Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Central South University, Xiangya School of Medicine, Changsha, Hunan, China.

The CA3 area serves a key relay on the tri-synaptic loop of the hippocampal formation which supports multiple forms of mnemonic processing, especially spatial learning and memory. To date, morphometric data about human CA3 pyramidal neurons are relatively rare, with little information available for their pre- and postnatal development. Herein, we report a set of developmental trajectory data, including somal growth, dendritic elongation and branching, and spine formation, of human CA3 pyramidal neurons from midgestation stage to middle childhood. Golgi-impregnated CA3 pyramidal neurons in fetuses at 19, 20, 26, 35, and 38 weeks of gestation (GW) and a child at 8 years of age (Y) were analyzed by Neurolucida morphometry. Somal size of the impregnated CA3 cells increased age-dependently among the cases. The length of the apical and basal dendrites of these neurons increased between 26 GW to 38 GW, and appeared to remain stable afterward until 8 Y. Dendritic branching points increased from 26 GW to 38 GW, with that on the apical dendrites slightly reduced at 8 Y. Spine density on the apical and basal dendrites increased progressively from 26 GW to 8 Y. These data suggest that somal growth and dendritic arborization of human CA3 pyramidal neurons occur largely during the second to third trimester. Spine development and likely synaptogenesis on CA3 pyramidal cells progress during the third prenatal trimester and may continue throughout childhood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ar.22616DOI Listing
January 2013

Experimental epidural hematoma causes cerebral infarction and activates neocortical glial and neuronal genesis in adult guinea pigs.

J Neurosci Res 2013 Feb 14;91(2):249-61. Epub 2012 Nov 14.

Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China.

Epidural hematoma (EDH) is a type of life-threatening traumatic brain injury. Little is known about the extent to which EDH may cause neural damage and regenerative response in the cerebral cortex. Here we attempted to explore these issues by using guinea pigs as an experimental model. Unilateral EDH was induced by injection of 0.1 ml autologous blood into the extradural space, with experimental effects examined at 7, 14, 30, and 60 days postlesion. An infarct developed in the cortex deep to the EDH largely after 7 days postlesion, with neuronal death occurred from layers I to V in the central infarct region, as evidenced by loss of immunoreactivity (IR) for neuron-specific nuclear antigen (NeuN). Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) IR appeared as a cellular band surrounding the infarct and extending into the periinfarct cortex along the pia. Doublecortin (DCX) IR emerged in these same areas, with labeled cells appearing as astrocytic and neuronal profiles. DCX/GFAP colocalization was found in these regions commonly at 7 and 14 days postlesion, whereas DCX/NeuN-colabeled neurons were detectable at 30 and 60 days postlesion. Subpopulations of GFAP-, DCX-, or NeuN-immunoreactive cells colocalized with the endogenous proliferative marker Ki-67 or bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) after pulse-chase with this birth-dating marker. The results suggest that experimental EDH can cause severe neuronal loss, induce significant glial activation, and promote a certain degree of local neuronal genesis in adult guinea pig neocortex. These findings point to potential therapeutic targets for improving neuronal recovery in clinical management of EDH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jnr.23148DOI Listing
February 2013

Prenatal expression of purinergic receptor P2X3 in human dorsal root ganglion.

Purinergic Signal 2012 Jun 4;8(2):245-54. Epub 2011 Nov 4.

Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Central South University Xiangya School of Medicine, Changsha, Hunan, China.

The dorsal root ganglion (DRG) is consisted of neurons that relay multiple types of spinal sensory stimuli to the central nervous system. Several neuroactive molecules may be involved in sensory modulation especially pain processing at the DRG, including the purinergic receptor P2X3 and calcitonin-gene-related peptide (CGRP). P2X3 receptor has been considered a promising pharmaceutical target for the development of new pain medicine. Currently, litter is known about the expression of P2X3 in the human DRG. The present study characterized the localization of P2X3 in prenatal human DRG obtained from fetuses at 4-8 gestational months, by comparing to CGRP expression as well as binding pattern of isolectin-B4 (IB4), a marker of small DRG neurons presumably relevant to nociception. P2X3 immunoreactivity (IR) appeared in most neuron-like perikarya, with their numerical density reduced during the gestational period studied. P2X3 IR was co-labeled very commonly with IB4 binding and infrequently with CGRP IR and was not colocalized with IR for the gliocyte marker glutamine synthetase. Together, the data show an early and broad expression of P2X3 in prenatal human DRG neurons, pointing to a biological role of purinergic signaling during the development of spinal sensory system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11302-011-9277-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3350579PMC
June 2012

Preventive action of Kai Xin San aqueous extract on depressive-like symptoms and cognition deficit induced by chronic mild stress.

Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 2009 Jul 8;234(7):785-93. Epub 2009 May 8.

Research Center of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Peking Union Medical College Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Beijing 100193, China.

Kai Xin San (KXS), a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, has been used clinically for the treatment of depressive disorders and cognitive impairment for centuries. However, the effects of KXS on cognitive dysfunction induced by depression have not been evaluated scientifically. The present study aimed to explore the antidepressant-like and nootropic effects of an aqueous extract of KXS (at doses of 0.3, 0.9, and 2.7 g/kg/day) using chronic mild stress (CMS) as a model of depression. Depressive symptoms were analyzed using the sucrose-preference and novelty-induced inhibition of feeding tests. Cognitive function was evaluated using a two-way active avoidance task. Serum corticosterone and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) protein expression in the hippocampus, and monoamine neurotransmitter concentrations in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus were also determined to elucidate the neurochemical mechanisms. Experimental results showed that KXS aqueous extract significantly ameliorated the CMS-induced depressive symptoms, including the reduced preference index and prolonged latency to novelty-suppressed feeding. Simultaneously, KXS significantly reversed the CMS-induced decrease in the numbers of active avoidance and active movement distances and increase in the numbers of the passive avoidance and passive movement distances, thereby producing nootropic effects in the two-way active avoidance test. KXS also inhibited the increased AChE expression in the hippocampus, up-regulated the decreased monoamine neurotransmitter concentrations of both brain areas and reduced the elevated ACTH concentrations in the serum induced by CMS. Taken together, these results indicate that KXS exerts its antidepressant-like and nootropic effects in the CMS model by modulating the HPA axis, monoamine neurotransmitter and cholinergic systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3181/0812-RM-354DOI Listing
July 2009

Expression and localization of the inwardly rectifying potassium channel Kir7.1 in native bovine retinal pigment epithelium.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2003 Jul;44(7):3178-85

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48015-0714, USA.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the molecular basis of the apical membrane K(+) conductance in native bovine retinal pigment epithelium (RPE).

Methods: RT-PCR, Northern blot, and Western blot analyses were used to detect the expression of the inwardly rectifying K(+) (Kir) channel subunits Kir7.1 and Kir4.1 in native bovine RPE and neural retina. The distribution of Kir7.1 protein was determined in frozen sections of bovine retina-RPE-choroid by indirect immunofluorescence analysis.

Results: RT-PCR analysis revealed Kir7.1 transcript in both RPE and neural retina, but Kir4.1 transcript only in the neural retina. In Northern blot analysis, Kir4.1 probe hybridized to an appropriately sized-transcript in neural retina but not in RPE. Kir7.1 probe hybridized to a major transcript of approximately 1.5 kb in both RPE and neural retina, but with greater expression in RPE. In Western blot analysis, Kir7.1 antibody recognized a major monomer of approximately 53 kDa in RPE, whereas Kir4.1 antibody recognized a monomer of approximately 60 kDa in neural retina but not in RPE. Intense Kir7.1 immunolabeling was present on the apical surface of all RPE cells and appeared to extend over the length of the apical processes. Na(+),K(+)-ATPase expression varied among RPE cells, but in highly expressing cells, it colocalized with Kir7.1.

Conclusions: These results indicate that the Kir7.1 channel subunit, but not Kir4.1, is a major component of the apical K(+) conductance in bovine RPE. Kir7.1 is distributed over the length of apical processes, where it probably functions in the regulation of K(+) transport and the electrical response of the RPE to light-evoked changes in subretinal K(+) concentration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/iovs.02-1189DOI Listing
July 2003